Quick search (1 word):

 

Flora of Australia Online

BANKSIA

A.S.George

Banksia L.f., Suppl. Pl. 15 (1782), nom. cons. non J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. (1775); named for Joseph Banks (1743–1820), first European collector of banksias (in 1770), patron of science and President of the Royal Society (1778–1820)

Type: Banksia serrata L.f.; lecto, fide T.A.Sprague, Bull. Misc. Inform. 98 (1940).

Isostylis (R.Br.) Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. Phan. 10: 402 (1841); Banksia subg. Isostylis R.Br., Prodr. 396 (1810). T: based on Banksia ilicifolia but the combination not published in Isostylis.

Sirmuellera Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 581 (1891), based on Banksia L.f. T: Sirmuellera serrata (L.f.) Kuntze.

Trees or shrubs, some with prostrate stems. Leaves alternate, sometimes whorled. Flowers many in a dense cylindrical, ovoid or spherical inflorescence, in 3 species reduced and head-like, with a basal involucre of narrow, usually hairy bracts that commonly fall by anthesis; flowers in pairs, each flower subtended by a bract and each pair by a larger 'common bract'. Perianth of 4 ±equal tepals. Pistil usually wiry; pollen presenter scarcely delimited to markedly modified, commonly ribbed. Ovules 2. Fruit a woody follicle. Seeds 1 or 2, with an intermediary 2-winged plate of similar outline and size. Cotyledons with acute basal auricles. 

In the Flora of Australia publication treated as a genus of 76 species endemic in Australia except B. dentata which also occurs on islands to the north; 60 species are endemic in south-western W.A. The Australian Plant Census treats Dryandra as a synonym of Banksia and lists 173 species. 

As noted by George (1988), the correct date of publication for the name Banksia L.f. is April 1782, not 1781 as given by George (1981) and other authors. In the descriptions below, leaf characters refer to adult leaves. Overall follicle shape is described from a perspective directly above the follicle. The valves are then described in side view. Because the outline is given, plane shapes are used.

The infrageneric classification and systematic sequence presented here are modified from that of George (1981) and take into account new data revealed in the work of Thiele & Ladiges (1996). Series Bauerinae and ser. Quercinae are grouped with sect. Coccinea and all three placed next to sect. Oncostylis . Banksia tricuspis is placed in a new monotypic series. Within ser. Salicinae , B. canei and B. saxicola are now placed at the end, since I believe that, if we accept that Banksia had a tropical origin, their typically subalpine distribution indicates a recent origin. I believe that B. dentata is the most primitive extant species because of its relatively simple morphology and tropical habitat. From there my arrangement generally follows increasing diversity of form and tries to take account of distribution and habitat, although the straitjacket of a linear sequence cannot show a presumed real picture of the various lines evolving during the same time frame (a drawback also for presenting cladistic results).

Thiele & Ladiges (1996) proposed a classification based on subgenera, series and subseries, but I believe that, in subg. Banksia , it is more useful to recognise sections to distinguish the straight-styled from the hooked-styled species and, with the recent work of Maguire et al. (1996), accept B. coccinea at the same rank.

I disagree with Thiele & Ladiges' placement of a number of taxa, notably: placement of B. elderiana in ser. Tetragonae ; placement of the four orange-styled species of my ser. Crocinae in subser. Cratistylis ; with their allocation of species to subser. Acclives and Integrifoliae (B. dentata is clearly allied to B. integrifolia , not to the very distinctive B. robur ); and in their recognition of subser. Longistyles which remains heterogeneous by inclusion of such diverse species as B. violacea , B. tricuspis , B. pulchella and B. meisneri .

I prefer to group the hooked-styled species (sect. Oncostylis ) and not insert the straight-styled ser. Quercinae among them. Until further data tell us otherwise, I prefer a broader grouping than that offered by Thiele & Ladiges (1996). In their systematic sequence, the placement of subg. Isostylis at the beginning is due to its resemblance to the related genus Dryandra , but it may be argued just as validly that this subgenus is advanced and that Dryandra may have evolved from it; I believe that the resemblance of Isostylis to Dryandra may be more superficial than is now thought. Thiele & Ladiges then place a number of series early in their sequence as being related to or derived from subg. Isostylis , before placing ser. Salicinae (which I consider the most primitive extant group) well along the line. Apart from ser. Quercinae as mentioned above, the two systems then generally agree in placing the hooked-styled species after the straight-styled ones (except that my system places subg. Isostylis at the end).

Since publication of the Flora of Australia treatment the Australian Plant Census treats Dryandra as a synonym of Banksia. As a result there are some changes to the subgeneric concepts given in the Flora of Australia account.

R.Brown, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 202–211 (1810); R.Brown, Prodr. 391–396 (1810); R.Brown, Suppl. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 34–37 (1830); C.D.F.Meisner, in A.L.P.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 451–467 (1856); G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 5: 541–562 (1870); A.S.George, The genus Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae), Nuytsia 3: 239–474 (1981); A.S.George, New taxa and notes on Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae), Nuytsia 6: 309–317 (1988); A.S.George, Notes on Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae), Nuytsia 11: 21–24 (1996); A.S.George, The Banksia Book (1984, 2nd edn 1987, 3rd edn 1996); C.E.Rosser & A.S.George, Banksias vol. I (1981), vol. II (1988), vol. III (in press); A.Taylor & S.Hopper, The Banksia Atlas (1988); M.Sedgley, M.Sierp, M.A.Wallwork, A.M.Fuss & K.Thiele, Pollen presenter and pollen morphology of Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae), Austral. J. Bot. 41: 439–464 (1993); K.R.Thiele & P.Y.Ladiges, A cladistic analysis of Banksia (Proteaceae), Austral. Syst. Bot. 9: 661–733 (1996); T.L.Maguire, M.Sedgley & J.G.Conran, Banksia sect. Coccinea (Proteaceae), a new section, Austral. Syst. Bot. 9: 887–891 (1996); A.R.Mast, Molecular systematics of subtribe Banksiinae (Banksia and Dryandra ; Proteaceae) based on cpDNA and nrDNA sequence data: implications for taxonomy and biogeography, Austral. Syst. Bot. 11: 321–342 (1998).

KEY TO INFRAGENERIC TAXA

1 Inflorescence head-like, containing up to c. 100 flowers; axis ovoid, less than 1 cm long; perianth opening widely along adaxial suture, the other sutures not splitting or only very shortly so below limb; valves of follicles in side view obliquely ovate

subg. Isostylis

1: Inflorescence cylindrical, ovoid or spherical, containing 200–5000 flowers; axis to 30 cm long, commonly more than 2 cm; perianth in most species opening ±equally and deeply between all tepals; valves of follicles in side view commonly semi-elliptic, semi-circular or oblong, rarely obliquely ovate

subg. Banksia

1.1 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

subg. Spathulatae

2 Pistil after anthesis straight or gently curved, in some species kinked or sigmoid but the pollen presenter always erect; leaves usually flat but often with recurved margins

sect. Banksia

2: Pistil after anthesis clearly hooked below pollen presenter; leaves commonly narrowly linear with strongly recurved or revolute margins

sect. Oncostylis

3 Pistil before anthesis straight, or curved and then with pollen presenter vertical; pollen oblong or crescentic

4

3: Pistil strongly and horizontally twisted so that the pollen presenter is horizontal, with upper part of style prominently curved before anthesis, afterwards straightened; pollen elongate-cylindrical

sect. Coccinea

4 Follicle not beaked after opening

5

4: Follicle with a lateral beak after opening

7

5 Tepals awned

ser. Quercinae

5: Tepals not awned

6

6 Leaves entire, dentate or serrate; seed obovate, less than 20 mm long

ser. Salicinae

6: Leaves deeply triangular-lobed; seed cuneate, 20–40 mm long

ser. Grandes

7 Tepals awned

ser. Bauerinae

7: Tepals not awned

8

8 Plant with prostrate, commonly underground stems

ser. Prostratae

8: Plant erect or spreading with aerial stems

9

9 Inflorescence pendulous; perianth glabrous; pistil not laterally exserted between tepals before anthesis; tepals separating around pollen presenter but not immediately relaxing at anthesis; pollen presenter 4–8 mm long, muricate

ser. Tetragonae

9: Inflorescence erect (pendulous in B. elderiana ); perianth hairy at least in part; pistil usually laterally exserted between tepals before anthesis; tepals usually relaxed after anthesis; pollen presenter commonly less than 3 mm long, rarely to 5 mm

10

10 Perianth and pistil orange; perianth white-villous outside

ser. Crocinae

10: Perianth and pistil other colours, if orange then perianth not white-villous outside

11

11 Pollen presenter usually fusiform with a basal swelling, if not then small and ovoid; perianth robust; pistil hairy or papillose, prominently curved before anthesis

ser. Banksia

11: Pollen presenter only slightly thickened, without a basal swelling; perianth slender; pistil glabrous, rarely hirsute, straight or gently curved before anthesis

ser. Cyrtostylis

12 Inflorescence cylindrical; axis usually 8–20 cm long

13

12: Inflorescence spherical or ovoid; axis usually 2–10 cm long

14

13 Inflorescence sessile at apex of annual increment, subtended by whorl of branchlets; buds retaining regular pattern during development; perianth limb horizontal before anthesis; follicle mesocarp hard

ser. Spicigerae

13: Inflorescence on short lateral branchlet; buds losing regular pattern during development; perianth limb vertical before anthesis; follicle mesocarp spongy

ser. Tricuspidae

14 Leaves pinnatipartite

ser. Dryandroideae

14: Leaves linear, entire

ser. Abietinae

15 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

ser. Dryandra

KEY TO SPECIES

1 Style after anthesis hooked just below apex

2

1: Style remaining straight or gently curved, occasionally S-shaped below apex but pollen presenter always erect

25

2 Inflorescence cylindrical; axis 6–20 cm long

3

2: Inflorescence spherical or ovoid; axis 2–6 cm long

12

3 Leaves pinnatipartite

brownii

3: Leaves entire or dentate

4

4 Leaves narrowly linear with revolute margins, entire or shortly dentate towards apex

5

4: Leaves broadly linear, oblong or narrowly elliptic with flat to recurved margins

8

5 Leaves 9–20 mm long

ericifolia

5: Leaves 3–13 cm long

6

6 Leaves entire except an obtuse tooth each side of apical mucro; flowers soon falling; follicles 8–16 mm high

tricuspis

6: Leaves usually spinulose to serrate or dentate at least along upper margins; flowers persistent or soon falling; follicles 3–7 mm high

7

7 Leaves alternate; perianth 23–29 mm long; follicles flattened or rounded along suture (eastern Australia)

spinulosa

7: Leaves in whorls; perianth 13–18 mm long; follicles ±acute along suture (W.A.)

occidentalis

8 Leaves elliptic, entire, leathery

verticillata

8: Leaves linear or oblong, usually dentate to some extent, not leathery

9

9 Leaves linear with recurved margins

10

9: Leaves broadly linear to oblong, with recurved or almost flat margins

11

10 Leaves 10–23 cm long; perianth 25–27 mm long; style yellow

littoralis

10: Leaves 4–13 cm long; perianth 17–18 mm long; style metallic red

occidentalis

11 Perianth limb pubescent (eastern Australia)

spinulosa

11: Perianth limb glabrous (W.A.)

seminuda

12 Leaves with many triangular lobes; pistil 14–15 mm long

dryandroides

12: Leaves entire; pistil more than 16 mm long

13

13 Flowers opening from base of spike upwards; inflorescence pendulous

nutans

13: Flowers opening from apex of spike downwards; inflorescence erect

14

14 Leaves pubescent above, becoming scabrid

scabrella

14: Leaves smooth when mature

15

15 Perianth glabrous inside

16

15: Perianth hairy inside

19

16 Perianth 17–25 mm long; pollen presenter ovoid

17

16: Perianth 7–10 mm long; pollen presenter turbinate

18

17 Leaves 1.5–2 mm wide; perianth limb mostly glabrous; follicles wide, ±flattened across top

incana

17: Leaves c. 0.8 mm wide; perianth limb pubescent all over; follicle valves with an enlarged, thin vertical ridge

laricina

18 Stems sparsely hirsute, soon glabrous; perianths soon falling

pulchella

18: Stems tomentose; perianths persistent for some years

meisneri

19 Perianth 17–27 mm long

20

19: Perianth 30–55 mm long

22

20 Common bracts 7–8 mm long; perianth limb 4 mm long; follicles 4–7 mm wide, hirsute

telmatiaea

20: Common bracts 2.5–4 mm long; perianth limb 2–3 mm long; follicles 8–23 mm wide, ±flattened, closely pubescent becoming glabrous

21

21 Flowers pale yellow, the uppermost sometimes purplish; limb almost glabrous; follicles not sticky

micrantha

21: All flowers violet, sometimes green at base, rarely yellowish; limb pubescent; follicles ±sticky, at least when young

violacea

22 Common and floral bracts white; new growth reddish pink

lanata

22: Common and floral bracts rusty brown; new growth rusty brown

23

23 Leaves commonly 1.8–2.8 mm wide

grossa

23: Leaves 1–1.5 mm wide (rarely wider)

24

24 Branchlets tomentose; leaves soft; common bracts 7–10 mm long; follicles commonly 6–10 mm long, with valves smooth but hirsute; lignotuber absent

leptophylla

24: Branchlets pubescent, soon glabrous; leaves ±stiff, pungent; common bracts 6–7 mm long; follicles 10–25 mm wide, with lateral shoulders, hirsute, glabrescent; lignotuber present

sphaerocarpa

25 Inflorescence head-like, the axis compressed-ovoid, 5–30 mm long

26

25: Inflorescence cylindrical or spherical, the axis elongate, usually more than 3 cm long

29

26 Leaves obovate to cuneate, acutely dentate, deep green above

27

26: Leaves broadly linear, with many triangular dentate teeth, dull blue-green

elegans

27 Leaves 3–10 cm long; pistil 27–35 mm long

ilicifolia

27: Leaves 1–4 cm long; pistil 19–25 mm long

28

28 Leaves shining green above; flowers 20–35 per head

oligantha

28: Leaves dull green above; flowers 55–65 per head

cuneata

29 Tepals awned

30

29: Tepals not awned

32

30 Perianth 58–65 mm long; style kinked below apex

baueri

30: Perianth 20–29 mm long; style not kinked

31

31 Perianth ferruginous; leaves ±regularly prominently serrate, undulate; follicles 4–6 mm wide

quercifolia

31: Perianth pale mauve to pink; leaves entire to sparsely serrate, ±flat; follicles 10–18 mm wide

oreophila

32 Style prominently S-shaped below apex

sceptrum

32: Style straight or gently curved

33

33 Stems prostrate, rarely erect and then no more than 20 cm long

34

33: Stems erect or spreading, never all prostrate

40

34 Leaves dentate

35

34: Leaves pinnatipartite

37

35 Mature leaves white-tomentose below; perianth pink or reddish with cream limb

petiolaris

35: Mature leaves glabrous below except in stomatal pits; perianth ferruginous

36

36 Leaf teeth usually irregular; involucral bracts 2–4 cm long, long-hirsute

goodii

36: Leaf teeth regular; involucral bracts 1–3 cm long, tomentose or shortly hirsute

gardneri

37 Stems underground; leaf lobes ±cuneate, obtusely dentate

repens

37: Stems on surface, rarely underground; leaf lobes triangular, oblong or linear, entire

38

38 Leaves bluish green; perianth 28–32 mm long, reddish pink; claws loosely pubescent with short curled hairs

blechnifolia

38: Leaves deep or pale green; perianth 17–30 mm long, ferruginous, or cream and pink; claws hirsute with spreading hairs

39

39 Leaves divided 1/2–3/4 of way to midrib; lobes 1–3 cm long (W.A., Collie to Ravensthorpe)

gardneri

39: Leaves divided almost to midrib; lobes 3–8 cm long (W.A., Mogumber to Eneabba)

chamaephyton

40 Perianth glabrous

41

40: Perianth hairy at least on claws

46

41 Inflorescence pendulous

42

41: Inflorescence erect

44

42 Leaf lobes ±obtuse, 1–3 mm long

lemanniana

42: Leaf lobes pungently acute, 4–10 mm long

43

43 Leaf margins ±recurved, with lobes 4–6 mm long with rounded sinuses; perianth deep pink to red in upper half

caleyi

43: Leaf margins ±flat, with lobes 5–10 mm long with angular sinuses; perianth reddish pink in lower half, grading to cream, including limb

aculeata

44 Leaves cuneate, 2–6 cm long, with a few obtuse teeth; perianth red-maroon where exposed, otherwise pale greenish yellow

praemorsa

44: Leaves broadly linear, 6–10 cm long, with many teeth; perianth yellow

45

45 Perianth 15–22 mm long; styles curled against axis after flowering

attenuata

45: Perianth 35–43 mm long; styles remaining erect from axis, wiry

lindleyana

46 Style hairy at least in lowest third

47

46: Style glabrous or papillose (excluding any hairs on ovary)

51

47 Pistil 23–35 mm long

48

47: Pistil 40–50 mm long

50

48 Inflorescence pendulous

elderiana

48: Inflorescence erect

49

49 Perianth pubescent outside, glabrous inside; follicles smooth, 2.5–5 cm high; leaves 15–40 cm long with flat margins

candolleana

49: Perianth hirsute both sides; follicles warted, 15–20 mm high; leaves 5–16 cm long with recurved margins

pilostylis

50 Leaves with 4–7 lobes each side of midrib; margins flat

baxteri

50: Leaves with 15–30 lobes each side of midrib; margins recurved

speciosa

51 Leaves 4–10 cm wide, rarely narrower

52

51: Leaves commonly less than 3 cm wide

57

52 Leaves shortly dentate with many teeth

53

52: Leaves with large, triangular lobes

55

53 Leaves broadly oblong, cordate or obcordate, 3–9 cm long; perianth 30–32 mm long, villous outside; style scarlet, rarely orange or dark red; follicles 1–2 mm high

coccinea

53: Leaves narrowly obovate or elliptic, 9–30 cm long; perianth 22–32 mm long, closely pubescent; style yellow or cream; follicles 3–8 mm high

54

54 Leaves undulate, white-tomentose below, with teeth ±irregular and 5–10 mm long; follicles opening within a year; (northern Australia)

dentata

54: Leaves ±flat, pale green-tomentose below, with teeth ±regular and 2–3 mm long; follicles remaining closed for several years or until burnt (Atherton to Wollongong)

robur

55 Leaf lobes rounded; perianth brownish purple

solandri

55: Leaf lobes angular; perianth pale yellow or orange

56

56 Leaves 3–11 cm wide, pinnatisect with 8–12 lobes each side; perianth pale yellow; limb glabrous; follicles scarcely exserted from massive cone; old flowers soon falling

grandis

56: Leaves 2.5–4 cm wide, pinnatipartite with 16–20 lobes each side; perianth orange, tomentose throughout; follicles exserted from axis but hidden by persistent old flowers

victoriae

57 Perianth white- or pink-villous, orange inside; style orange

58

57: Perianth pubescent, silky or hirsute, or if villous then not white or pink; style variously coloured

61

58 Leaves dentate, with teeth 1–2 mm long

burdettii

58: Leaves triangular-lobed, with lobes 2–15 mm long

59

59 Leaves ascending, 6–16 cm long, 5–12 mm wide

hookeriana

59: Leaves spreading, 15–27 cm long, 10–40 mm wide

60

60 Leaf lobes 2–5 mm long; new leaves and involucral bracts pubescent to hirsute; old flowers soon falling

prionotes

60: Leaf lobes 10–15 mm long; new leaves and involucral bracts woolly; old flowers persistent in fruit

victoriae

61 Leaves usually entire

62

61: Leaves usually serrate or lobed

68

62 Leaves alternate

63

62: Leaves whorled

66

63 Leaves pungent, 2–5 cm long; follicles villous, glabrescent, most remaining closed for several years

canei

63: Leaves acute to truncate or emarginate, 1.5–20 cm long; follicles closely tomentose or loosely hirsute, commonly opening when mature

64

64 Leaves narrowly elliptic, narrowly obovate or lanceolate, 10–20 cm long, acute or obtuse; perianth 22–29 mm long (Qld)

65

64: Leaves linear, oblong or narrowly cuneate, 3–6 cm long, commonly truncate or emarginate, sometimes obtuse, rarely acute; perianth 16–24 mm long (S.A., N.S.W., Vic., Tas.)

marginata

65 New growth pale rusty-pubescent; leaves with a row of short, stiff brown hairs each side of abaxial midrib; flowers pale yellow; follicles erect, 8–12 mm long (Townsville to Cooktown)

aquilonia

65: New growth red-velvety; leaves without short, stiff brown hairs each side of abaxial midrib; flowers commonly pale blue-grey to mauve in late bud, dull yellow after anthesis; follicles turned upwards, 12–16 mm long (Hinchinbrook Is. and adjacent mainland)

plagiocarpa

66 Involucral bracts 10–20 mm long; perianths persistent in fruit (south-eastern Qld and adjacent N.S.W.)

conferta

66: Involucral bracts 2–10 mm long; perianths soon falling

67

67 Perianth 19–22 mm long; follicles remaining closed for several years, with lip 2–3 mm wide (Vic., The Grampians and Wilsons Promontory)

saxicola

67: Perianth 22–25 mm long; follicles opening within a year or so of anthesis, with lip 0.5–1.5 mm wide (widespread, eastern Australia from Mackay to Melbourne)

integrifolia

68 Flowers orange

69

68: Flowers other colours, not orange

71

69 Leaves 2–7 cm long; perianth limb densely hirsute

audax

69: Leaves 10–30 cm long; perianth limb pubescent

70

70 Leaves 5–10 mm wide; lobes separated by shallow sinuses parallel to midrib; perianth pubescent outside, 20–24 mm long (W.A., Mullewa to Kulja)

benthamiana

70: Leaves 20–40 mm wide; lobes triangular with V- or U-shaped sinuses; perianth 26–34 mm long (North West Cape to Mullewa)

ashbyi

71 Perianth 29–45 mm long

72

71: Perianth 15–26 mm long

79

72 Perianth limb glabrous; follicles ±rugose

73

72: Perianth limb pubescent, silky, hirsute or tomentose; follicles not rugose

75

73 Inflorescence ±spherical; pistil straight; old flowers falling; follicles rare

elegans

73: Inflorescence cylindrical; pistil curved; old flowers persistent; follicles many

74

74 Perianth 32–38 mm long; limb 3–4 mm long; pollen presenter c. 0.75 mm long; common and floral bracts brown

media

74: Perianth 40–44 mm long; limb 4.5–5.5 mm long; pollen presenter 1.5–1.8 mm long; common and floral bracts green

epica

75 At least some leaves more than 25 cm long, with widely spaced teeth (S & E of Southern Cross)

lullfitzii

75: Leaves not or rarely more than 20 cm long, with closely spaced teeth

76

76 Leaves oblong, shallowly dentate; flowers various shades of red or pink, sometimes yellow or brown, soon falling; follicles mottled (W.A.)

menziesii

76: Leaves narrowly elliptic to obovate, serrate; flowers creamy grey or greenish cream, persistent; follicles not mottled (eastern Australia)

77

77 Most leaves 3–10 cm long; perianth 30–35 mm long including limb of 3–4 mm (S.A., western Vic.)

ornata

77: Leaves commonly 10–20 cm long; perianth 35–45 mm long including limb of 5–8 mm (south-eastern Qld to eastern Vic.)

78

78 Leaves commonly 2–4 cm wide; pollen presenter fusiform with thickened base, 2–3 mm long

serrata

78: Leaves commonly 1–2 cm wide; pollen presenter clavate-conical, 1 mm long

aemula

79 Leaf margins recurved; inflorescence cylindrical (eastern Australia; B. canei rarely naturalised in W.A.)

80

79: Leaf margins ±flat; inflorescence spherical (W.A.)

laevigata

80 Leaves obovate, narrowly obovate, oblong, elliptic or lanceolate

81

80: Leaves linear to narrowly oblong

84

81 Flowers openly arranged in inflorescence; perianth 15–18 mm long

paludosa

81: Flowers closely arranged in inflorescence; perianth 20–26 mm long

82

82 Leaves whorled; branchlets villous, glabrescent within a year; common bracts penicillate (Blue Mtns)

conferta

82: Leaves alternate; branchlets remaining closely tomentose for 2–3 years; common bracts not penicillate

83

83 Leaves lanceolate to narrowly obovate, coarsely lobed to entire; follicles upturned; valves obliquely triangular (Qld, Hinchinbrook Is. and adjacent mainland)

plagiocarpa

83: Leaves oblong to obovate-oblong, commonly all finely serrate; follicles erect; valves semicircular (Bundaberg, Qld, to Ulladulla, N.S.W.)

oblongifolia

84 Leaves pungent; perianths soon falling; most follicles remaining closed for several years

canei

84: Leaves truncate to acute; perianths commonly persistent; follicles usually opening within a year of anthesis

marginata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

croajingolensis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

rosserae

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

acanthopoda

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

acuminata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

alliacea

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

anatona

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

arborea

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

arctotidis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

armata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

aurantia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

bella

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

bipinnatifida

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

biterax

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

borealis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

brunnea

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

calophylla

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

carlinoides

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

catoglypta

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

cirsioides

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

columnaris

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

comosa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

concinna

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

corvijuga

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

cynaroides

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

cypholoba

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

dallanneyi

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

densa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

drummondii

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

echinata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

epimicta

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

erythrocephala

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

falcata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

fasciculata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

fililoba

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

foliolata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

foliosissima

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

formosa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

fraseri

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

fuscobractea

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

glaucifolia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

heliantha

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

hewardiana

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

hirta

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

horrida

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

idiogenes

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

insulanemorecincta

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

ionthocarpa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

kippistiana

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

lepidorhiza

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

meganotia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

mimica

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

montana

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

mucronulata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

nana

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

nivea

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

nobilis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

obovata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

obtusa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

octotriginta

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

pallida

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

pellaeifolia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

platycarpa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

plumosa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

polycephala

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

porrecta

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

prionophylla

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

prolata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

proteoides

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

pseudoplumosa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

pteridifolia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

purdieana

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

rufa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

rufistylis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

sclerophylla

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

seneciifolia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

serra

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

serratuloides

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

sessilis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

shanklandiorum

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

shuttleworthiana

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

splendida

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

squarrosa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

stenoprion

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

strictifolia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

stuposa

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

subpinnatifida

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

subulata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

tenuis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

tortifolia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

tridentata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

trifontinalis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

undata

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

vestita

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

viscida

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

wonganensis

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

xylothemelia

85 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

recurvistylis

 

Data derived from Flora of Australia Volumes 16 (1995), 17A (2000) and 17B (1999), products of ABRS, ©Commonwealth of Australia