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Flora of Australia Online

SYNAPHEA

A.S.George

Synaphea R.Br., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 155 (1810); from the Greek synaphe (a connection), in reference to the column connecting the stigma and the sterile filament

Type: Synaphea polymorpha R.Br.; lecto, fide A.S.George, Fl. Australia 16: 487 (1995).

Small shrubs. Adult leaves usually pinnatipartite, sometimes pinnate, simple or little-divided; petiole with sheathing base; secondary venation a fine reticulum. Flowers bisexual, in terminal or axillary spikes, each solitary, subtended by a bract. Perianth tubular, zygomorphic, yellow, opening in upper third to half; adaxial tepal longest and broadest, hooded; lateral 2 falcate; abaxial smallest, usually with a small, reflexed tip. Stamens on short, thick filaments; adaxial sterile; 2 lateral 1-locular; abaxial 2-locular; pollen ejected mechanically. Stigma plate-like or narrow, usually 2-lobed and with a narrow, semitranslucent border, dorsally attached from its base to sterile filament by a narrow column; ovary 1-locular, sessile, in all but 1 species with an apical ring of large, translucent glands; ovule 1. Fruit an obovoid, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, crustaceous nut. 

Endemic in south-western W.A. 

The Flora of Australia recognised the genus with 50 species, but research is continuing towards resolving several species complexes as well as the infrasectional classification in sect. Synaphea. Since publication of the Flora of Australia the Australian Plant Census lists 52 species.

Plants sometimes with fire-tolerant rootstock, sometimes suckering. Leaf morphology is extraordinarily varied whereas flower colour is relatively uniform. First seedling and regrowth leaves (in species for which these stages are known) are always simple and entire. In many species, particularly those with inflorescences greatly exceeding the foliage, the spikes elongate markedly during development; in the descriptions below, length of spike and flower density are taken at an early- to mid-flowering stage. The flowers are scentless or in some species possibly faintly scented. At anthesis the anthers and stigma are held tightly together under tension; on being touched, the stigma flicks across and the pollen is ejected (as in Conospermum ). Thus the style end is not a passive pollen presenter as in many Proteaceae. The purpose of the translucent glands on the apex of the ovary is unknown. Pollinators are also unknown. Seed set in most species, even fire-sensitive ones, is low.

For the leaves, only those of flowering stems are described. Upper leaves are usually smaller than lower. In addition to general shape and division, the three-dimensional form of the leaf varies between species: the terms 'flat', 'undulate' and 'multiplanar' are used, the last for leaves in which the lobes (which may be flat or concave) are held in various planes. The appearance of the reticulate leaf venation is described from the dried state when differences between species are more marked than in the fresh state. The tip of the abaxial tepal is usually reflexed and is described only when there is a significant difference from that state. Measurements of floral parts were taken from pickled or soaked flowers. The length of the stigma includes the apical lobes or horns.

A.S.George, Intr. Proteaceae W. Australia 104–107 (1984); J.W.Wrigley & M.Fagg, Banksias, Waratahs & Grevilleas 532–536 (1989).

KEY TO SECTIONS

1 Stigma divided to half-way or more into 2 narrow, erect or incurved horns; leaves cuneate, obovate or oblanceolate, entire or acutely dentate or shortly lobed

sect. BICORNIS

1: Stigma entire, 2-lobed or emarginate at apex, sometimes 2-horned but then either less than half-way and with leaves deeply divided with obtuse (rarely acute) lobes or the horns divergent

2

2 Leaves pinnatisect

sect. PINNATA

2: Leaves pinnatipartite, cuneate or simple

3

3 Ovary with apical ring of translucent glands

sect. SYNAPHEA

3: Ovary without apical glands

sect. OULOPHA

KEY TO SPECIES

1 Stigma divided to half-way or more into 2 narrow horns

2

1: Stigma entire to emarginate or 2-lobed to less than a half

9

2 Leaf lamina deeply divided into linear to lanceolate, obtuse (rarely acute) lobes

3

2: Leaf lamina entire to dentate or shortly lobed with triangular lobes

4

3 Shrub to 60 cm tall; petiole to 20 cm long; peduncle to 35 cm long; fruit 5–6 mm long [Perth to Busselton and E to Cape Arid]

petiolaris

3: Shrub to 1 m tall; petiole often 20–30 cm long; peduncle to 60 cm long; fruit 8–9 mm long [Scott R.]

nexosa

4 Leaves obovate to oblanceolate

5

4: Leaves cuneate

7

5 Adaxial tepal 4.2 mm long; spikes greatly exceeding leaves [Busselton area]

petiolaris

5: Adaxial tepal 6–6.5 mm long; spikes not or only shortly exceeding leaves

6

6 Leaves finely pitted; bracts 1.5 mm long; stigma 1.2–1.5 mm long [Rocky Gully to Bremer Bay]

favosa

6: Leaves shallowly reticulate; bracts 3–3.5 mm long; stigma 1.5–2 mm long [Yallingup to Kojonup]

floribunda

7 Stigmatic horns divergent [York to Collie]

cuneata

7: Stigmatic horns erect or incurved

8

8 Leaves concolorous; bracts 2.5–3 mm long; stigma 1.5–2 mm long [Albany to Stirling Ra. and Fitzgerald R.]

reticulata

8: Leaves discolorous; bracts 3–6 mm long; stigma 1.7–2.5 mm long [Busselton, Collie]

hians

9 Leaves pinnatisect [Darling Scarp E of Perth]

pinnata

9: Leaves pinnatipartite, deeply forked, cuneate or flabelliform, sometimes simple

10

10 Ovary without apical glands [NE of Eneabba]

oulopha

10: Ovary with an apical ring of translucent glands

11

11 Leaves once or twice bifurcate [E of Hyden]

bifurcata

11: Leaves otherwise

12

12 Leaves cuneate, flabelliform, narrowly obovate or lanceolate in outline, entire or dentate or lobed to less than one third lamina length

13

12: Leaves pinnatipartite or tripartite or widely forked or divided

19

13 Adaxial tepal 6.5–7.5 mm long; abaxial tepal 6–6.5 mm long

incurva

13: Adaxial tepal 3–6.5 mm long; abaxial tepal 2.8–5.5 mm long

14

14 Leaves entire or 2–3-lobed, obtusely rounded, not mucronate or pungent [S of Wickepin]

platyphylla

14: Leaves dentate or multi-lobed, the lobes acute or obtuse, usually mucronate or pungent

15

15 Adaxial tepal 3–3.5 mm long [Toodyay to Narrogin and Wickepin]

flabelliformis

15: Adaxial tepal 5–6.5 mm long

16

16 Stigma 1.5 mm long [N of L. Muir]

decumbens

16: Stigma 0.7–1.1 mm long

17

17 Leaves broadly cuneate in outline but 3-lobed; primary lobes also with 2 or 3 dentate lobes; stigma lunate [Nannup area]

otiostigma

17: Leaves flabelliform, dentate to shortly lobed across apex; stigma trapeziform or transversely oblong

18

18 Leaf lamina to 10 cm long; peduncle to 12 cm long; stigma shallowly notched [Armadale to Dryandra and Collie]

damopsis

18: Leaf lamina to 18 cm long; peduncle to 30 cm long; stigma prominently 2-lobed [lower Blackwood R.]

macrophylla

19 Inflorescence not or shortly exceeding foliage; peduncles all or mostly less than 10 cm long, often less than 5 cm

20

19: Inflorescence much exceeding foliage; peduncle elongated, usually more than 10 cm long

40

20 Stems usually less than 20 cm long; at least some petioles 7 cm or longer

21

20: Stems usually 30–50 cm long; petiole usually less than 4 cm long, rarely some to 8 cm

30

21 Stigma 1.5–2 mm long

22

21: Stigma 0.6–1.1 mm long

23

22 Leaf lobes ±triangular to lanceolate, acute; abaxial tepal 6 mm long [Albany to Stirling Ra.]

preissii

22: Leaf lobes broadly linear, usually obtusely rounded; abaxial tepal 5–5.5 mm long [Collie to Walpole and Albany, also Lort R.]

obtusata

23 Stigma 0.3–0.4 mm wide [Moora area]

quartzitica

23: Stigma 0.7–1.2 mm wide

24

24 Leaves 3–5 times forked, the lobes curved to flexuose; perianth ±horizontal [Kulin, Nyabing]

flexuosa

24: Leaves pinnatipartite or once or twice tripartite, the lobes usually straight; perianth ascending

25

25 Adaxial tepal 4.8–6 mm long; abaxial tepal 3.5–4.2 mm long

26

25: Adaxial tepal 3.5–4.8 mm long; abaxial tepal 2.8–3.1 mm long

28

26 Leaves mostly tripartite, the primary lobes also often tripartite, ±flat [S of Hyden]

tripartita

26: Leaves pinnatipartite, ±multiplanar or very undulate

27

27 Ultimate leaf lobes linear to lanceolate; adaxial tepal 1.5–2 mm wide; stem appressed-tomentose [Wubin to Frank Hann Natl Park]

interioris

27: Ultimate leaf lobes broadly triangular; adaxial tepal 2–2.3 mm wide; stem hirsute and spreading-tomentose [Quairading, Corrigin and Katanning]

drummondii

28 Inflorescence few-flowered, well within foliage [S coast E from Fitzgerald R.]

oligantha

28: Inflorescence many-flowered, at least partly exserted beyond foliage

29

29 Leaves multiplanar; peduncle 1–3 cm long; adaxial tepal 4–4.2 mm long [Tarin Rock to Lake Grace]

parviflora

29: Leaves ±flat; peduncle 2.5–12 cm long; adaxial tepal 4.4–4.8 mm long [Frank Hann Natl Park to Israelite Bay]

divaricata

30 All leaf lobes 0.5–1.5 mm wide, very concave or channelled above

31

30: At least primary leaf lobes 2–7 mm wide, if narrower then flat or almost so

33

31 Perianth glabrous; stigma oblong, 0.4 mm wide [S of Rocky Gully]

intricata

31: Perianth hairy at least in lower half; stigma ovate, obovate, elliptic, transversely oblong or square, 0.7–1 mm wide

32

32 Adaxial tepal 5 mm long [Eneabba to Dowerin]

spinulosa

32: Adaxial tepal 3.8–4.6 mm long [E of Newdegate]

canaliculata

33 Stigma 0.5–0.6 mm wide, constricted in middle; rachis glabrous or sparsely puberulous [Wongan Hills to Bendering]

constricta

33: Stigma 0.7–1.7 mm wide, not or slightly constricted; rachis clearly hairy

34

34 Stigma 1.4–1.8 mm long [Albany to Fitzgerald River Natl Park]

polymorpha

34: Stigma 0.7–1.2 mm long

35

35 Stigma minutely emarginate [Mt Lesueur area]

lesueurensis

35: Stigma broadly and shallowly emarginate to 2-lobed

36

36 Leaves ±flat, with flat lobes; perianth glabrous, glabrous in upper half only, or sparsely pilose [S of Hyden]

37

36: Leaves multiplanar to undulate with concave lobes; perianth pubescent to puberulous, sometimes glabrous towards apex

38

37 Leaf lobes prominently acuminate; adaxial tepal 1.5–1.8 mm wide; stems silky, glabrescent

cervifolia

37: Leaf lobes shortly acute to obtuse; adaxial tepal 2–2.2 mm wide; stems tomentose

tripartita

38 Peduncle 4–9 cm long [Coomallo to Badgingarra]

endothrix

38: Peduncle 1–3.5 cm long

39

39 Stigma ovate to obovate or transversely elliptic [widespread, Kalbarri to Esperance]

spinulosa

39: Stigma oblong-trapeziform with slight median constriction [S coast, Cheyne Beach to Howick Hill]

media

40 Stigma horned, deeply lobed or broadly V-shaped

41

40: Stigma emarginate to entire

44

41 Stigmatic lobes reflexed; adaxial tepal 6–6.5 mm long [Northampton area]

recurva

41: Stigmatic lobes erect; adaxial tepal 3.5–5.5 mm long

42

42 Leaf lobes rounded [Darling Ra.]

petiolaris

42: Leaf lobes acute

43

43 Leaf lobes concave; adaxial tepal 4.5–5 mm long [Pinjarra]

stenoloba

43: Leaf lobes flat; adaxial tepal 3.5–4 mm long [Byford, Serpentine and S of Bunbury]

odocoileops

44 Stigma 1.3–2.2 mm long

45

44: Stigma 0.7–1.2 mm long

48

45 Stigma not incurved at apex; spikes 2–3 cm long [Whicher Ra.]

whicherensis

45: Stigma incurved at apex; spikes longer than 3 cm

46

46 Stigma 1.6–1.7 mm wide; abaxial tepal 4.5 mm long [Boyagin]

boyaginensis

46: Stigma 1–1.3 mm wide; abaxial tepal 5–6.5 mm long

47

47 Abaxial tepal 5 mm long; all leaves pinnatipartite; stems pubescent [Muchea to Bindoon]

grandis

47: Abaxial tepal 6–6.5 mm long; usually pinnatipartite and simple and/or few-lobed leaves present; stems pilose and pubescent [Albany area]

incurva

48 Ovary glabrous or with a few hairs at base [Mogumber to Calingiri]

rangiferops

48: Ovary hairy throughout or in lower half

49

49 Perianth ±horizontal; stigmatic lobes reflexed [Northampton area]

recurva

49: Perianth ascending; stigmatic lobes erect [S of Mt Adams]

50

50 Petiole always 7 cm long or less

51

50: At least some petioles 8–20 cm long or more

52

51 Stigma ovate, minutely emarginate; adaxial tepal 3.8–5 mm long [Mt Lesueur area]

lesueurensis

51: Stigma obovate, broadly and shallowly emarginate; adaxial tepal 5.5–6 mm long [Coomallo–Badgingarra]

endothrix

52 Bracts 2.5–3 mm long [near Eneabba and Gillingarra]

sparsiflora

52: Bracts 0.8–2 mm long

53

53 Abaxial tepal 2.3–2.5 mm long; stigma 0.7–0.8 mm wide [Darling Scarp E of Perth]

acutiloba

53: Abaxial tepal 3–4.5 mm long; stigma 0.9–1.6 mm wide

54

54 Leaves somewhat flabelliform or cuneate in outline; stem and petiole hirsute

55

54: Leaves not flabelliform or cuneate in outline; stem and petiole pubescent, puberulous, tomentose or ±glabrous

56

55 Stigma ±orbicular to ovate, emarginate [between Quairading, Corrigin and Katanning]

drummondii

55: Stigma broadly lunate, the lobes somewhat bent back [Nannup area]

otiostigma

56 Leaves finely and deeply reticulate; fruit c. 2 mm long [rare, Tammin area]

tamminensis

56: Leaves broadly and shallowly reticulate; fruit (where known) 4–7 mm long

57

57 Stigma almost square to obtrapeziform, 0.9–1.1 mm long, 1.5–1.6 mm wide; adaxial tepal 5.5–6 mm long, 2.5 mm wide; abaxial tepal 4 mm long; leaves glaucous [Chittering to Collie]

decorticans

57: Flowers not as above; leaves not glaucous

58

58 Leaf lobes rounded at apex [Walpole to E of Esperance]

petiolaris

58: Leaf lobes acute to pungent, or if obtuse then not rounded

59

59 Stigma orbicular to broadly ovate, 1 mm long, 0.9–1 mm wide; adaxial tepal 2–2.2 mm wide; bracts 1.5–1.8 mm long; leaves drying yellowish [Eneabba to Gillingarra]

aephynsa

59: Stigma transversely oblong-lunate or obtrapeziform; adaxial tepal 1.5–2 mm wide; bracts 1–1.5 mm long; leaves not drying yellowish

60

60 Ultimate leaf lobes linear to narrowly lanceolate, obtuse to acute; stigma transversely oblong-lunate, 0.8–1 mm long, 1–1.5 mm wide; abaxial tepal 3.5–4.5 mm long [common, Bindoon to Margaret R. and Albany]

gracillima

60: Ultimate leaf lobes triangular, acute to pungent; stigma obtrapeziform, 0.7–0.9 mm long, 0.9–1 mm wide; abaxial tepal 3 mm long [Bindoon to Mogumber]

panhesya

61 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

xela

61 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

brachyceras

 

Data derived from Flora of Australia Volumes 16 (1995), 17A (2000) and 17B (1999), products of ABRS, ©Commonwealth of Australia