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Flora of Australia Online


R.M.Barker, L.Haegi, W.R.Barker

Hakea Schrad. & J.C.Wendl., Sert. Hannov. 27 (Dec. 1797); named after Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake (1745–1818), a German patron of science and a Councillor in Hannover

Type: Hakea glabra Schrad. & J.C.Wendl.

Conchium Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 215 (May 1798). T: not designated.

?Icmane Raf., Autik. Bot. 141 (1840). T: Icmane nerifolia Raf.

Mercklinia Regel, Index Sem. Hortus Bot. Petrop. 25 (1856). T: Mercklinia rosea Regel

[Banksia auct. non L.f.: R.A.Salisbury, Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton 51 (1796), p.p. as to Banksia teretifolia ; J.E.Smith, in J.White, J. Voy. New South Wales 224 (1790), p.p. only as to Banksia gibbosa

[Lambertia auct. non Sm.: C.F. von Gaertner, Suppl. Carp. 2: 213 (1807), p.p. as to Lambertia teretifolia

[Embothrium auct. non J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.: H.C.Andrews, Bot. Repos. 3: t. 215 (1802), p.p. , only with respect to Embothrium salignum

[Anadenia auct. non R.Br.: J.Lindley, Sketch Veg. Swan R. 30 (1839), p.p. only with respect to Anadenia hakeoides (? = Hakea undulata )] 

Shrubs or small trees with 2-armed hairs. Young growth glabrous or hairy; hairs persistent or quickly glabrescent. Leaves sessile, sometimes cupped about stem, or with attenuate base resembling petiole, simple or compound, flat or terete, longitudinally grooved or not, toothed or entire; both surfaces similar; venation conspicuous or obscure. Inflorescence developing within a cone of involucral bracts or not, usually axillary, rarely from older wood or terminal, few-flowered umbelliform racemes on short rachis, sometimes many-flowered on elongated rachis. Flowers pedicellate, usually paired, straight or curved in bud. Tepals splitting to base or remaining fused and splitting adaxially only. Hypogynous gland semicircular or a curved flap, rarely absent. Pistil glabrous; ovary stipitate or subsessile, 2-ovulate; pollen presenter erect, oblique or lateral, discoid or conical with narrow or broad basal flange. Fruit a modified follicle, variously woody, often beaked, sometimes horned, usually tardily dehiscent; valves splitting fully or partly down one or both sides. Seed occupying whole valve or marginal, collateral, flattened on one side, with a distal to encircling wing clasped between valves. 

A genus of 149 species, all endemic to Australia and occurring throughout the continent, but particularly rich in south-western W.A and along the eastern coast of Australia. 

J.E.Smith, A botanical sketch of the genus Conchium, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 9: 117–125 (1808); J.Knight & R.A.Salisbury, Hakea , Cult. Prot. 105–109 (1809); R.Brown, On the Proteaceae of Jussieu, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 15–226 (1810); R.Brown, Suppl. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Hol l. 25–31 (1830); C.D.F.Meisner, in J.G.C.Lehmann, Pl. Preiss. 1: 555–578 (1845); C.D.F.Meisner, in A.L.P.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 393–419 (1856); G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 5: 489–532 (1870); F.L.E.Diels & E.G.Pritzel, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 35: 158–166 (1904); W.R.Barker, Taxonomic notes on Hakea Schrader (Proteaceae), mainly relating to South Australia, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 7: 233–247 (1985); W.E.Blackall & B.J.Grieve, How to Know Western Australian Wildflowers 1: 110–141 (1988); J.W.Wrigley & M.Fagg, Banksias, Waratahs & Grevilleas , pp. 354–413 (1989); W.R.Elliot & D.L.Jones, Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants 5: 186–239 (1990); R.M.Barker, New species, new combinations and other name changes in Hakea (Proteaceae), J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 13: 95–110 (1991a); R.M.Barker, Towards a revision of the Hakea epiglottis Labill. (Proteaceae) complex of Tasmania, in M.R.Banks, et al. (eds), Aspects of Tasmanian Botany: a tribute to Winifred Curtis , pp. 79–84, Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart (1991b); W.R.Barker, Novelties and taxonomic notes relating to Hakea Sect. Hakea (Proteaceae), mainly of eastern Australia, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 17: 177–209 (1996); R.M.Barker, The Hakea pedunculata group of species (Proteaceae) and a new subspecies of Hakea stenophyll a A.Cunn. ex R.Br., Nuytsia 12: 1–8 (1998).

1 Inflorescences pendent elongated racemes of 25–120 flowers on long rachises (fruits beaked for 1/3 to 1/2 of length, usually a number developing on each rachis, not noticeably woody and not persisting)


1: Inflorescences not pendent, or if pendent, then rachis short and flowers less than 35


2 Leaves flat with obvious longitudinal venation, petiolate; many-stemmed trees or shrubs, lacking thick deeply fissured bark; rachis 4–7 cm long

Trineura Group

2: Leaves simple- or compound-terete or, more rarely, flat with only marginal and midveins visible, sessile; usually single-stemmed; gnarled trees or large shrubs often with thick deeply fissured bark; rachis 2–25 cm long

Lorea Group

3 Inflorescence borne at apex of a bare peduncle 2–25 mm long (pedicel and perianth pubescent; involucre lacking, individual flower pairs subtended by early deciduous bracts; leaves flat or terete, with venation obscure (northern tropical Australia and W coast of W.A., N of Murchison R.)

Pedunculata Group

3: Inflorescence not borne at apex of a bare peduncle


4 Pedicel and perianth evenly pubescent throughout


4: Pedicel and perianth both glabrous or pedicel pubescent and perianth glabrous or with much sparser hair covering than pedicel


5 Fruits not distinctly woody, not retained on bush on a thickened branch; seed occupying almost whole valve; leaves flat or compound- or simple-terete


5: Fruits distinctly woody, retained on bush on a thickened branch; seed not occupying whole valve; leaves flat or simple terete (mixed with occasional compound-terete leaves in H. preissii )


6 Pollen presenter lateral; leaves compound-terete (sometimes mixed with simple terete leaves and/or flat leaves in H. trifurcata ) or flat; fruits either resembling flat leaves or with obliquely inserted beak, not horned (W.A.)

Trifurcata Group

6: Pollen presenter oblique; leaves simple terete, rarely with some flattened leaves as well; fruit not resembling leaves, not obliquely beaked, often horned

Microcarpa Group

7 Fruits recurved at base and apex, ±S-shaped


7: Fruits not recurved basally and apically, not S-shaped


8 Wing apical (H. eriantha ) or down one side of seed body only; leaves terete or flat; perianth at least 2.5 mm long


8: Wing encircling seed body; leaves narrowly linear, trigonous or terete; perianth less than 2.6 mm long

Incrassata Group

9 Pollen presenter oblique or conical; leaves terete, except H. cyclocarpa from south-western W.A. which has flat leaves; fruit strongly S-shaped (southern Australia)

Rostrata Group

9: Pollen presenter lateral; leaves flat; fruit not strongly S-shaped (eastern Australia)

Eriantha Group

10 Leaves flat


10: Leaves simple-terete or narrowly linear (H. orthorhhyncha ), not toothed or lobed


11 Leaves lobed or unlobed, toothed at least partly, not twisted at base (W.A.)

Ceratophylla Group

11: Leaves entire, twisted through 180° at base (W.A.)

Incrassata Group

12 Pollen presenter a lateral disc (W.A.)

Platysperma Group

12: Pollen presenter an oblique disc


13 Mature fruit encircled with toothed crest in basal half, long-apiculate (eastern Australia)

Teretifolia Group

13: Mature fruit lacking toothed crest in basal half; apiculum, if present, short or above corky outgrowths of fruit body


14 Mature fruit lacking horns, often with corky outgrowths; gland prominent, U-shaped (small in H. brachyptera ) (W.A.)

Obliqua Group

14: Mature fruit with horns, lacking corky outgrowths; gland a rectangular flap


15 At least some inflorescences arising from old rachises of previous years

Strumosa Group

15: Inflorescences not arising from old rachises of previous years

Sericea Group

16 Leaves flat or simple- or compound-terete; flat leaves obscurely veined; simple-terete leaves lacking 3–12 longitudinal grooves (i.e. not 3–12-angled in cross-section); fruit with or without horns


16: Leaves flat or simple-terete; flat leaves prominently veined, terete leaves 3–12-grooved longitudinally (i.e. 3–12 angled in cross-section); fruit always without horns (pollen presenter erect, conical)


17 Buds straight; pollen presenter conical; pedicel and perianth glabrous; fruit with horns (W.A.)


17: Buds curved; pollen presenter an oblique or lateral disc, rarely (Varia and Ruscifolia p.p. Groups) conical and erect; pedicel glabrous or pubescent; perianth glabrous or with sparser hairs than pedicel; fruit with or without horns


18 Fruit often on recurved stalk; new branchlets arising from rachis of inflorescence, glabrous or pubescent (sect. Manglesioides )

Lissocarpha Group

18: Fruit erect; new branchlets not arising from rachis of inflorescence, pubescent

Strumosa Group

19 Leaves simple-terete ('Needlewoods'), rarely (H. preissii and H. purpurea ) some compound-terete also present


19: Leaves flat or elliptic in cross-section, often dentate or divided into spine-tipped segments


20 Fruit not markedly woody, opening fully down both sides and valves recurving, smooth, not on a thickened branch, often lost very quickly from plant; seed occupying almost whole valve

Microcarpa Group

20: Fruit distinctly woody, not opening fully down both sides and valves not recurving, smooth to tuberculate, borne on a thickened branch and long persistent; seed not occupying whole valve


21 Tepals remaining fused, splitting to base only between upper pair of tepals; flowers pink or red; pistil more than 14 mm long (pedicel and perianth glabrous)

Verrucosa Group

21: Tepals not remaining fused, splitting to base between all 4; flowers white, yellow, red or pink; pistil less than 14 mm long


22 Pedicel pubescent; perianth glabrous or with sparser hair covering than pedicel


22: Pedicel glabrous; perianth glabrous


23 Inflorescence terminal and axillary

Strumosa Group

23: Inflorescence axillary only


24 Perianth 2.5–7.2 mm long; pistil 4–12 mm long

Sericea Group

24: Perianth 1.5–2.2 mm long; pistil 3–4.5 mm long

Nodosa Group

25 Fruits horned, not or obliquely beaked

Strumosa Group

25: Fruits obscurely horned, distinctly beaked

Sericea Group

26 Most leaves spine-toothed for at least part of length, rarely in some populations of H. varia , H. florida (Varia Group) and H. linearis (Linearis Group) the majority of leaves entire but some spine-toothed leaves present; H. oleifolia (Varia Group) usually has the majority of leaves entire but some spine-toothed leaves present


26: Leaves entire


27 Pollen presenter conical; fruit clearly horned (leaves elliptic in cross-section, often with 1–8 mucronate segments or flat with regular or irregular marginal teeth, sometimes entire)

Varia Group

27: Pollen presenter an oblique disc; fruit horned or not


28 Young shoots arising from base of inflorescence, glabrous; fruit not green, clearly horned, smooth

Linearis Group

28: Young shoots not arising from base of inflorescence; fruit usually green, or at least of similar colour to subtending leaves, obviously horned or not, with prickles, protuberances or toothed ridge along sutures, the prickles sometimes scattered all over


29 Leaves often stem-clasping or cordate at base; fruit to 3.5 cm long, with scattered or dense prickles, obscurely horned

Prostrata Group

29: Leaves not stem-clasping at base; fruit 3.5–4.8 cm long, with crested ridges along sutures and abaxially, obviously horned

Cristata Group

30 Fruit 7–8.5 cm long (flowers white or pink, becoming red, often on older wood below leaves)

Megalosperma Group

30: Fruit less than 4 cm long


31 Inflorescences terminal; fruits not horned; leaves crowded into short cylindrical branches (south-western W.A.)

Ruscifolia Group

31: Inflorescences axillary (H. clavata has some terminal as well); fruits horned; leaves openly spaced on branchlets


32 Leaves not noticeably thickened; fruit tuberculate or pusticulate; flowers white or cream, 14–28 per inflorescence (eastern Australia)

Salicifolia Group

32: Leaves extremely thick, elliptic in cross-section; fruit ±smooth; flowers with claw pink, and limb grey outside, white inside, 60–80 per inflorescence (south-western W.A.)

Clavata Group

33 Fruit decurved on rachis; secondary venation visible between longitudinal veins


33: Fruits not decurved on rachis; secondary venation usually obscure (visible in H. victoria and H. acuminata where longitudinal veins coalesce at base into a cream or red patch, and in H. petiolaris where flowers are on old wood and pink)


34 Leaves flat or undulate, entire, crenate or toothed; pistil 3–10.5 mm long

Undulata Group

34: Leaves cupped or shell-like; margin entire or toothed; pistil 14–28 mm long (W.A.)

Cucullata Group

35 Leaves rigid, concave and usually whorled in flowering regions; margin entire or toothed; rachis knob-like; inflorescence subtended at base by persistent involucral bracts (W.A.)

Corymbosa Group

35: Leaves not rigid, flat or terete, not whorled in flowering regions; margin entire; rachis knob-like or elongate; inflorescence not subtended at base by persistent involucral bracts


36 Leaves flat, appearing petiolate; inflorescence a spherical or subspherical umbelliform raceme of 40–200 flowers, often on old wood (perianth pink; pistil 14–21 mm long; W.A.)

Petiolaris Group

36: Leaves flat, trigonous or terete, not petiolate; inflorescence an umbelliform or long simple raceme of 6–500 flowers, not spherical, rarely on old wood


37 Rachis knoblike; leaves flat or terete and then 3–12-grooved longitudinally (sulcate); seed wing encircling body or extending fully or partly down both sides of body

Ulicina Group

37: Rachis elongate; leaves flat; seed wing extending down one side of seed body only

Multilineata Group


Data derived from Flora of Australia Volumes 16 (1995), 17A (2000) and 17B (1999), products of ABRS, ©Commonwealth of Australia