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Flora of Australia Online

ALLOCASUARINA

K.L.Wilson, L.A.S.Johnson

Allocasuarina L.A.S.Johnson, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 6: 73 (1982); from Greek allos (other) and neo-Latin Casuarina , referring to the relationship with the genus Casuarina .

Type: Allocasuarina torulosa (Aiton) L.A.S.Johnson

Shrubs or trees, dioecious or monoecious. Young persistent branchlets usually distinguishable from the deciduous branchlets. Branchlet articles with furrows deep, concealing the stomates. Leaves in whorls of 4–14. Male flowers in simple short to long spikes, on branchlets which in the flowering region are usually distinctly different from the vegetative branchlets. Female inflorescences on short lateral branches or ±sessile. Infructescences (‘cones’) pedunculate or sessile; bracts thin in exposed portion; bracteoles considerably thickened and often divided so that dorsal portion forms 1 or more distinct protuberances. Samara body brown to black, shining, glabrous or hairy. x = 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14, B.A.Barlow, Austral. J. Bot. 7: 230–237 (1959), and B.A.Barlow & B.G.Briggs pers. comm. 

An endemic genus of 59 species (as listed in the Flora of Australia publication), chiefly in southern Australia but 4 species extending to north-eastern Qld and one, A. decaisneana, in tropical and subtropical parts of the eremean region. The Australian Plant Census lists 61 species. Usually grows in soils markedly deficient in nutrients. 

Polyploidy occurs in some species (tetraploids are fertile). Hybridisation occurs occasionally. Several species include apomictic plants. In section Cylindropitys there are many closely related species, often but not always of limited distribution. These may require particular care to distinguish. The small size of some parts requires a higher level of precision of measurements than is usual in a Flora treatment. Branchlet details reflect underlying anatomical differences, which have been helpful in defining the species. Those taxa that are sharply although finely distinctive are treated as species, reserving the category of subspecies for those that exhibit intergradation.

KEY TO SECTIONS

Note. This key requires full male and female material of a species for its use but is essentially a practical key for identification of the sections and therefore does not include all significant morphological and karyological features, which can be found in the English and Latin descriptions.

1 Branchlets 1–6 cm long, with 1–5 elongate articles each 0.6–5 cm long, mostly pungent

sect. OXYPITYS

1: Branchlets mostly 8–50 cm long, with numerous elongate articles each 0.1–6 cm long, not pungent (except A. decaisneana), if branchlets less than 8 cm long and/or if fewer than 7 elongated articles then articles less than 1 cm long and penultimate branchlets mostly green

2

2 Male bracteoles deciduous

3

2: Male bracteoles persistent

6

3 Trees; articles verruculose

4

3: Shrubs; articles smooth

sect. CYLINDROPITYS (p.p.)

4 Bark furrowed; cone bracteoles with 1 abaxial protuberance

5

4: Bark ribbony-fibrous; cone bracteoles subdivided into 2 or 3 bodies

sect. INOPITYS

5 Branchlets ascending; teeth erect; cones very shortly cylindrical, broader than long, with 1–4 fertile whorls

sect. PLATYPITYS

5: Branchlets drooping; teeth spreading; cones ovoid, with 6–16 fertile whorls

sect. OÖPITYS

6 Cone bracteoles with conspicuous abaxial spine or awn

7

6: Cone bracteoles without abaxial spine or awn

8

7 Branchlets with a strong waxy coating at maturity; teeth 8–11

sect. ECHINOPITYS

7: Branchlets with no more than a faint waxy bloom; teeth 5–6

sect. ACANTHOPITYS

8 Branchlets with a strong waxy coating at maturity

sect. CEROPITYS

8: Branchlets with no more than a faint waxy bloom

9

9 Cone bracteoles divided into 4–20 small bodies

10

9: Cone bracteoles with 1 protuberance (rarely superficially 2–3-lobed) or protuberance fused with bracteole body

13

10 Trees; bark corky or scaly

11

10: Shrubs; bark smooth or finely striate

12

11 Teeth 4 or 5

sect. ALLOCASUARINA

11: Teeth 6–8

sect. AMORPHOPITYS

12 Cone bracteoles subdivided into 3–5 bodies

sect. NANNOPITYS

12: Cone bracteoles subdivided into 6–9 bodies

sect. TRACHYPITYS

13 Teeth pungent

sect. DOLICHOPITYS

13: Teeth not pungent

14

14 Cone bracteoles acuminate, mucronate

sect. TRICHOPITYS

14: Cone bracteoles obtuse to acute, not mucronate

sect. CYLINDROPITYS

KEY TO SPECIES BASED ON FEMALE SPECIMENS

Notes. Hairs are produced in the furrows of all articles, as can be seen in T.S. However, the constriction of the furrows often means that no hairs are visible externally. Article furrows are here referred to as ‘pubescent’ when the hairs in the furrows are obvious using at least a hand lens, and as ‘glabrous’ when the hairs are hidden. In the key below, ‘teeth’ refers to the reduced leaves at the apex of each branchlet article. Tooth measurements should be made on the elongated articles, not on new shoots where the teeth are often much longer.

1 Teeth 4–8 per whorl

2

1: Teeth more than 8 per whorl

81

2 Branchlets 1–6 cm long with 1–5 elongate articles each 0.6–5 cm long, mostly pungent

3

2: Branchlets mostly 8–50 cm long, with numerous elongate articles each 0.1–6 cm long, not pungent except A. decaisneana (if branchlets shorter than 8 cm long and/or if fewer than 7 elongated articles, then articles less than 1 cm long and penultimate branchlets green)

7

3 Teeth 4, usually erect, occasionally scarious but without broad white margins

4

3: Teeth 5, slightly spreading, with deciduous broad white margins, 0.6–1.3 mm long

ramosissima

4 Teeth 0.3–0.6 mm long; samara with long ferruginous hairs, the wing absent or rudimentary; cone bracteoles without dorsal awn

grevilleoides

4: Teeth 0.8–5 mm long; samara glabrous, with well-developed wing; cone bracteoles with dorsal awn 1–9 mm long

5

5 Branchlets with 1 elongate article 15–50 mm long; cone bracteole protuberance with well-developed yellowish awn 1.3–9 mm long

6

5: Branchlets with 2–4 elongate articles, each 8–16 mm long; cone bracteole protuberance with acuminate, awn-like apex c. 1 mm long (cone details obscured by tangled mass of greyish coarse hairs c. 1 cm long)

fibrosa

6 Awn adherent to near apex of cone bracteole; slender plant with terete articles 0.6–0.9 mm diam.

acuaria

6: Awn separating from cone bracteole near base; coarse plant with quadrangular articles 1–1.2 mm diam.

pinaster

7 Penultimate as well as ultimate branchlets green; shrubs, intricate at maturity

8

7: Only ultimate branchlets green; penultimate branches slender but woody with brown to grey bark; trees or shrubs, rarely intricate

9

8 Teeth 4; phyllichnia verruculose to serrate; articles 2–6 mm long; samara wingless, with hairs shorter than body of samara

microstachya

8: Teeth 6 or 7; phyllichnia smooth; articles 1.5–2.5 mm long; samara with small wing and hairs exceeding body of samara

drummondiana

9 Cones warty or tessellated, with each cone bracteole divided into 3–20 small bodies

10

9: Cones with single protuberance or with protuberance fused to bracteole body

16

10 Articles quadrangular in T.S.; cone body diam. greater than or equal to length; pyramidal bodies 12–20

decussata

10: Articles ±terete in T.S. (occasionally quadrangular in A. torulosa); cone body length greater than or equal to diam.; pyramidal bodies 4–12

11

11 Teeth spreading [6–8]

fraseriana

11: Teeth erect to appressed

12

12 Teeth 8–10; articles 7–14 mm long

tessellata

12: Teeth 4–7; articles 3–7 mm long

13

13 Cone peduncle 8–30 mm long; tree with drooping branchlets

torulosa

13: Cone peduncle 0–4 mm long; shrub with stiff ascending branchlets

14

14 Phyllichnia angular to strongly rounded, usually with median ridge often minutely serrate; teeth overlapping at least at base when young

humilis

14: Phyllichnia flat to slightly rounded, often with smooth yellowish median line but no ridge; teeth not overlapping

15

15 Furrows pubescent; cone bracteole bodies acute to broadly acute; mature samara very dark red-brown to black (N.S.W., Vic.)

nana

15: Furrows glabrous; cone bracteole bodies truncate; mature samara pale red-brown (W.A., S.A.)

helmsii

16 Teeth pungent; articles 20–60 mm long; phyllichnia with median groove (eremean W.A., N.T., S.A.)

decaisneana

16: Teeth not pungent; articles 1–20 mm long, rarely with median groove, rarely to 25 mm long and then phyllichnia without median groove

17

17 Protuberance produced in a slender spine 1–8 mm long on at least some cones on a plant

18

17: Protuberance acute to obtuse or fused with cone bracteole body or rarely both bracteole and protuberance acuminate and pungent

19

18 Teeth 8–10

corniculata

18: Teeth 5 or 6

thuyoides

19 Phyllichnia verruculose or minutely serrate on median ridge

20

19: Phyllichnia smooth, occasionally pubescent

22

20 Phyllichnia rounded (strongly to slightly so), verruculose; trees 3–10 m high

21

20: Phyllichnia strongly angular, minutely serrate on ridge; shrub 0.5–3 m high (S.A., Vic.)

muelleriana

21 Teeth spreading, 0.5–0.7 mm long; articles 8–13 mm long, 0.8–0.9 mm diam.; furrows pubescent; bark smooth or furrowed (W.A.)

huegeliana

21: Teeth erect, 0.3–0.5 mm long; articles 4–7 mm long, 0.5–0.6 mm diam.; furrows glabrous; bark on trunk extremely ribbony-fibrous, red-brown (Qld, N.S.W.)

inophloia

22 Protuberance fused with bracteole body (often apex of protuberance discernible as a transverse line, occasionally with a tiny mucro)

23

22: Protuberance 1 (occasionally superficially 2- or 3-lobed in A. striata)

25

23 Teeth erect; cones erect; mature samara black; shrub 1–3 m high

24

23: Teeth spreading; cones recurved relative to branch; mature samara mid-brown; tree 4–9 m high

dielsiana

24 Phyllichnia rounded or nearly flat with small but definite median ridge; cones sessile or on peduncle to 5 mm long

campestris

24: Phyllichnia flat or slightly rounded without median ridge; cones on peduncle 4–15 mm long

eriochlamys

25 Teeth 1.5–3.5 mm long

26

25: Teeth less than 1.5 mm long

30

26 Teeth not overlapping at maturity

27

26: Teeth overlapping

29

27 Teeth 7–10; cones sessile or on peduncle to 3 mm long

28

27: Teeth 5 or 6; cones on peduncle 2–9 mm long (Qld)

filidens

28 Articles 0.9–1 mm diam., glabrous; cone bracteoles pungent, with acute or acuminate apex and with dorsal protuberance of similar shape and size (W.A.)

trichodon

28: Articles 1.4–2 mm diam., with densely pubescent furrows; cone bracteoles obtuse to truncate, with dorsal protuberance thick-pyramidal and slightly shorter than bracteole body (Tas.)

crassa

29 Teeth recurved to spreading, strongly marcescent

mackliniana

29: Teeth erect, marcescent only at apex

striata

30 Phyllichnia with median groove along their length

31

30: Phyllichnia without median groove

35

31 Teeth overlapping (S.A., Vic.)

pusilla

31: Teeth not overlapping

32

32 Articles 2–5 mm long, 0.4–0.7 mm diam. (N.S.W.)

brachystachya

32: Articles 5–14 mm long, 0.7–1.2 mm diam.

33

33 Samara mid-brown, 5.5–6.0 mm long; teeth strongly marcescent (W.A.)

tortiramula

33: Samara very dark brown to black, 3.5–5.5 mm long; teeth not or occasionally marcescent

34

34 Furrows glabrous (W.A.)

lehmanniana

34: Furrows pubescent (S.A., N.S.W., Vic., Tas.)

paludosa

35 Teeth overlapping at least at base when young

36

35: Teeth not overlapping, mostly not marcescent

59

36 Furrows obviously pubescent (pubescent and glabrous sometimes mixed on same plant in A. simulans)

37

36: Furrows glabrous

40

37 Teeth recurved to spreading

mackliniana

37: Teeth erect

38

38 Phyllichnia only slightly rounded

gymnanthera

38: Phyllichnia angular to strongly rounded

39

39 Cones large, 11–22 mm diam., on stout peduncle 2–4 mm diam.; articles dark blue-green (Port Stephens–Cooma, N.S.W.)

distyla

39: Cones slender, 9–12 mm diam., on slender peduncle c. 2 mm diam.; articles pale yellow-green (Nabiac–Forster, N.S.W.)

simulans

40 Phyllichnia and teeth flat or slightly rounded (occasionally more rounded towards base of article but always rather flattened near apex)

41

40: Phyllichnia angular or strongly rounded, with ridge or convexity continued onto teeth

47

41 Usually monoecious

42

41: Usually dioecious

43

42 Cones on peduncle 2–10 mm long; cone bracteoles truncate to broadly acute (Tas.)

monilifera

42: Cones sessile or on peduncle to 3 mm long; cone bracteoles broadly acute to obtuse (S.A.)

robusta

43 Teeth recurved to spreading, strongly marcescent (S.A., Vic.)

mackliniana

43: Teeth erect to spreading, not marcescent or slightly so at apex

44

44 Mature samara red- to olive-brown, 3.0–3.5 mm long

45

44: Mature samara very dark brown to black, 4–7 mm long

46

45 Articles blue-green, 6–8 mm long; cone body 5–7 mm diam. (Nabiac, N.S.W.)

defungens

45: Articles yellow-green, 5–11 mm long; cone body 7–8 mm diam. (Penrith, N.S.W.)

glareicola

46 Cones shortly cylindrical, sessile; cone bracteoles broadly acute to obtuse (S.A., Vic.)

pusilla

46: Cones long-cylindrical, on peduncle 3–8 mm long; cone bracteoles truncate to obtuse (N.S.W.)

gymnanthera

47 Mature samara red-brown to olive-brown

48

47: Mature samara very dark brown to black

52

48 Teeth recurved to spreading, mostly marcescent; articles 10–25 mm long

49

48: Teeth erect to slightly spreading, not marcescent; articles 5–12 mm long

50

49 Articles 0.7–1.5 mm diam.; phyllichnia angular to sometimes rounded

rigida

49: Articles 0.8–1 mm diam.; phyllichnia rounded to sometimes angular

portuensis

50 Articles of greater diam. at apex than towards base

51

50: Articles of same diam. throughout their length, not waxy

glareicola

51 Teeth narrowly to broadly deltoid, ±straight-sided; articles often with a waxy bloom

diminuta

51: Teeth very broadly deltoid, very convex-sided; articles without waxy bloom

rupicola

52 Phyllichnia rounded

53

52: Phyllichnia angular

58

53 Articles with a waxy bloom at least when dry; teeth erect, not marcescent; cones on peduncle 2–12 mm long

54

53: Articles without a waxy bloom; teeth recurved to erect, often marcescent; cones sessile or on peduncle to 5 mm long

56

54 Articles of nearly same diam. throughout their length or slightly enlarged at apex

55

54: Articles of markedly greater diam. at apex

striata

55 Dioecious; cone body 7–9 mm diam.; phyllichnia strongly rounded to angular (Vic.)

grampiana

55: Monoecious mostly; cone body 8–14 mm diam.; phyllichnia rounded to strongly rounded (Tas.)

monilifera

56 Teeth 5–7, erect and appressed to occasionally spreading; articles 4–10 mm long, 0.3–0.8 mm diam.

misera

56: Teeth 7–11, recurved to spreading; articles 6–17 mm long, 0.6–1.2 mm diam.

57

57 Teeth spreading, mostly somewhat marcescent; furrows glabrous

paradoxa

57: Teeth recurved to spreading, strongly marcescent; furrows glabrous or densely pubescent

mackliniana

58 Articles with a strong waxy bloom (Vic.)

grampiana

58: Articles with a faint waxy bloom or none (Tas.)

zephyrea

59 Furrows obviously pubescent (at least shortly)

60

59: Furrows glabrous

68

60 Tree 5–15 m high

littoralis

60: Shrub or small tree 0.5–3 m high

61

61 Phyllichnia angular to strongly rounded, without median groove; dioecious

62

61: Phyllichnia flat or slightly rounded (often with a median groove towards base in A. brachystachya)

67

62 Phyllichnia strongly angular with white median ridge (often minutely serrate); teeth erect and appressed; articles of same diam. throughout their length (S.A., Vic.)

muelleriana

62: Phyllichnia rounded without well-defined white median ridge

63

63 Teeth spreading to recurved (Tas.)

crassa

63: Teeth erect but not appressed (Qld, N.S.W.)

64

64 Articles 10–22 mm long, 0.8–1.5 mm diam.; teeth thick-textured, 0.5–1.2 mm long

65

64: Articles 4–12 mm long, 0.5–0.9 mm diam.; teeth thin-textured, 0.3–0.7 mm long

66

65 Cones 11–22 mm diam., on peduncle 2–4 mm diam.; articles dark blue-green

distyla

65: Cones 9–12 mm diam., on peduncle c. 2 mm diam.; articles pale yellow-green

simulans

66 Articles 4–8 mm long

emuina

66: Articles 7–12 mm long

thalassoscopica

67 Cone body 14–40 mm long, 9–12 mm diam.; articles 5–16 mm long

gymnanthera

67: Cone body 7–14 mm long, 5–8 mm diam.; articles 2–5 mm long

brachystachya

68 Mature samara red- to olive-brown

69

68: Mature samara very dark brown to black

73

69 Articles of the same diam. throughout their length, not waxy; phyllichnia rounded (usually only slightly so near apex)

glareicola

69: Articles at least slightly enlarged in diam. at apex, often with a waxy bloom at least when dry; phyllichnia angular or strongly rounded

70

70 Articles without a waxy bloom; teeth often marcescent at apex

rigida

70: Articles often with a waxy bloom

71

71 Teeth marcescent; articles 13–20 mm long

portuensis

71: Teeth not marcescent; articles 5–14 mm long

72

72 Teeth narrowly deltoid; occurs on serpentinite outcrops

ophiolitica

72: Teeth broadly deltoid; occurs on siliceous soils

diminuta

73 Teeth erect, appressed (occasionally some teeth spreading in A. misera)

74

73: Teeth spreading, or erect but not appressed and often with some apices spreading

77

74 Phyllichnia flat to rounded or broadly angular with pale median line; samara c. 4 mm long

75

74: Phyllichnia sharply angular with pale median ridge; samara 6–9 mm long (S.A., Vic.)

muelleriana

75 Articles 0.3–0.8 mm diam. (Vic.)

misera

75: Articles 0.7–1.2 mm diam.

76

76 Articles 7–11 mm long; teeth 0.5–1.0 mm long; cones on peduncle 2–6 mm long; usually monoecious (Tas.)

monilifera

76: Articles 5–9 mm long; teeth 0.4–0.8 mm long; cones on peduncle 6–35 mm long or less commonly sessile; mostly dioecious (W.A.)

lehmanniana

77 Monoecious usually

78

77: Dioecious usually

79

78 Cones on peduncle 2–10 mm long; articles often with a waxy bloom (Tas.)

monilifera

78: Cones sessile or on peduncle to 3 mm long; articles not waxy (S.A.)

robusta

79 Articles with a strong waxy bloom (Vic.)

grampiana

79: Articles with a faint waxy bloom or none

80

80 Articles 0.5–0.8 mm diam.; samara 5–8 mm long (Vic.)

media

80: Articles 0.6–1.3 mm diam.; samara 4–5.5 mm long (Tas.)

zephyrea

81 Articles verruculose

82

81: Articles smooth

87

82 Articles 4–7 mm long, 0.5–0.6 mm diam.; bark very ribbony-fibrous (Qld, N.S.W.)

inophloia

82: Articles 8–40 mm long, 0.7–2 mm diam.; bark smooth to furrowed

83

83 Teeth spreading; phyllichnia rounded

84

83: Teeth erect; phyllichnia flat or slightly rounded; branchlets ascending

85

84 Articles 15–40 mm long, 0.7–1.5 mm diam.; branchlets strongly drooping (S.A., N.S.W., Vic., Tas.)

verticillata

84: Articles 8–13 mm long, 0.8–0.9 mm diam.; branchlets drooping to ascending (W.A.)

huegeliana

85 Monoecious; cone bracteoles with protuberance produced in a long spine 4–11 mm long

spinosissima

85: Dioecious; cone bracteoles with protuberance obtuse or acuminate with mucro less than 1 mm long

86

86 Articles 1.0–2.0 mm diam.; cone diam. greater than length; cones 5–12 mm long; cone bracteoles with short obtuse dorsal protuberance (S.A., Qld, N.S.W., Vic.)

luehmannii

86: Articles 0.7–1.2 mm diam.; cone length greater than diam.; cones 15–35 mm long; cone bracteole and protuberance fused or divided into 2 or 3 acuminate or acute bodies (W.A.)

acutivalvis

87 Dorsal protuberance fused with cone bracteole

88

87: Dorsal protuberance a separate pyramidal body, or cone bracteole divided into 3–5 bodies (dorsal protuberance not distinguishable)

89

88 Articles 20–52 mm long; teeth 1.3–2.7 mm long

scleroclada

88: Articles 6–13 mm long; teeth 0.6–1.2 mm long

campestris

89 Cone bracteole divided into 3–5 bodies; branchlets mostly with a thick waxy coating

90

89: Dorsal protuberance a single body; branchlets occasionally with a waxy bloom (more obvious when dry) but not forming a thick waxy coating

91

90 Teeth 10–12; articles 17–28 mm long; furrows mostly shortly pubescent

globosa

90: Teeth 8–9; articles 7–14 mm long; furrows glabrous

tessellata

91 Teeth 1.5–3.5 mm long

92

91: Teeth less than 1.5 mm long

94

92 Phyllichnia angular; articles glabrous, 0.9–1 mm diam.; cone bracteoles acute to acuminate (W.A.)

trichodon

92: Phyllichnia rounded, occasionally only slightly so; cone bracteoles truncate to broadly acute

93

93 Phyllichnia moderately rounded (if only slightly so, then furrows densely pubescent); articles glabrous or pubescent in furrows, 0.7–1.3 mm diam. (S.A., Vic.)

mackliniana

93: Phyllichnia strongly rounded; articles pubescent in furrows, 1.2–2 mm diam. (Tas.)

crassa

94 Protuberance produced in a spine 2–5 mm long (W.A.)

corniculata

94: Protuberance truncate to broadly acute, without spine

95

95 Furrows pubescent

96

95: Furrows glabrous

97

96 Phyllichnia nearly flat to slightly rounded (S.A., Vic.)

mackliniana

96: Phyllichnia strongly rounded

crassa

97 Mature samara red- to olive-brown

98

97: Mature samara very dark brown to black

100

98 Articles without a waxy bloom; teeth often marcescent at apex (Qld, N.S.W.)

rigida

98: Articles with a waxy bloom at least when dry; teeth usually not marcescent

99

99 Teeth narrowly deltoid; occurs on serpentinite outcrops.

ophiolitica

99: Teeth broadly deltoid; occurs on siliceous soils

diminuta

100 Cones on peduncle 2–15 mm long; teeth erect to spreading (Tas.)

101

100: Cones sessile or on peduncle to 3 mm long; teeth recurved to spreading (S.A., Vic.)

102

101 Dioecious; phyllichnia angular to rounded

zephyrea

101: Monoecious; phyllichnia strongly to slightly rounded

monilifera

102 Teeth spreading, mostly somewhat marcescent; furrows glabrous

paradoxa

102: Teeth recurved to spreading, strongly marcescent; furrows glabrous or densely pubescent

mackliniana

103 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

hystricosa

103 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

duncanii

KEY TO SPECIES BASED ON MALE SPECIMENS

Male inflorescences are said to be moniliform if this state is reached by the time of anthesis (all male spikes may eventually elongate and become more or less moniliform with age). In the key below, ‘teeth’ refers to the reduced leaves at the apex of each branchlet article.

1 Teeth 4–8 per whorl

2

1: Teeth more than 8 per whorl

94

2 Branchlets 1–6 cm long with 1–5 elongate articles, each 0.6–5 cm long, mostly pungent

3

2: Branchlets mostly 8–50 cm long with numerous elongate articles 0.1–6 cm long, not pungent except A. decaisneana (if branchlets less than 8 cm long and/or if fewer than 7 elongated articles, then articles less than 1 cm long and penultimate branchlets mostly green)

7

3 Teeth 4, erect usually, occasionally scarious but without broad white margins

4

3: Teeth 5, slightly spreading, with deciduous broad white margins, 0.6–1.3 mm long

ramosissima

4 Teeth 0.3–0.6 mm long

grevilleoides

4: Teeth 0.8–5 mm long

5

5 Branchlets with 1 elongate article 15–50 mm long

6

5: Branchlets with 2–4 elongate articles, each 8–16 mm long; spikes dense, 0.4–0.7 cm long; anther 0.5–0.8 mm long

fibrosa

6 Slender plant with articles 0.6–0.9 mm diam.; spikes elongate, moniliform, 1–4 cm long; anther 0.7–0.9 mm long

acuaria

6: Coarse plant with articles 1–1.2 mm diam.; spikes short, dense, 0.5–1 cm long; anther 1–1.4 mm long

pinaster

7 Penultimate as well as ultimate branchlets green; shrubs, intricate at maturity

8

7: Only ultimate branchlets green; penultimate branches slender but woody with brown to grey bark; trees or shrubs, rarely intricate

9

8 Teeth 4; phyllichnia verruculose to serrate; articles 2–6 mm long

microstachya

8: Teeth 6–7; phyllichnia smooth; articles 1.5–2.5 mm long

drummondiana

9 Phyllichnia verruculose or with minutely serrate median ridge

10

9: Phyllichnia smooth

13

10 Phyllichnia verruculose, strongly to slightly rounded; tree 3–15 m high

11

10: Phyllichnia angular to strongly rounded with minutely serrate ridge; shrub 0.2–3 m high; teeth erect; bark smooth or finely fissured

muelleriana

11 Teeth spreading; bark scaly or strongly furrowed (W.A.)

12

11: Teeth erect; bark on trunk extremely ribbony-fibrous, red-brown; male bracteoles deciduous (Qld, N.S.W.)

inophloia

12 Male bracteoles persistent; teeth 8–10, 0.7–1.2 mm long

fraseriana

12: Male bracteoles deciduous, usually falling as a unit with the 2 perianth segments; teeth 6–8, 0.5–0.7 mm long

huegeliana

13 Male spikes ±moniliform, 6–8 whorls per cm; teeth not overlapping

muelleriana

13: Male spikes dense, 14–16 whorls per cm; teeth overlapping at base at least when young

humilis

14 Teeth 1.5–3.5 mm long

15

14: Teeth less than 1.5 mm long

21

15 Teeth pungent; articles 20–60 mm long; phyllichnia with median groove

decaisneana

15: Teeth not pungent; articles 1–20 mm long; phyllichnia without median groove

16

16 Teeth not overlapping at maturity (may overlap on young shoots)

17

16: Teeth overlapping

20

17 Teeth erect; articles mostly with a waxy coating

eriochlamys

17: Teeth spreading to recurved; articles not waxy

18

18 Teeth 7–10

19

18: Teeth 5–6; articles 12–15 mm long, 0.5–0.8 mm diam. (Qld)

filidens

19 Furrows glabrous; articles 12–15 mm long, 0.5–0.8 mm diam. (W.A.)

trichodon

19: Furrows pubescent; articles 10–20 mm long, 1.2–2 mm diam. (Tas.)

crassa

20 Teeth recurved to spreading, strongly marcescent

mackliniana

20: Teeth erect, marcescent only at apex

striata

21 Phyllichnia with median groove along their whole length

22

21: Phyllichnia without median groove

26

22 Teeth overlapping; anther 0.3–0.6 mm long (S.A., Vic.)

pusilla

22: Teeth not overlapping; anther 0.6–1.2 mm long

23

23 Articles 2–5 mm long, 0.4–0.7 mm diam. (N.S.W.)

brachystachya

23: Articles 5–14 mm long, 0.7–1.2 mm diam.

24

24 Male spikes less than 1 cm long; teeth strongly marcescent (W.A.)

tortiramula

24: Male spikes 1–6 cm long; teeth not or occasionally marcescent

25

25 Furrows glabrous (W.A.)

lehmanniana

25: Furrows pubescent (S.A., N.S.W., Vic., Tas.)

paludosa

26 Teeth overlapping at least at base when young

27

26: Teeth not overlapping, mostly not marcescent

54

27 Furrows pubescent (pubescent and glabrous sometimes mixed on same individual in A. simulans)

28

27: Furrows glabrous

32

28 Teeth recurved to spreading (S.A., Vic.)

mackliniana

28: Teeth erect (W.A., N.S.W.)

29

29 Phyllichnia only slightly rounded

gymnanthera

29: Phyllichnia angular to strongly rounded

30

30 Articles 10–22 mm long

31

30: Articles 3–6 mm long (W.A.)

humilis

31 Articles dark blue-green; phyllichnia angular to rounded; generally parts coarser (Port Stephens–Cooma, N.S.W.)

distyla

31: Articles pale yellow-green; phyllichnia rounded to angular; generally parts more slender (Nabiac–Forster, N.S.W.)

simulans

32 Phyllichnia and teeth flat or slightly rounded, occasionally more rounded towards base of article but always rather flattened near apex

33

32: Phyllichnia angular or strongly rounded, with ridge or convexity continued onto teeth

40

33 Usually monoecious

34

33: Usually dioecious

35

34 Male spikes mostly moniliform (Tas.)

monilifera

34: Male spikes mostly not moniliform (S.A.)

robusta

35 Teeth recurved to spreading, strongly marcescent

mackliniana

35: Teeth erect to spreading, not marcescent or slightly so at apex

36

36 Male spikes moniliform, 3–5 whorls per cm

37

36: Male spikes not moniliform, 8–11 whorls per cm

39

37 Male bracteoles persistent; male spikes 0.2–2.5 cm long

38

37: Male bracteoles deciduous; male spikes 2.5–6 cm long

gymnanthera

38 Articles blue-green, 6–8 mm long; spikes 0.4–1 cm long (Nabiac, N.S.W.)

defungens

38: Articles yellow-green, 5–11 mm long; spikes 0.2–2.5 cm long (Penrith, N.S.W.)

glareicola

39 Articles without a waxy bloom; teeth 0.3–0.8 mm long, mostly brown

misera

39: Articles with a waxy bloom; teeth 0.3–0.5 mm long, mostly pale yellow

pusilla

40 Mature male spikes moniliform

41

40: Mature male spikes dense, not moniliform

47

41 Monoecious

42

41: Dioecious

43

42 Phyllichnia rounded to angular (N.S.W.)

diminuta

42: Phyllichnia angular (Tas.)

monilifera

43 Articles not waxy; teeth erect

44

43: Articles with at least a faint waxy bloom; teeth spreading to erect or recurved

45

44 Male spike with 4–6.5 whorls per cm

rigida

44: Male spike with 7.5–8 whorls per cm

rupicola

45 Teeth 6–7; articles with a waxy bloom

grampiana

45: Teeth 7–9; articles with a faint waxy bloom

46

46 Male spikes 1–3.5 cm long, 5–7 whorls per cm (Tas.)

zephyrea

46: Male spikes 5–10 cm long, 3.5–4.5 whorls per cm (N.S.W.)

portuensis

47 Male bracteoles deciduous

striata

47: Male bracteoles persistent

48

48 Male spikes very dense, 14–16 whorls per cm

humilis

48: Male spikes less dense, 3.5–11 whorls per cm

49

49 Teeth strongly marcescent, spreading or recurved, rarely erect

50

49: Teeth not marcescent or occasionally so at very apex, erect or spreading

52

50 Articles 10–25 mm long; phyllichnia angular to rounded (Qld, N.S.W.)

rigida

50: Articles 6–7 mm long; phyllichnia rounded to angular (S.A., Vic.)

51

51 Male spikes with 3.5–7 whorls per cm, not appearing much thicker than vegetative branchlets

paradoxa

51: Male spikes with 6–9 whorls per cm, the recurved teeth making spikes appear about twice as thick as branchlets

mackliniana

52 Anther 0.8–1.2 mm long; teeth 0.6–1 mm long, spreading to suberect

robusta

52: Anther 0.5–0.8 mm long; teeth 0.3–0.8 mm long, erect to spreading

53

53 Articles angular to sharply rounded, often with a waxy bloom, 0.6–1.1 mm diam.; teeth 6–9 (N.S.W.)

diminuta

53: Articles broadly rounded, not waxy, 0.3–0.8 mm diam.; teeth 5–7 (Vic.)

misera

54 Phyllichnia and teeth flat to slightly rounded at least near apex

55

54: Phyllichnia angular to strongly rounded, with ridge or convexity continuing onto teeth

67

55 Tree 5–20 m high; bark corky or furrowed

56

55: Shrub 0.5–5 m high; bark smooth to finely fissured

57

56 Teeth 4 or 5; phyllichnia with pale median line

torulosa

56: Teeth 6–8; phyllichnia with small but definite pale median ridge

littoralis

57 Teeth 7–10, marcescent

58

57: Teeth 4–6, mostly not marcescent, rarely to 8 and then not marcescent

60

58 Male spikes with 10–16 whorls per cm

corniculata

58: Male spikes with 7–11 whorls per cm

59

59 Articles with small but definite median ridge on phyllichnia

campestris

59: Articles without ridge on phyllichnia

eriochlamys

60 Furrows glabrous

61

60: Furrows pubescent

65

61 Anther 0.7–1.2 mm long; articles 5–14 mm long

62

61: Anther 0.4–0.7 mm long; articles 1–7 mm long; teeth 0.3–0.5 mm long; male spikes not moniliform

64

62 Male spikes usually moniliform; anther 0.6–0.9 mm long; teeth 0.2–0.7 mm long

63

62: Male spikes usually not moniliform; anther 0.8–1.2 mm long; teeth 0.6–1 mm long (S.A.)

robusta

63 Teeth 0.2–0.5 mm long, erect to slightly spreading (N.S.W.)

glareicola

63: Teeth 0.4–0.7 mm long, appressed to erect (W.A.)

lehmanniana

64 Male spikes 5–25 mm long, 9–12 whorls per cm; articles 3–7 mm long

helmsii

64: Male spikes 1–5 mm long, of only 1–4 whorls; articles 1–3 mm long

thuyoides

65 Male spikes 2.5–6 cm long, moniliform, 3–5 whorls per cm; articles 5–12 mm long

gymnanthera

65: Male spikes 0.5–1.7 cm long, not moniliform, 9–20 whorls per cm

66

66 Usually monoecious; articles 2–5 mm long, not waxy; phyllichnia often with median groove towards base

brachystachya

66: Usually dioecious; articles 5–6 mm long, often waxy; phyllichnia without median groove

nana

67 Male inflorescence very short, head-like, c. 0.5–0.6 cm diam.; tree or tall shrub

dielsiana

67: Male inflorescence an elongate spike, 1–9 cm long, rarely less than 1 cm long and then a shrub

68

68 Tree 5–15 m high; bark corky or strongly fissured

69

68: Shrub or small tree 0.5–5 m high; bark smooth or slightly fissured

71

69 Articles quadrangular; teeth 4; monoecious

decussata

69: Articles terete; teeth 6–8; usually dioecious

70

70 Teeth spreading, 0.7–1.2 mm long (W.A.)

fraseriana

70: Teeth usually erect, 0.3–0.9 mm long (Qld to Tas.)

littoralis

71 Male spikes with 12–16 whorls per cm, 6–18 mm long

humilis

71: Male spikes with 4–11 whorls per cm, 1–9 cm long

72

72 Furrows glabrous

73

72: Furrows pubescent

88

73 Male spikes moniliform

74

73: Male spikes dense, not moniliform

81

74 Teeth erect, appressed

75

74: Teeth spreading or erect but not appressed and often with some apices spreading

76

75 Phyllichnia rounded with pale median line (W.A.)

lehmanniana

75: Phyllichnia angular with well-defined white median ridge (S.A., Vic.)

muelleriana

76 Usually monoecious

monilifera

76: Usually dioecious

77

77 Articles 0.5–0.7 mm diam., with phyllichnia rounded, without a waxy bloom; teeth 0.2–0.5 mm long (N.S.W.)

glareicola

77: Articles 0.6–1.3 mm diam., with phyllichnia angular or occasionally rounded; teeth 0.4–1.2 mm long

78

78 Articles with a waxy bloom (Vic.)

grampiana

78: Articles with only a faint waxy bloom or none

79

79 Teeth recurved to erect, mostly marcescent (Qld, N.S.W.)

80

79: Teeth erect to spreading, mostly not marcescent (Tas.)

zephyrea

80 Articles 10–14 mm long; teeth erect to slightly spreading

rigida

80: Articles 13–20 mm long; teeth recurved to spreading

portuensis

81 Teeth marcescent (W.A.)

tessellata

81: Teeth not marcescent or occasionally so at very apex

82

82 Teeth spreading to erect, mostly at least the apex spreading; phyllichnia strongly rounded to angular without well-defined median ridge

83

82: Teeth erect, appressed to somewhat incurved

86

83 Articles 0.5–0.8 mm diam., of nearly same diam. throughout length, without a waxy bloom (Vic.)

media

83: Articles 0.6–1.3 mm diam., mostly enlarged at apex, often with a waxy bloom

84

84 Anther 0.7–1.2 mm long; teeth narrowly deltoid

85

84: Anther 0.5–0.8 mm long; teeth broadly deltoid (N.S.W.)

diminuta

85 Anther 0.8–1.2 mm long (N.S.W.)

ophiolitica

85: Anther 0.7–0.9 mm long (Tas.)

zephyrea

86 Phyllichnia rounded with pale median line

87

86: Phyllichnia strongly angular with well-defined median ridge (S.A., Vic.)

muelleriana

87 Male spikes with 5–8 whorls per cm; articles 0.7–1.2 mm diam., occasionally with a waxy bloom (W.A.)

lehmanniana

87: Male spikes with 9–11 whorls per cm; articles 0.3–0.8 mm diam., without a waxy bloom (Vic.)

misera

88 Teeth marcescent; articles usually with a strong waxy coating

campestris

88: Teeth not marcescent; articles sometimes somewhat waxy

89

89 Male whorls 3.5–6.5 per cm; articles 10–22 mm long

90

89: Male whorls 7–9.5 per cm, rarely 6 and then phyllichnia strongly angular; articles 3–12 mm long

92

90 Articles dark blue-green; phyllichnia angular to rounded

distyla

90: Articles pale yellow-green; phyllichnia rounded to angular

91

91 Articles 0.9–1.3 mm diam.; teeth 6, 0.5–1.1 mm long (N.S.W.)

simulans

91: Articles 1.2–2 mm diam,; teeth 7–10, 1.1–3 mm long (Tas.)

crassa

92 Phyllichnia and male bracts strongly angular (S.A., Vic.)

muelleriana

92: Phyllichnia and male bracts angular to strongly rounded (Qld)

93

93 Articles 4–8 mm long; anther 0.8–0.9 mm long

emuina

93: Articles 7–12 mm long; anther 0.6–0.8 mm long

thalassoscopica

94 Articles verruculose

95

94: Articles smooth

100

95 Articles short and slender, 4–7 mm long, 0.5–0.6 mm diam.; bark very ribbony-fibrous

inophloia

95: Articles 8–40 mm long, 0.7–2 mm diam.; bark smooth to furrowed

96

96 Teeth spreading; phyllichnia rounded; branchlets drooping; male bracteoles usually falling as a unit with the 1 or 2 perianth segments

97

96: Teeth erect; phyllichnia flat or slightly rounded; branchlets ascending; male bracteoles falling individually

98

97 Articles 15–40 mm long, 0.7–1.5 mm diam.; anther 1.2–2.5 mm long (S.A., N.S.W. to Tas.)

verticillata

97: Articles 8–13 mm long, 0.8–0.9 mm diam.; anther 0.8–1.2 mm long (W.A.)

huegeliana

98 Monoecious; male bracteoles persistent; male spikes dense, 7 or 8 whorls per cm; articles 1–1.8 mm diam.

spinosissima

98: Dioecious

99

99 Male bracteoles deciduous; male spikes with 5–8 whorls per cm; articles 1.0–2.0 mm diam. (S.A., Qld to Vic.)

luehmannii

99: Male bracteoles persistent; male spikes usually less dense, with 3.5–6 whorls per cm; articles 0.7–1.2 mm diam. (W.A.)

acutivalvis

100 Articles 20–52 mm long

101

100: Articles less than 20 mm long

104

101 Teeth not overlapping

102

101: Teeth overlapping, 7–10 (Qld, N.S.W.)

rigida

102 Teeth 1.1–3 mm long

103

102: Teeth 0.6–1 mm long, 10–12 (W.A.)

globosa

103 Teeth 10–12; phyllichnia flat to slightly rounded (W.A.)

scleroclada

103: Teeth 7–10; phyllichnia strongly rounded (Tas.)

crassa

104 Teeth 1.5–3.5 mm long, not overlapping

105

104: Teeth less than 1.5 mm long

107

105 Phyllichnia angular; articles glabrous, 0.9–1.1 mm diam. (W.A.)

trichodon

105: Phyllichnia rounded, occasionally only slightly so

106

106 Phyllichnia rounded, if only slightly so then furrows densely pubescent; articles 0.7–1.3 mm diam. (S.A., Vic.)

mackliniana

106: Phyllichnia strongly rounded; articles pubescent in furrows, 1.2–2 mm diam. (Tas.)

crassa

107 Phyllichnia flat or slightly broadly rounded

108

107: Phyllichnia angular or strongly rounded

112

108 Teeth not overlapping; articles mostly with a waxy coating (W.A.)

109

108: Teeth overlapping; articles without a waxy coating or bloom (S.A., Vic.)

mackliniana

109 Articles 6–8 mm long; teeth 8–10

110

109: Articles 17–28 mm long; teeth 10–12

globosa

110 Male spikes with 10–16 whorls per cm

corniculata

110: Male spikes with 7–11 whorls per cm

111

111 Articles with a small but definite median ridge on phyllichnia

campestris

111: Articles without a ridge on phyllichnia

eriochlamys

112 Male spikes moniliform; teeth erect

113

112: Male spikes usually dense, occasionally moniliform but then teeth recurved to spreading

115

113 Teeth recurved to spreading, mostly marcescent (Qld, N.S.W.)

rigida

113: Teeth erect to spreading, mostly not marcescent (Tas.)

114

114 Usually dioecious; phyllichnia angular

zephyrea

114: Usually monoecious; phyllichnia rounded (strongly to slightly so)

monilifera

115 Teeth marcescent

116

115: Teeth generally not marcescent

120

116 Teeth erect, not overlapping (W.A.)

117

116: Teeth recurved to spreading, usually overlapping

118

117 Anther broader than long; male spikes with 7–8 whorls per cm

tessellata

117: Anther longer than broad; male spikes with 8.5–11 whorls per cm

campestris

118 Male spikes with 6–9 whorls per cm (S.A., Vic.)

mackliniana

118: Male spikes with 4–6.5 whorls per cm

119

119 Articles 10–25 mm long (Qld, N.S.W.)

rigida

119: Articles 6–14 mm long (Vic.)

paradoxa

120 Anther 0.7–1.2 mm long; teeth narrowly deltoid

121

120: Anther 0.5–0.8 mm long; teeth broadly to narrowly deltoid

diminuta

121 Anther 0.8–1.2 mm long (N.S.W.)

ophiolitica

121: Anther 0.7–0.9 mm long (Tas.)

zephyrea

122 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

hystricosa

122 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

duncanii

 

Data derived from Flora of Australia volume 3 (1989), a product of ABRS, ©Commonwealth of Australia