Catalogue of Strigulaceae

Patrick M. McCarthy
Canberra
Updated 7 August 2013
Patrick.McCarthy@environment.gov.au
See also: Catalogue of Porinaceae

Strigula nitidula. Photo: Bill Malcolm
Strigula australiensis. Photo: Bill Malcolm
Strigula macrocarpa. Photo: Robert Lücking
Strigula nemathora. Photo: Robert Lücking

Introduction

Thallus crustose, usually subcuticular on leaves (occasionally supracuticular), usually epiphyllous (rarely hyphophyllous), or on bark or rock, rarely on soil, overgrowing bryophytes or parasitic on other lichens, whitish, silvery to dull pale grey, bluish grey, greyish green, grass-green to dark green or dark olive-brown, thin to moderately thick, usually ecorticate, occasionally with a true cortex or a pseudocortex.

Photobiont Cephaleuros (foliicolous species), Phycopeltis (foliicolous species) or Trentepohlia or a trentepohlioid alga (corticolous and saxicolous species); one species with a protococcoid alga.

Ascomata perithecia, immersed in the thallus to almost superficial, or immersed in thalline verrucae [the verrucae or perithecial wall containing black pulveraceous masses (Phyllobathelium) or yellowish crystals (Flavobathelium)], solitary, with an apical or, rarely, lateral ostiole, usually with a substantial dark greenish brown to black involucrellum; involucrellum rarely very pale or absent. Paraphyses long-celled, simple to sparingly or richly branched, or anastomosing; apices not swollen. Periphyses usually absent, rarely sparse.

Asci fissitunicate, 8-spored (occasionally fewer in Phyllobathelium), narrowly to broadly cylindrical, narrowly obclavate or elongate-ellipsoidal, predominantly thin-walled, but with a thicker apex and a minute but well-defined ocular chamber (especially when immature), non-amyloid.

Ascospores predominantly 1-septate (in most foliicolous species), also 3–7-septate, submuriform or densely muriform, hyaline, fusiform, ellipsoidal or bacilliform; 1-septate ascospores frequently deeply constricted at the septum, the cells occasionally separating within the ascus so that it appears 16-spored, or separating after release from the ascus.

Pycnidia usually solitary, rarely clustered, immersed in the thallus to almost superficial, or immersed in thalline verrucae [the verrucae or pycnidial wall containing black pulveraceous masses (Phyllobathelium) or yellowish crystals (Flavobathelium)], of two broad types: either smaller structures that produce minute simple bacilliform or fusiform microconidia, or larger structures producing much larger macroconidia that are 1–7-septate, submuriform or densely muriform (often a similar septation in ascospores and macroconidia of the same species, or the macroconidia with fewer septa), developing slightly obliquely at the tips of short unbranched conidiophores; frequently having short to elongate gelatinous apical appendages.


Diversity and habitats: This predominantly tropical and subtropical lichen family includes 101 species in four genera. The monotypic Flavobathelium and Phyllocratera are exclusively foliicolous, as are five of the six species of Phyllobathelium. Strigula, with 93 species, is most diverse in the wet tropics, subtropics and warm-temperate regions. About half of the species are foliicolous; the remainder are almost equally divided between bark-inhabiting and rock-inhabiting taxa. A handful of Strigulas occur on soil, overgrow bryophytes or parasitise other lichens.


An asterisk (*) indicates the country, state, province etc. in which the type specimen of an accepted name was collected. The following abbreviations are linked to literature sources as appropriate:


Literature abbreviations
Abbreviation Description
C Checklist
D Description provided
I Illustration(s) provided
K Identification key provided
M Distribution map provided
Strigulaceae distributions
Centres of diversity * Taxa
Brazil 31
Costa Rica 31
Australia 27
French Guiana 27
Guyana 24
New Zealand 23
Papua New Guinea 20
Peru 20
Ecuador 19
Mexico 19
Panama 18
Guatemala 17
Indonesia 17
Kenya 17
Philippines 17
United States of America 17
France 16
Puerto Rico 16
Venezuela 16
Ivory Coast 15
Japan 15
China 14
Cocos Island 14
Cuba 14
New Caledonia 14
Spain 14
Uganda 14
Argentina 12
Canary Islands 11
India 11
Malaysia 11
Sri Lanka 11
Colombia 10
Italy 10
Tanzania 10

* See map of Centres of Diversity (PDF – 1075KB)

 

Thanks to Othmar Breuss, Jack Elix, Christy Geromboux, Brigitte Kuchlmayr, Robert Lücking, Bill Malcolm, Claude Roux and Mauro Tretiach.

 

Cite as: P.M.McCarthy (2013). Catalogue of Strigulaceae. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 7 August 2013. http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/STRIGULACEAE.html

Flavobathelium, Phyllobathelium & Phyllocratera

1. FLAVOBATHELIUM Lücking, Aptroot & G.Thor, Lichenologist 29: 221 (1997)

Flavobathelium epiphyllum Lücking, Aptroot & G.Thor, Lichenologist 29: 221 (1997) [foliicolous]

Phyllochiodecton epiphyllum Lücking, Foliikole Flechten und ihre Mikrohabitatpräferenzen in einem tropischen Regenwald in Costa Rica 70 (1994), nom. inval.

BRAZIL: [Pará] Lücking & Kalb (2000).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Narinho] Lücking et al. (1997, DI); Lücking (2008, DI).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Limón*, Puntarenas] Lücking et al. (1997, DI); Lücking (2008, DI).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DI).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula] Lücking et al. (1997, DI); Lücking (2008, DI).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal, Petén] Lücking et al. (1997, DI); Lücking (2008, DI).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DI).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DI).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DI).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto] Lücking (2008, DI).

 

2. PHYLLOBATHELIUM (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Flora 73: 194 (1890)

Phyllobathelium anomalum Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 101: 254 (2008) [foliicolous]

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PANAMA: Nelsen et al. (2009).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Phyllobathelium firmum (Stirt.) Vězda, in Lücking & Kalb, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122: 44 (2000) [foliicolous]

Opercularia firma Stirt., Proc. Roy. Phil. Soc. Glasgow 11: 108 (1878)

Bathelium epiphyllum Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 347 (1883); Phyllobathelium epiphyllum (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Flora 73: 195 (1890); Thelenella epiphylla (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 7: 216 (1890)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Lücking (2008, DIK).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Ceará, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Heredia, Puntarenas] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Alta Verapaz, Izabal, Petén] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Atlántida] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

LESSER ANTILLES: [Guadeloupe] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PARAGUAY: [Alto Paraná, Cazapá] Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto, San Martín] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllobathelium epiphyllum); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Phyllobathelium indicum G.P.Sinha & K.P.Singh, Geophytology 20: 164 (1992) [foliicolous]

INDIA: [Arunachal Pradesh*] Sinha & Singh (1992, DI).

Phyllobathelium leguminosae (Cavalc. & A. A. Silva) Lücking & Sérus., in Lücking et al., Lichenologist 30: 157 (1998) [foliicolous]

Septoriomyces leguminosae Cavalc. & A. A. Silva, in Cavalcante et al., Publ. Inst. Micol. Univ. Fed. Pernambuco 647: 10 (1972)

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Rondônia*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PANAMA: [Panamá] Breuss (2008, as P. nigrum, but now considered to be P. leguminosae (O.Breuss, pers. comm., 6 August 2010)).

PERU: [Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Phyllobathelium nigrum R.Sant & Tibell, Austrobaileya 2: 538 (1988) [foliicolous]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988, DI); Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

FIJI: [Taveuni*] Santesson & Tibell (1988, DI).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson & Tibell (1988, DI).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993).

Phyllobathelium thaxteri (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 142 (1931) [corticolous and foliicolous]

Thelenella thaxteri Vain., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 58: 144 (1923)

Thelenella thaxteri var. heterogena Vain., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 58: 144 (1923)

Thelenella megapotamica Malme, Ark. Bot. 22A: 7 (1928); Phyllobathelium megapotamicum (Malme) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 290 (1952)

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Phyllobathelium megapotamicum); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DI).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DI).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DI).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad*] Vainio (1923, D, as Thelenella); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

 

3. PHYLLOCRATERA Sérus. & Aptroot, in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 132 (1997), nom. illeg.? non Phyllocrater Wernham (1914)

Phyllocratera papuana Sérus. & Aptroot, in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 132 (1997) [foliicolous]

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Central, Madang*] Aptroot et al. (1997, DI); Lücking et al. (2001).

Strigula

4. STRIGULA Fr., Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 323 (1821); Fr., Syst. Mycol. 2: 535 (1823)

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Strigula affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris, in Tucker & Harris, Bryologist 83: 18 (1980) [corticolous and saxicolous]

Sagedia affinis A.Massal., Mem. Lichenogr. 138 (1853); Porina affinis (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 51: 277 (1901); Arthopyrenia affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris., Michigan Bot. 12: 10 (1973).

Porina rhodinula Zahlbr., Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 104: 254 (1941)

AUSTRIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

BELGIUM: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Diederich et al. (2010, CM).

DENMARK: Larsen (1991, D); Søchting & Alstrup (2008, C).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GERMANY: Wirth (2002, C).

GREECE: Abbott (2009, C).

ISRAEL: Temina et al. (2009).

ITALY*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

MONTENEGRO: Bilovitz et al. (2008).

NETHERLANDS: Aptroot et al. (2004, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Marlborough] Zahlbruckner (1941, D, as Porina rhodinula); McCarthy (1993); Galloway (2007, DK).

POLAND: Faltynowicz (1993, C).

PORTUGAL: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWITZERLAND: Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

Strigula albicascens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 154 (1995) [corticolous]

Verrucaria albicascens Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel. 129 (1888); Porina albicascens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Bot. Belgique 31: 38 (1892)

Verrucaria indutula Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel.: 129 (1888); Porina indutula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 92 (1894); Strigula indutula (Nyl.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 157 (1995)

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania, Victoria] McCarthy & Kantvilas (1999, DI); Jarman & Kantvilas (2001, as S. indutula); McCarthy (2009a, DIKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [?Wellington*] Nylander (1888, D, as Verrucaria albicascens, and as V. indutula); Harris (1995, and as S. indutula); Galloway (2007, DK, and as S. indutula).

Strigula albolinita (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 155 (1995), as albolinitum [saxicolous]

Verrucaria albolinita Nyl., Lich. Ins. Guineens. 38 (1889); Microglaena albolinita (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 188 (1921); Phyllobathelium albolinitum (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer, Biblioth. Lichenol. 26: 79 (1987)

SÃO TOME & PRÍNCIPE: [Príncipe] Nylander (1889, D, as Verrucaria); Mayrhofer (1987, DIK, as Phyllobathelium); Harris (1995).

Strigula albomaculata Sérus., in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 186 (1997) [foliicolous]

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang*] Aptroot et al. (1997, DI).

Strigula americana R.C.Harris, in Tucker & Harris, Bryologist 83: 18 (1980) [corticolous]

Arthopyrenia tenuis R.C.Harris, Michigan Bot. 12: 16 (1973), non Strigula tenuis Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 344 (1885)

BERMUDA: LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa*, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Wisconsin] Harris (1973, DIK, as Arthopyrenia tenuis; 1975, DIKM; 1995, K; 2004, C); Tucker & Harris (1980); Thompson (2003, C); Lendemer (2006); Perlmutter & Lendemer (2008); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C); Lendemer et al. (2010, C).

Strigula amphora Aptroot & Lücking, in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 97: 130 (2008) [corticolous]

COSTA RICA: [Limón*] Aptroot et al. (2008, DIK).

Strigula angustata Cl. Roux & Sérus., Biblioth. Lichenol. 90: 61 (2004) [foliicolous]

FRANCE*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

MADEIRA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula antillarum (Fée) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 379 (1885) [foliicolous]

Melanophthalmum antillarum Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. 1(1–7): xciv, c (1825); Strigula elegans var. antillarum (Fée) R. Sant., in Thorold, J. Ecol. 40: 128 (1952)

ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Singh (1970, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

ANTILLES*: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ARGENTINA: [Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones, Salta] Llarens (2003, D); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COLOMBIA: Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Lücking (1991, D); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Sancti Spiritus] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Vězda (1984, as S. elegans var. antillarum).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Siparuni] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum).

KENYA: [Coastal, Western] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002).

NIGERIA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum).

PERU: [Cuzco, Huanuco, Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum).

PUERTO RICO: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum).

SURINAM: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai] Aptroot et al. (2007, C).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Maracay, Mérida] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans var. antillarum); Neuwirth (2007).

Strigula aquatica H. Harada, Nova Hedwigia 66: 420 (1998) [saxicolous]

JAPAN: Harada (1998, DIK; 1999b).

Strigula australiensis P. M. McCarthy, Muelleria 8: 323 (1995) [saxicolous]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] McCarthy (1995, DI; 2008a; 2009a, DIKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson, Otago] McCarthy et al. (1996a); McCarthy & Johnson (1998, K); McCarthy (1999); Galloway (2007, DK).

Strigula austropunctata P. M. McCarthy, Fl. Australia 57: 661 (1995) [foliicolous]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] McCarthy (2009a, DIKM).

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B

Strigula bahamensis (Riddle) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 155 (1995) [saxicolous]

Lithothelium bahamense Riddle, in Britton & Millspaugh, Bahama Fl. 532 (1920)

BAHAMAS*: Riddle (1920, D); Harris (1995).

Strigula bella Thor, Lücking & Tat. Matsumoto, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 33(2): 57 (2000) [foliicolous]

JAPAN*: Thor et al. (2000, DIK).

Strigula bermudana (Tuck. ex Nyl.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 155 (1995) [saxicolous]

Verrucaria bermudana Tuck. ex Nyl., Sert. Lich. Trop. 43 (1891); Porina bermudana (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 367 (1922)

BERMUDA*: Nylander (1891, D, as Verrucaria); Harris (1995, K); LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001, DI).

PUERTO RICO: Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Santa Isabel] McCarthy (2002).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Harris (1995, K).

Note: Harris (1975: 146) included S. bermudana as a synonym of S. viridiseda (Nyl.) R.C.Harris and reported the latter from the U.S.A. (Alabama and Louisiana), Bermuda, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Trinidad.

Strigula brevis Bricaud & Roux, in Roux & Sérusiaux, Biblioth. Lichenol. 90: 53 (2004) [corticolous]

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

FRANCE*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

NETHERLANDS: (?)Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

TURKEY: Kinalioglu & Aptroot (2011).

Strigula buxi Chodat, in Nahas, Etude Biologique sur le Phoma buxi et le Strigula buxi 50 (1933) [foliicolous]

Strigula smaragdula auct. europ. non Fr. : Fr. (1830)

Strigula elegans auct. europ. non (Fée) Müll. Arg. (1880)

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

FRANCE*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GEORGIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

ITALY: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

RUSSIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SPAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

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C

Strigula caerulensis P. M. McCarthy, Australas. Lichenol. 65: 4 (2009) [foliicolous]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales*] McCarthy (2009b, DI).

Strigula calcarea Bricaud & Cl. Roux, Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence 42: 131 (1991) [saxicolous]

BELGIUM: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Diederich et al. (2010, CM).

FRANCE*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

ITALY: Tretiach (1997).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

Strigula cavicola Cl. Roux & Bricaud, in Roux & Sérusiaux, Biblioth. Lichenol. 90: 87 (2004) [saxicolous]

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

PORTUGAL*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula cinefaciens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 155 (1995) [corticolous]

Verrucaria cinefaciens Nyl., Bull Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér 2, 7: 180 (1873); Arthopyrenia cinefaciens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 367 (1922)

ANDAMAN ISLANDS*: Nylander (1873, D); Harris (1995, D)

Strigula concreta (Fée) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 177 (1952) [foliicolous]

Craspedon concretum Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. 1(1–7): xciv, c (1825)

ANGOLA: Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ANTILLES*: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Llarens (2003, D); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Sipman (1991); McCarthy (2009a, DKM)

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COLOMBIA: [Cundinamarca] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Limón] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Granma, Guantánamo, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda (1984); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2006, C; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Oahu] Smith (1977); Smith et al. (1997).

INDIA: Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

INDONESIA: [Java, Maluku] Santesson (1952, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998).

JAPAN: Thor et al. (2000, K).

KENYA: [Western] Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES: [Saba] Sipman (2009, C).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002).

PERU: [San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

SEYCHELLES: [Mahé] Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Santa Isabel] McCarthy (2002).

SRI LANKA: Vězda et al. (1997).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003); Aptroot et al. (2003).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai] Aptroot et al. (2007, C); Papong et al. (2007).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Farkas & Hawksworth (2004).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Strigula confusa Fryday, Coppins & Common, in Fryday & Coppins, Lichenologist 36: 92 (2004) [bryophilous]

GREAT BRITAIN*: Fryday & Coppins (2004, DI); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

IRELAND: Fryday & Coppins (2004, DI); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula connivens R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 155 (1995) [corticolous]

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida*] Harris (1975, DIK; 1995, DK).

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Strigula decipiens (Malme) P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 29: 513 (1997) var. decipiens [saxicolous and terricolous]

Porina decipiens Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A (1): 26 (1929)

Strigula stigmatella auct. non (Ach.) R.C.Harris: sensu P.M.McCarthy, Muelleria 8: 34 (1993)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania] McCarthy (2009a, DIKM)

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul*] McCarthy (1993, as Porina; 1997, DI); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Spielmann (2006, C).

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000b, D).

JAPAN: Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1997, DI).

NEW ZEALAND: [Otago] McCarthy & Johnson (1998, K, "Strigula aff. stigmatella"); McCarthy (1999, “aff.”); Galloway (2007, DK).

Note: With its thin pale thallus, small partly immersed perithecia and 5–7-septate ascospores, this is possibly no more than a saxicolous variant of S. albicascens. However, only when macroconidia are observed in S. albicascens can conspecificity be confirmed or disproven. If the former, S. decipiens var. divisa will require a new name as a variety of S. albicascens.

Strigula decipiens var. divisa P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 32: 34 (2000) [saxicolous]

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga*] McCarthy (2000b: DI).

Strigula delicata Sérus., Bryologist 101: 147 (1998) [foliicolous]

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (2010, D).

NEW ZEALAND: [Northland, Wellington*] Sérusiaux (1998, DI); Galloway (2007, DK).

Strigula dichosporidii Etayo, Biblioth. Lichenol. 84: 127 (2002) [lichenicolous]

COLOMBIA*: Etayo (2002, DI, on Dichosporidium nigrocinctum).

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Strigula elixii P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 78: 279 (2001) [saxicolous]

CHRISTMAS ISLAND*: McCarthy (2001: DIK).

Strigula endolithea Cl. Roux & Bricaud, in Roux & Sérusiaux, Biblioth. Lichenol. 90: 88 (2004) [saxicolous]

FRANCE*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

ITALY: Tretiach & Rinino (2006, D).

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Strigula fossulicola P. M. McCarthy, Streimann & Elix, Lichenologist 28: 240 (1996) [foliicolous]

LORD HOWE ISLAND*: McCarthy et al. (1996, DI).

Note: Reported from New Zealand by Sérusiaux (1998). However, according to Lücking (2008), that record was a misidentification of S. schizospora R. Sant.

Strigula fossulicoloides Sérus., in Roux & Sérusiaux, Biblioth. Lichenol. 90: 43 (2004) [foliicolous]

AZORES: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

MADEIRA*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula fractans P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 29: 516 (1997) [corticolous and saxicolous]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales] McCarthy (2009a, DIKM).

LORD HOWE ISLAND*: McCarthy (1997, DI).

Strigula fracticonidia R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 156 (1995) [corticolous]

NEW ZEALAND: [Marlborough*] Harris (1995, D); Galloway (2007, DK).

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Strigula glabra (A. Massal.) V. Wirth, Flechtenflora 531 (1980) [corticolous]

Sagedia glabra A. Massal., Rich. Auton. Lich. Crost. 161 (1852)

AUSTRIA: Hafellner & Turk (2001, C).

GERMANY: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

ITALY*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWITZERLAND: Scheidegger & Clerc (2002, C); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

TURKEY: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula graminicola R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 157 (1952) [foliicolous]

INDONESIA: [Java*] Santesson (1952, DK).

Strigula griseonitens R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 156 (1995) [corticolous]

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela] Aptroot et al. (2008, DK).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida*, Mississippi] Harris (1995, DK).

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Strigula hypothallina R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 157 (1995) [corticolous]

INDIA: [West Bengal] Jagadeesh Ram et al. (2007).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [South Carolina*] Harris (1975, DIK; 1995, DK).

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Strigula jamesii (Swinscow) R. C. Harris, in Hawksworth et al., Lichenologist 12: 107 (1980) [corticolous and saxicolous]

Geisleria jamesii Swinscow, Lichenologist 3: 420 (1967)

AUSTRIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

BELGIUM: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Diederich et al. (2010, CM).

CANADA: [Ontario] Harris (1973, DIKM, as Arthopyrenia affinis; 1995, K).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GERMANY: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GREAT BRITAIN*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

HAITI: Harris (1975, DIKM, as Arthopyrenia affinis).

IRELAND: Seaward (1994, C).

LUXEMBOURG: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Diederich et al. (2010, CM).

NETHERLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SPAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C)

SWITZERLAND: Scheidegger & Clerc (2002, C); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, New York] Harris (1975, DIKM, as Arthopyrenia affinis); 1995, K; 2004, C); Tucker & Harris (1980, as S. affinis); Lendemer et al. (2010, C).

Strigula janeirensis (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Tropical Bryol. 15: 65 (1998) [foliicolous]

Phylloporina janeirensis Müll.Arg., Flora 73: 198 (1890); Raciborskiella janeirensis (Müll.Arg.) R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 196 (1952)

ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Singh (1970, as Raciborskiella).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988, C, as Raciborskiella); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro*, Santa Catarina] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago] Roux & Sérusiaux (1995, I, as Raciborskiella); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal, Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

INDONESIA: [Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

JAMAICA: Sérusiaux (1976, as Raciborskiella).

KENYA: [Coastal, Western] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MADAGASCAR: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

MALAYSIA: [Borneo] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

PUERTO RICO: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

TANZANIA: Vězda (1975, as Raciborskiella).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

Strigula johnsonii P. M. McCarthy, Muelleria 8: 324 (1995) [saxicolous]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (2008b; 2009a, DKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Otago*] McCarthy (1995, DI); Galloway (2007, DK).

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Strigula kaitokensis Sérus. & Polly, Mycotaxon 59: 245 (1996) [foliicolous]

NEW ZEALAND: [Northland, Wellington*] Sérusiaux & Polly (1996, DI); Galloway (2007, DK).

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Strigula laceribracae R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 158 (1995) [corticolous]

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Georgia*, Louisiana] Harris (1995, DK).

Strigula lacericola P. M. McCarthy, Fl. Australia 57: 661 (1995) [foliicolous]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] McCarthy (2009a, DIKM).

Strigula laureriformis Aptroot & Lücking, in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 97: 131 (2008) [corticolous]

COSTA RICA: [San José*] Aptroot et al. (2008, DIK).

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Strigula macaronesica Sérus., Lichenologist 29: 333 (1997) [foliicolous]

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

MADEIRA*: Sérusiaux (1997, DI); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula macrocarpa Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A, 19(15): 20 (1923) [foliicolous]

Strigula obvelata Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19: 20 (1923).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988, C); McCarthy 2009a (DKM).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Wei (1991, C); Aptroot et al. (2003).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas] Breuss (2006); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: [Gambella] Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2006, C; 2008, DIK).

GUINEA: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ISLA DEL COCO: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998).

KENYA: [Coastal] Lücking & Kalb (2002).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993, C).

NIGERIA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Aptroot et al. (1997).

PHILIPPINES*: Vainio (1923, D, and as S. obvelata); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007).

Strigula maculata (Cooke & Massee) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 186 (1952) [foliicolous]

Micropeltis maculata Cooke & Massee, in Cooke, Grevillea 18: 35 (1889)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DIK); Santesson & Tibell (1988, C); Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro*] Santesson (1952, DIK); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Limón, Puntarenas] Breuss (2006); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DOMINICA: Vězda (1996).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998).

KENYA: [Coastal] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002).

PARAGUAY: [Itapúa] Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

SRI LANKA: Vězda et al. (1997).

TANZANIA: Vězda (1975).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VIETNAM: [Annam, Tonkin] Vězda (1977).

Strigula maritima H. Harada, Bryologist 101: 605 (1998) [saxicolous]

JAPAN*: Harada (1999a, DI).

Strigula melanobapha (Kremp.) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 188 (1952) [foliicolous]

Verrucaria melanobapha Kremp., Lich. Fol. 18 (1874)

Strigula fibrillrosa Zahlbr., in Handel-Mazzetti, Symbol. Sin. 3: 31 (1930).

Strigula insignis Jatta, Malpighia 17: 13 (1903)

Strigula linearis Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19: 18 (1923)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pernambuco] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHINA: [Fujian, Yunnan] Santesson (1952, DIK); Wei (1991, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUINEA: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Takutu] Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Kauai, Oahu] Smith (1977); Smith et al. (1997, C).

INDIA: Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

INDONESIA: Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

JAPAN: Thor et al. (2000, IK).

KENYA: [Coastal] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MALAYSIA*: [Sarawak] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Auckland] Galloway (2007, DK).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro] Piepenbring (2006, C); Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

PERU: [San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

REUNION: Rønhede et al. (2003).

SIERRA LEONE: Santesson (1952, DIK).

SRI LANKA: Vězda et al. (1997).

TANZANIA: Vězda (1975).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

Strigula microspora Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 275 (1991) [foliicolous]

Raciborskiella zollerniae Bat. & J. A. Lima, in Batista, Publ. Inst. Micol. Univ. Recife 320: 11 (1961), nom. inval.

BRAZIL: [Bahia, Pernambuco, São Paulo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Limón, Puntarenas*] Lücking (1991, DI; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: [Gambella] Yeshitela (2008).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

KENYA: [Western] Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] Lücking et al. (2001).

Strigula minor (Vězda) Cl. Roux & Sérus., in Puntillo et al., Cryptogamie Mycol. 21: 175 (2000) [foliicolous]

Raciborskiella minor Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 18: 49 (1983)

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GEORGIA*: Vĕzda (1983, DI, as Raciborskiella minor); Roux & Sérusiaux (1995, as Raciborskiella minor); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

ITALY: Puntillo et al. (2000).

MADEIRA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SPAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula minuta Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 234 (2008) [foliicolous]

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Strigula multipunctata (G. Merr. ex R. Sant.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 158 (1995) [foliicolous]

Porina multipunctata G. Merr. ex R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 216 (1952); Phylloporina multipunctata (G. Merr. ex R. Sant.) Szatala, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., n.s. 7: 18 (1956); Phylloporis multipunctata (G. Merr. ex R. Sant.) Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19: 183 (1984)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina multipunctata); Santesson & Tibell (1988, C, as Phylloporis); Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy (2009, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas] Cavalcante et al. (1972, DI, as Manaustrum palmae); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Vězda (1984, DI, as Phylloporis multipunctata).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Halmahera, Kalimantan, Maluku*] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina multipunctata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina multipunctata); Streimann (1986, C, as Phylloporis multipunctata).

PHILIPPINES: [Mindanao] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina multipunctata); Sérusiaux (1976, as Porina multipunctata).

TANZANIA: Vězda (1975, DI, as Porina multipunctata var. schizospora); Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

Strigula muriformis Aptroot & Diederich, in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 186 (1997) [saxicolous]

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang, Morobe*] Aptroot et al. (1997, DI).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

Strigula muscicola F. Berger, Coppins, Cl. Roux. & Sérus., in Sérusiaux et al., Lichenologist 37: 481 (2005) [bryophilous]

AUSTRIA*: Sérusiaux et al. (2005, DI).

FINLAND: Pykälä (2010).

GREAT BRITAIN: Sérusiaux et al. (2005, DI)

NORWAY: Sérusiaux et al. (2005, DI); Elvebakk & Bjerke (2006).

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Strigula natalis P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 78: 281 (2001) [saxicolous]

CHRISTMAS ISLAND*: McCarthy (2001: DIK).

Strigula nemathora Mont., in Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba, Bot. Pl. Cell. 2: 139 (1842) [foliicolous]

Strigula hypothelia Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 520 (1868); S. nemathora var. hypothelia (Nyl.) R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 156 (1952); S. nemathora f. hypothelia (Nyl.) Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 248 (2008)

ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Singh (1970).

ANGOLA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as var. hypothelia); Lücking (2008, DIK, as f. hypothelia).

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Misiones] Santesson (1952, DIK, as var. hypothelia); Sérusiaux & De Sloover (1986); Llarens (2003, D, and as var. hypothelia); Lücking (2008, DIK, and as f. hypothelia).

AUSTRALIA: [Northern Territory, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DIK); Santesson & Tibell (1988, C); McCarthy (2008b; 2009a, DKM, and as var. hypothelia).

BOLIVIA: [Beni, Santa Cruz] Santesson (1952, DIK, as var. hypothelia); Lücking (2008, DIK, as f. hypothelia); Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Pernambuco, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DIK, and as var. hypothelia); Spielmann (2006, C, and as var. hypothelia and var. pulchella); Lücking (2008, DIK, and as f. hypothelia).

BURUNDI: Sérusiaux & Diederich (2005).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas] Santesson (1952, DIK); Breuss (2006); Lücking (2008, DIK, and as f. hypothelia).

CUBA*: [Holguin, Pinar del Rio, Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda (1984); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK, and as var. hypothelia).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

EL SALVADOR: [Ahuachapán] Santesson (1952, DIK, and as var. hypothelia); Lücking (2008, DIK, and as f. hypothelia).

ETHIOPIA: [Gambella] Yeshitela (2008, and as var. hypothelia).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Sinnamary] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Izabal, Petén, Quetzaltenango, Santa Rosa] Santesson (1952, DIK, and as var. hypothelia); Lücking (2008, DIK, and as f. hypothelia).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Atlántida, San Alejo] Santesson (1952, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998).

JAPAN: Thor et al. (2000, K).

KENYA: [Coastal, Western] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2002); Lücking (2008, DIK); Yeshitela (2008, and as var. hypothelia).

MADAGASCAR: Santesson (1952, DIK).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Santesson (1952, DIK); Sipman (1993, C).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre; Îles Loyauté (Lifou)] Santesson (1952, DIK, as var. hypothelia); Lücking & Kalb (2001, C)

NEW ZEALAND: [Northland] Sérusiaux (1998); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Santesson (1952, DIK); Breuss (2002).

NIGERIA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

PANAMA: [Panamá, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008, and as var. pulchella).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Aptroot et al. (1995).

PARAGUAY: [Itapúa] Santesson (1952, DIK, as var. hypothelia); Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK, and as f. hypothelia).

PERU: [Huanuco, Loreto, San Martín] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK, and as var. hypothelia); Lücking (2008, DIK, and as f. hypothelia).

PUERTO RICO: Santesson (1952, DIK, as var. hypothelia); Lücking (2008, DIK, as f. hypothelia); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C, and as f. hypothelia).

REUNION: Rønhede et al. (2003, as var. pulchella).

RWANDA: Sérusiaux & Diederich (2005).

SINGAPORE: Santesson (1952, DIK).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Natal, Transvaal] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009).

SRI LANKA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda et al. (1997).

ST. LUCIA: Sérusiaux & Diederich (2005).

SURINAM: Santesson (1952, DIK).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003); Aptroot et al. (2003).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda (1975).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai] Aptroot et al. (2007, C).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Yeshitela (2008, and as var. hypothelia).

URUGUAY: Osorio (1992).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Bolivar, Distrito Federal, Mérida] Santesson (1952, DIK, and as var. hypothelia); Neuwirth (2007, and as var. hypothelia and var. pulchella); Lücking (2008, DIK, and as f. hypothelia).

VIETNAM: [Annam, Tonkin] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda (1977); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Strigula nigrocarpa Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 230 (2008) [foliicolous]

COSTA RICA: [Heredía*, Limón] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Strigula nipponica H. Harada, Nova Hedwigia 60: 488 (1995) [saxicolous]

JAPAN*: Harada (1995, DI).

Strigula nitidula Mont., in Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba, Bot. Pl. Cell. 2: 139 (1842) [foliicolous]

ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Singh (1970).

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Llarens (2003, D); Lücking (2008, DK).

AUSTRALIA: [Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales, Tasmania] Santesson (1952, DK); Santesson & Tibell (1988, C); Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy et al. (2001); McCarthy (2008b; 2009a, DKM).

BOLIVIA: [Beni, Santa Cruz] Santesson (1952, DIK); Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DK); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CAMAROON: Santesson (1952, DK).

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

CHILE: [Los Lagos] Lücking et al. (2003).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COLOMBIA: [Cundinamarca] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA*: Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DK).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (2008, DK).

ETHIOPIA: [Gambella] Yeshitela (2008).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2006, C; 2008, DIK).

GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS: [Santa Cruz] Weber (1986, C).

GEORGIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Petén] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAITI: Santesson (1952, DK).

HONDURAS: [Atlántida] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DK).

INDIA: Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Java, Maluku] Santesson (1952, DK).

IVORY COAST: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

JAPAN: Thor et al. (2000, K).

KENYA: [Western] Yeshitela (2008).

LEEWARD ISLANDS: [Dominica] Lücking (2008, DIK).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996).

MADAGASCAR: Santesson (1952, DK).

MADEIRA: Santesson (1952, DK); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

MALAWI: Santesson (1952, DK).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Santesson (1952, DK); Sipman (1993, C).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Santesson (1952, DK); Galloway (2007, K).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002).

NIGERIA; Santesson (1952, DK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Eastern Highlands] Santesson (1952, DK); Szatala (1956); Lücking et al. (2001).

PARAGUAY: [Itapúa, Rio Grande do Sul] Santesson (1952, DK); Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Huanuco, Loreto, San Martín] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: Santesson (1952, DK); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

REUNION: Rønhede et al. (2003); van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

RUSSIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Zahlbruckner (1908).

SEYCHELLES: [Mahé] Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SPAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SRI LANKA: Santesson (1952, DK); Vězda et al. (1997).

SURINAM: Santesson (1952, DK).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DK); Vězda (1975).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai] Aptroot et al. (2007, C); Papong et al. (2007).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Harris (1975, IK; 1995, K).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar, Maracay, Mérida] Santesson (1952, DK); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: [Tonkin] Vězda (1977).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Strigula novae-zelandiae (Nag Raj) Sérus., Bryologist 101: 147 (1998) [foliicolous]

Discosiella novae-zelandiae Nag Raj, Canad. J. Bot. 59: 2528 (1981)

NEW ZEALAND: [Auckland, South Auckland*] Nag Raj (1981, DI, as Discosiella); Sérusiaux (1998, DI); Galloway (2007, DK).

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Strigula obducta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 158 (1995) [foliicolous]

Phylloporina obducta Müll.Arg., Flora 73: 198 (1890); Porina obducta (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 274 (1927); Phylloporis obducta (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. & Tibell, Austrobaileya 2: 539 (1988)

ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina obducta); Santesson & Tibell (1988, C, as Phylloporis); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BRAZIL*: [Amazonas, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina obducta); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina obducta).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Puntarenas] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

EL SALVADOR: Nowak & Winkler (1971, as Porina obducta)

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Metapán] Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998).

JAPAN: Thor et al. (2000, K).

KENYA: [Western] Yeshitela (2008).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina obducta); Streimann (1986, C, as Phylloporis).

PERU: [Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina obducta); Lücking (2008, DIK).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Natal] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina obducta).

THAILAND: Papong et al. (2007).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] Lücking et al. (2001b).

Strigula obtecta (Vain.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 158 (1995) [corticolous]

Thelenella obtecta Vain., Etude Class. Lich. Brésil 2: 218 (1890); Polyblastiopsis obtecta (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 351 (1922); Phyllobathelium obtectum (Vain.) H. Mayrhofer, Biblioth. Lichenol. 26: 82 (1987)

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Puntarenas] Aptroot et al. (2008, DIK).

BRAZIL: [Minas Gerais*, Pernambuco] Mayrhofer (1987, DIK); Harris (1995); Cáceres (2007, K).

Strigula occulta P. M. McCarthy & Malcolm, Mycotaxon 60: 323 (1996) [saxicolous]

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson*] McCarthy & Malcolm (1996, DI); Galloway (2007, DK).

Strigula oceanica P. M. McCarthy, Streimann & Elix, Lichenologist 28: 242 (1996) [foliicolous]

LORD HOWE ISLAND*: McCarthy et al. (1996, DI).

NEW ZEALAND: [Northland, Otago, Wellington] Sérusiaux (1998, I); Galloway (2007, DK).

Strigula orbicularis Fr. : Fr., Linnaea 5: 549 (1830) [foliicolous]

Phyllocharis complanata Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. 1(1–7): xciv, xcix (1825); Strigula complanata (Fée) Mont., in Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba, Bot. Pl. Cell. 2: 140 (1842)

ANGOLA: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ARGENTINA: [Chaco, Corrientes, Misiones] Llarens (2003, D, as S. complanata).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland] Sipman (1991, as S. complanata); Allen et al. (2001); McCarthy (2008b, 2009a, DKM).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Spielmann (2006, C, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Puntarenas, San José] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Breuss (2006); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Guantanamo, Holguin] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Vězda (1984, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata).

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

EL SALVADOR: [San Vincente] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Nowak & Winkler (1971, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Lücking (2006, C).

GUATEMALA: [Retalhuleu] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAITI*: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

KENYA: [Coastal] Lücking & Kalb (2002).

MADAGASCAR: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Veracruz] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre; Îles Loyauté (Lifou)] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata).

NEW ZEALAND: [Northland] Galloway (2007, DK).

PANAMA: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Piepenbring (2006, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Streimann (1986, C, as S. complanata).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: [Mayaguez] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C, and as S. complanata).

SEYCHELLES: [Mahé] Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Natal, Transvaal] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata).

SRI LANKA: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Vězda et al. (1997, as S. complanata).

?SUDAN: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

TONGA: ['Eua] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata); Harris (1975, IKM, as S. complanata; 1995, K, as S. complanata); Egan (1978, C, as S. complanata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

URUGUAY: [Salto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. Croix] Santesson (1952: DIK, as S. complanata).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar, Distrito Federal] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. complanata); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: [Annam] Vězda (1977, as S. complanata).

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Strigula pallida Aptroot & K. H. Moon, in Moon & Aptroot, Biblioth. Lichenol. 99: 308 (2009), nom. illeg., non Strigula pallida Kalchbr. ex Stizenb. (1891: 218), nom. nud. [corticolous]

SOUTH KOREA*: Moon & Aptroot (2009, DI).

Strigula phaea (Ach.) R. C. Harris, in Tucker & Harris, Bryologist 83: 19 (1980) [corticolous and saxicolous]

Verrucaria phaea Ach., Syn. Lich. 88 (1814); Porina phaea (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 261 (1885)

Porina mundula Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 402 (1885)

Strigula diederichiana Etayo, Cl. Roux & Sérus., in Roux & Bricaud, Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence 44: 129 (1993), nom. inval.

Strigula minutula P. M. McCarthy, Muelleria 8: 327 (1995)

ANTILLES*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland, Tasmania] Aptroot (1997); McCarthy (1995, DI, as S. minutula; 2009a, DIKM).

BERMUDA: Harris (1975, DIKM); LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Pernambuco] Cáceres (2007, K).

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Sipman (2001).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Limón, Puntarenas, San José*] Aptroot et al. (2008, DIK).

CUBA: Müller (1885, D, as Porina mundula).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GREAT BRITAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

IRELAND: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

JAMAICA: Harris (1975, DIKM).

JAPAN: Kashiwadani et al. (2009, "cf.").

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson] Malcolm & McCarthy (1997, as S. minutula); Galloway (2007, DK, as S. minutula).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot et al. (2007).

PUERTO RICO: Harris (1975, DIKM); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SPAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SWITZERLAND: Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

TANZANIA: Alstrup & Aptroot (2005).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai, Yala] Aptroot et al. (2007, C).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina] Harris (1975, DIKM; 1995, K); Tucker & Harris (1980); Lendemer et al. (2010, C).

Strigula phyllogena (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 159 (1995) [foliicolous]

Porina phyllogena Müll.Arg., Flora 66: 335 (1883); Phylloporis phyllogena (Müll.Arg.) Clem., Gen. Fung. 173 (1909); Porinomyces phyllogenus (Müll.Arg.) Bat., in Bezerra et al., Atas Inst. Mycol. Univ. Pernambuco 5: 410 (1967), nom. inval.

Sphaerella trichomanes Cooke, Grevillea 14: 12 (1885); Mycosphaerella trichomanes (Cooke) Lindau, in Elgler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(1): 426 (1897), as trichomanis

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Sérusiaux & De Sloover (1986); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988, C, as Phylloporis); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo*] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena); Spielmann (2006, C, as Porina phyllogena); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C, as Phylloporis cf. phyllogena).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Limón, Puntarenas] Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

EL SALVADOR: Nowak & Winkler (1971, as Porina phyllogena)

ETHIOPIA: [Gambella] Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Maui, Molokai, Oahu] Smith (1977).

HONDURAS: [Atlántida] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: Pinokiyo & Singh (2004).

INDONESIA: [Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena).

ISLA DEL COCO: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

IVORY COAST: Becker et al. (1995); Lücking et al. (1998).

JAMAICA: Sérusiaux (1976, as Porina phyllogena).

KENYA: [Coastal, Western] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008, as Phylloporis).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena); Streimann (1986, C, as Phylloporis).

PERU: [Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena).

REUNION: Rønhede et al. (2003); van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SAMOA: Aptroot & Lücking (2001, as Sphaerella trichomanes).

SEYCHELLES: [Silhouette] Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Transkei] Brusse (1991).

SRI LANKA: Vězda et al. (1997, as Phylloporis phyllogena).

SURINAM: [Sipaliwini] Lücking (2008, DIK).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena).

THAILAND: Papong et al. (2007).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena); Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Distrito Federal, Maracay] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina phyllogena); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Strigula platypoda (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 159 (1995) [foliicolous]

Porina platypoda Müll.Arg., Flora 66: 335 (1883); Phylloporina platypoda (Müll.Arg.) Müll.Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi 22 (1890); Phylloporis platypoda (Müll.Arg.) Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19: 185 (1984)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro*, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C, as Phylloporis).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Cauca] Sérusiaux (1976, as Porina platypoda); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Heredia, Limó, Puntarenas] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda); Vězda (1984, as Phylloporis platypoda); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (2008, DIK).

EL SALVADOR: Nowak & Winkler (1971, as Porina platypoda)

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Alta Verapaz, Izabal] Sérusiaux (1976, as Porina platypoda); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Atlántida] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda); Sérusiaux (1976, as Porina platypoda); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK)

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda); Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda).

SURINAM: [Sipaliwini] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Amazonas] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Porina platypoda).

Strigula porinoides Gómez, Boqueras & Canals, Mycotaxon 55: 391 (1995) [saxicolous]

ITALY: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SPAIN*: Gómez et al. (1995, DI); Llimona & Hladun (2001, C); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula prasina Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 343 (1885) [foliicolous]

Raciborskiella prasina (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 197 (1952)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes] Sérusiaux & De Sloover (1986).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988, C, as Raciborskiella); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, São Paulo*] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C, as Raciborskiella).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Puntarenas] Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Vězda (1984, as Raciborskiella).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

EL SALVADOR: Nowak & Winkler (1971, as Raciborskiella).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

GUATEMALA: [Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUINEA: Vězda (1973, as Raciborskiella).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

JAMAICA: Sérusiaux (1976, as Raciborskiella).

KENYA: [Coastal] Roux & Sérusiaux (1995, as Raciborskiella); Lücking & Kalb (2002).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW ZEALAND: [Northland, Wellington] Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Galloway (2007, DK).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

SRI LANKA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella); Vězda et al. (1997, as Raciborskiella).

VENEZUELA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as Raciborskiella).

VIETNAM: [Annam, Tonkin] Vězda (1977, as Raciborskiella).

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Q

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R

Strigula radiata Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 224 (2008) [foliicolous]

COSTA RICA: [Guanacaste*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Strigula rostrata R. C. Harris & Aptroot, in Harris, More Florida Lichens 159 (1995) [corticolous]

MADAGASCAR: [Tamatave*] Harris (1995, D).

Strigula rupestris P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 29: 518 (1997) [saxicolous]

LORD HOWE ISLAND*: McCarthy (1997, DI).

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S

Strigula schizospora R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 175 (1952) [foliicolous]

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Llarens (2003, D); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina] Santesson (1952, DIK); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COLOMBIA: Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Heredia, Puntarenas] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Vězda (1984).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: [Gambella] Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal, Retalhuleu*] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Oahu] Smith (1977); Smith et. al. (1997).

HONDURAS: [Atlántida] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

KENYA: [Western] Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Northland] Sérusiaux (1998, I, as S. fossulicola, fide Lücking (2008)); Galloway (2007, DK, and as S. fossulicola).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, San Martín] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: [San Juan] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Lücking et al. (2011).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar, Distrito Federal] Santesson (1952, DIK); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Strigula smaragdula Fr. : Fr., Linnaea 5: 550 (1830) [foliicolous]

Phyllocharis elegans Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. 1(1–7): xciv, c (1825); Strigula elegans (Fée) Müll. Arg., Flora 63: 41 (1880)

Strigula feei Mont., in Sagra, Hist. l'île Cuba 9: 135 (1838-1842)

Strigula elatior Stirt., Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria 17: 75 (1881); Strigula elegans var. elatior (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 539 (1922)

Strigula complanata var. stellata, Nyl. & Cromb. ex M.Ward, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., ser. 2, 2: 114 (1883); S. elegans var. stellata (Nyl. & Cromb.) R. Sant., in Thorold, J. Ecol. 40: 128 (1952)

Strigula concentrica Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 341 (1885)

Strigula elegans var. subciliata Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 342 (1885)

Strigula elegans var. eumorpha Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 342 (1885)

Strigula elegan var. tremula Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 342 (1885)

Strigula tenuis Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 344 (1885)

Strigula plana Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 381 (1885)

?Strigula undulata Müll. Arg., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 331 (1892)

Strigula elegans var. oxyloba Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 293 (1895)

Strigula africana Vain., Cat. Welw. Afr. Pl. 2: 461 (1901)

?Strigula astroidea Vain., Cat. Welw. Afr. Pl. 2: 466 (1901)

Strigula nylanderi Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. 2, 6: 206 (1915)

Strigula gibbosa Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19: 18 (1923)

Strigula africana var. crenulata Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19: 21 (1923)

Strigula philippina Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19: 22 (1923)

Strigula elegantior Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19: 24 (1923)

Strigula mabae Zahlbr., Beih. Feddes Repert. 127: 30 (1943)

AMERICAN SAMOA: Brooks (2003).

ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Singh (1970, as S. elegans).

ANGOLA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Formosa, Misiones] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Sérusiaux & De Sloover (1986, as S. elegans); Llarens (2003, D, as S. elegans and var. stellata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ARMENIA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DIK); Santesson & Tibell (1988, C, as Strigula elegans); Lücking et al. (2001); Lücking (2008, DIK); McCarthy (2008b, 2009a, DKM).

BELIZE: [Cayo] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BENIN: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

BOLIVIA: [Beni, Santa Cruz] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK); Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Espiritu Santo, Mato Grosso, Minas Geraes, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHINA: [Fujian, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Yunnan] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Wei (1991, C, as S. elegans); Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COLOMBIA: [Magdalena] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000b, D).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Breuss (2006); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Guantanamo, Holguin] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Vězda (1984, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (2008, DIK).

EL SALVADOR: [Ahuachapán] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Nowak & Winkler (1971, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: [Gambella] Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approague-Kaw, Maropasoula, Sinnamary] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

GUATEMALA: [Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Izabal, Petén] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAITI: [Sud] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Oahu] Smith (1977, as S. elegans); Smith et al. (1997, as S. elegans).

HONDURAS: [Atlántida] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Bali, Halmahera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ITALY: Puntillo et al. (2000).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998).

JAPAN: Thor et al. (2000, IK).

KENYA: [Coastal, Western] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

MADAGASCAR: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Sipman (1993, C).

MAURITIUS: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Veracruz] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEPAL*: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking & Kalb (2001, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW ZEALAND: [Hawkes Bay, Wellington] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: [Managua] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NIGERIA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NORFOLK ISLAND: McCarthy (2000b).

PANAMA: [Panamá, Veraguas] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe, New Britain] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Streimann (1986, C, as S. elegans).

PARAGUAY: [Itapuá, San Pedro] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto, San Martín] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: [Mayaguez] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C, and as S. elegans).

REUNION: Rønhede et al. (2003).

SAO TOME & PRINCIPE: [Sao Tome] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape Province, Natal] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009).

SRI LANKA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Vězda et al. (1997, and as S. smaragdula var. stellata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

?SUDAN: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

SURINAM: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

TAIWAN: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Aptroot (2003); Aptroot et al. (2003).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Vězda (1975, as S. elegans).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

TOGO: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

TONGA: [‘Eua] Sbarbaro (1939, as S. elegantior); Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

TURKEY: Aslan et al. (2005)

UGANDA: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Yeshitela (2008).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Missouri, South Carolina, Texas] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Harris (1975, IKM; 1995, K); Egan (1978, C, as S. elegans); Hansen et al. (2008); Lücking (2008, DIK); Lendemer et al. (2010, C).

URUGUAY: Osorio (1992, as S. elegans).

U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. Croix] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar, Mérida] Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Santesson (1952, DIK, as S. elegans).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983, as S. elegans).

Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris, in Hawksworth et al., Lichenologist 12: 107 (1980) [bryophilous & corticolous]

Lichen stigmatellus Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr. 15 (1798)

Porina faginea (Schaer.) Arnold, Flora, Jena 68: 166 (1885)

Opegrapha thuretii Hepp, Flechten Europ. [48] (1853); Porina thuretii (Hepp) Lindau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912)

Porina faginea var. alpestris Vězda, Acta Mus. Silesiae, ser. A, 10: 5 (1961); Strigula stigmatella var. alpestris (Vězda) Coppins, in Hawksworth et al., Lichenologist 12: 107 (1980); Strigula alpestris (Vězda) Hafellner, Mitt. Naturwiss. Ver. Steiermark 132: 131 (2002)

AUSTRIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Pernambuco] Cáceres (2007, K).

BULGARIA: Spier et al. (2008).

CANADA: [British Columbia] Harris (1973, DIK, as Arthopyrenia faginea).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vězda & Liska (1999, C).

DENMARK: Søchting & Alstrup (2008, C).

ESTONIA: Randlane et al. (2006, C).

FINLAND: Pykälä (2006).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GERMANY*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GREAT BRITAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

ITALY: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

JAPAN: Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

LATVIA: Piterans (2002, C).

LITHUANIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

POLAND: Faltynowicz (1993, C).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

SLOVAKIA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWITZERLAND: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

TURKEY: Kinalioglu (2011)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [California, Michigan, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Wisconsin] Aptroot (2002, D); Harris (1973, DIK, as Arthopyrenia faginea; 1975, DIK, 2004, C); Thompson (2003, C); Harris & Lendemer (2005); Lendemer & Macklin (2006); Hodkinson et al. (2010, C); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C).

Strigula subelegans Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19: 23 (1923) [foliicolous]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales] Sipman (1991); Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul] Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Wei (1991, C); Wei & Jiang (1991).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Puntarenas] Santesson (1952, DIK); Breuss (2006); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Santesson (1952, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUINEA: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

INDONESIA: [Halmahera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sumatra, ?West Timor] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Santesson & Lücking (1999).

JAPAN: Thor et al. (2000, IK).

KENYA: [Coastal, Eastern] Lücking & Kalb (2002).

MALAYSIA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Santesson (1952, DIK); Galloway (2007, DK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Santesson (1952: DIK).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Streimann (1986, C).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES*: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Santesson (1952, DIK).

SRI LANKA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda et al. (1997).

TONGA: ['Eua] Sbarbaro (1939, as S. parksii); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Harris (1995, K).

VIETNAM: Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda (1977).

Strigula submuriformis (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, in Egan, Bryologist 90: 164 (1987) [corticolous]

Arthopyrenia submuriformis R. C. Harris, Michigan Bot. 12: 15 (1973)

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Arkansas, Florida(?), Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania*, Virginia, Wisconsin] Harris (1973, DIKM; 1975, I; 1988; 1995, K); Thompson (2003, C); Hodkinson et al. (2010, C); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C).

Strigula subprospersella (Vain.) P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 78: 281 (2001) [saxicolous]

Porina subprospersella Vain., Mycologia 21: 39 (1929)

PUERTO RICO*: Vainio (1929, D, as Porina); McCarthy (2001, K); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C, as Porina).

Strigula subsimplicans (Nyl.) R. C. Harris, in Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 175 (1995) [corticolous]

Verrucaria subsimplicans Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel. 130 (1888); Porina subsimplicans (Nyl.) Müll.Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 91 (1894)

Porina albinula Müll.Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 31: 37 (1892)

NEW ZEALAND*: [Northland, Wellington] Hafellner & Kalb (1995); Galloway (2007, DK).

Note Doubtfully distinct from S. viridiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris.

Strigula subtilissima (Fée) Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 346 (1883) [foliicolous]

Racoplaca subtilissima Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. 1(1–7): xciv, xcix (1825)

ANDAMAN ISLANDS: Singh (1970).

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Sérusiaux & De Sloover (1986); Llarens (2003, D); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988, C); Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy (2009a, DKM).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Bahia, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DIK); Spielmann (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DIK).

CHINA: [Hainan, Hong Kong, Yunnan] Santesson (1952, DIK); Aptroot & Seaward (1999); Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas] Santesson (1952, DIK); Breuss (2006); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda (1984); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DIK).

DOMINICA: Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA*: [Approuague-Kaw, Sinnamary] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS: [Santa Cruz] Weber (1986, C).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAITI: [Centre] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Oahu] Smith (1977); Smith et al. (1997).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998).

JAPAN: Thor et al. (2000, IK).

KENYA: [Coastal, Western] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MADAGASCAR: Santesson (1952, DIK).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993, C).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2001).

NEW ZEALAND: [Northland] Sérusiaux (1998); Sérusiaux & Aptroot (1998); Galloway (2007, DK).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PARAGUAY: [Guarapí] Santesson (1952, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

REUNION: Rønhede et al. (2003).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Santesson (1952, DIK).

ST. VINCENT & THE GRENADINES: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

SRI LANKA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda et al. (1997).

SURINAM: Santesson (1952, DIK).

TANZANIA: Vězda (1975).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS: Santesson (1952, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Bolivar, Distrito Federal] Santesson (1952, DIK); Neuwirth (2007).

VIETNAM: [Annam, Tonkin] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda (1977).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Strigula sychnogonoides (Nitschke) R. C. Harris, in Egan, Bryologist 90: 164 (1987), as sychnogonioides [terricolous]

Geisleria sychnogonoides Nitschke, in Rabenhorst, Flechten Eur. 574 (1861)

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vězda & Liska (1999, C); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GERMANY*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

NETHERLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Diederich et al. (2010, CIM).

POLAND: Faltynowicz (1993, C).

SLOVAKIA: Mayrhofer et al. (2001).

SVALBARD: Elvebaak & Hertel (1997, C).

SWITZERLAND: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

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Strigula tagananae (Harm.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 160 (1995) [corticolous]

Verrucaria tagananae Harm., in Pittard & Harmand, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 58: 68 (1911); Polyblastiopsis tagananae (Harm.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 352 (1922)

Strigula lateralis Aptroot & van den Boom, Mycotaxon 56: 3 (1995)

AZORES: Berger & Priemetzhofer (2008).

CANARY ISLANDS*: Harris (1995); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

IRELAND: Aptroot & van den Boom (1995, DI); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

MADEIRA: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

PORTUGAL: Aptroot & van den Boom (1995, DI); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C, as S. lateralis); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula taylorii (Carroll ex Nyl.) R. C. Harris, in Hawksworth et al., Lichenologist 12: 107 (1980) [corticolous]

Verrucaria taylorii Carroll ex Nyl., Expos. Syn. Pyrenocarp. 82 (1858)

Verrucaria meliospila Nyl., Flora 58: 105 (1875); Porina meliospila (Nyl.) Zaklbr., Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr 59: 400 (1909)

AUSTRIA: Berger & Priemetzhofer (2005).

AZORES: Berger & Aptroot (2002).

BELGIUM: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Diederich et al. (2010, CM).

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

DENMARK: Søchting & Alstrup (2008, C, as taylori).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GERMANY: de Bruyn (2000).

GREAT BRITAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

IRELAND*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

LUXEMBOURG: Diederich et al. (2010, CM).

NETHERLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

PORTUGAL: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C); Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

TURKEY: Öztürk & Güvenc (2003).

Strigula thelopsidoides Coppins, Cl. Roux & Sérus., in Roux & Sérusiaux, Biblioth. Lichenol. 90: 90 (2004) [corticolous]

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GREAT BRITAIN*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SPAIN: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

Strigula tremens Müll. Arg., Flora 73: 200 (1890) [foliicolous]

BRAZIL: [São Paulo*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

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Strigula viridis (Lücking) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens 160 (1995) [foliicolous]

Phylloporis viridis Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 276 (1991)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Lücking (2008, DIK).

BRAZIL: [Paraná, Pernambuco] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Limón, Puntarenas*, San José] Lücking (1991, DI, as Phylloporis); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson] Malcolm et al. (1996, DI, as Phylloporis); Galloway (2007, D, as Phylloporis).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002).

Note: The New Zealand record is doubtful (Lücking, 2008).

Strigula viridiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris, in Tucker & Harris, Bryologist 83: 18 (1980) [corticolous and saxicolous]

Verrucaria viridiseda Nyl., Expos. Syn. Pyrenocarp. 55 (1858); Porina viridiseda (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 409 (1922)

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Pernambuco] Cáceres (2007, K).

CANADA?: [Ontario] Harris (1995).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001: DI).

FRENCH GUIANA*: Harris (1975, DIKM); Sipman (1997).

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES: [Saba] Sipman (2009, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot et al. (1997).

PUERTO RICO: Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma] Harris (1975; 1995, K); Tucker & Harris (1980); Ladd (2009); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C); Lendemer et al. (2010, C).

Note: Harris (1975: 146) included S. bermudana as a synonym of S. viridiseda (Nyl.) R.C.Harris and reported the latter from the U.S.A. (Alabama and Louisiana), Bermuda, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Trinidad.

Strigula vulgaris (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 221 (2008), nom. inval. [foliicolous]

"Haplopyrenia vulgaris Müll. Arg."

BRAZIL: [Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo*] Lücking (2008, DIK)

COSTA RICA: [Cartago] Lücking (2008, DIK)

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Lücking (2008, DIK)

VENEZUELA: [Aragua] Lücking (2008, DIK).

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Strigula wandae Cáceres & Lücking, in Lücking et al., Glob. Ecol. & Biogeogr. 12: 32 (2003) [foliicolous]

CHILE: [Auracanía*, Los Lagos] Lücking et al. (2003, DI); Lücking (2008, DK).

Strigula wilsonii (Riddle) R. C. Harris, in Egan, Bryologist 90: 164 (1987) [saxicolous]

Porina wilsonii Riddle, in Britton & Millspaugh, Bahama Fl. 523 (1920)

Porina vainii Fink, in Hedrick, Mycologia 22: 247 (1930)

CUBA*: Riddle (1920, D, as Porina wilsonii); Harris (1973, DIKM).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot et al. (1997).

PUERTO RICO: Hedrick (1930, D, as Porina vainii); Harris (1973, DIKM); Mercado-Diaz (2009, C).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Harris (1973, DIKM; 1995, K).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Harris (1973, DIKM; 1995, K).

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Strigula ziziphi (A. Massal.) Roux & Sérus., Biblioth. Lichenol. 90: 55 (2004) [corticolous]

Sagedia ziziphi A. Massal., Miscell. Lich. 30: 60 (1856)

Strigula mediterranea Etayo, Lichenologist 25: 257 (1993); Porina schizospora Vain., Termeszetr. Füzetek 22: 340 ('1898') [1899]

?Porina dacryospora Zahlbr., Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 59: 399 (1909), fide Roux & Sérusiaux (2004)

CANARY ISLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

CROATIA*: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

FRANCE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

GREECE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK); Abbott (2009, C, and as S. mediterranea).

ISRAEL: Temina et al. (2009, as S. mediterranea).

ITALY: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

NETHERLANDS: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

POLAND: Flakus & Kukwa (2009, D).

PORTUGAL: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).

SPAIN: Etayo (1993, as S. mediterranea); Llimona & Hladun (2001, C, as S. mediterranea).

SWITZERLAND: Scheidegger & Clerc (2002, C); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

SYRIA: John et al. (2004, C, as S. mediterranea).

TURKEY: Yazici et al. (2007)

UKRAINE: Roux & Sérusiaux (2004, DIK).