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Flora of Australia Online

DRYANDRA

A.S.George

Dryandra R.Br., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 211 (1810), nom. cons. ; after Jonas Dryander (1748–1810), first librarian of the Linnean Society and curator of Joseph Banks' collections

Type: Dryandra formosa R.Br.

Josephia R.Br. ex Knight, Cult. Prot. 110 (1809). T: Josephia sessilis Knight; lecto, fide A.S.George, Nuytsia 10: 327 (1996).

Hemiclidia R.Br., Suppl. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 40 (1830). T: Hakea baxteri R.Br.

Shrubs or small trees, many prostrate. Leaves serrate to pinnatifid or pinnatipartite, sometimes almost pinnatisect, sometimes bipinnatifid, sometimes entire, hairy becoming glabrous adaxially, closely tomentose or woolly between nerves abaxially. Inflorescence terminal, axillary or on short lateral branchlet, commonly sessile, capitate; receptacle concave, flat or convex; involucre usually prominent, of many imbricate flat or subulate bracts, persistent; flowering usually centripetal; flowers 15–250 per head; floral bracts usually enlarged after flowering. Perianth straight or curved; tepals separating almost to base at anthesis. Pistil straight or curved, with style often exserted to one side before anthesis; pollen presenter usually erect, narrower, as wide as or wider than style. Follicles few per head, woody but not massively so, commonly striate, in 2 species cartilaginous. Seed usually with a terminal wing, rarely elliptic with an annular wing and then without a separator but with 2 supplementary outer wings. 

In the Flora of Australia publication described as a genus of 93 species and 34 infraspecific taxa endemic in south-western W.A., mostly within the South-West Botanical Province. The Australian Plant Census lists no species for Dryandra, accepting its transfer to Banksia

Distinguished from Banksia by the capitate inflorescence with concave, flat or convex receptacle, by the less crowded floral bracts that usually elongate markedly in fruit, and by the thinner follicles that are indurated but not as woody. The leaves of Dryandra are more pungently lobed than those of most species of Banksia , and the involucre consists of larger, usually flat bracts that are almost always longer persistent. In many species the follicles are relatively easily detached.

Two growth forms common in Dryandra do not occur in Banksia , viz. the dense columnar habit with short lateral branchlets crowded along the main branches, and the low rounded habit with short divaricate branches hidden within dense foliage. The leaves of most species are extremely varied in form and size, between seedling or regrowth leaves, stem leaves, those of short lateral branchlets and those subtending the inflorescence. In the following account, 'typical' leaves of mature stems are described, the length of the lamina being measured from where it ends on the petiole, and the width across the full extent of the widest lobes or teeth. Length of the involucral bracts is that of the longest (usually innermost); indumentum of these bracts is given for the outer surface and margins only. Floral bracts are present in all taxa except D. sessilis . At anthesis the flowers are evenly spaced in the head except in ser. Niveae and ser. Acuminatae in which they form a circle around a central hollow. Perianth length includes the limb, which is then given separately; pistil length includes the pollen presenter, which likewise is then given separately. In all taxa, the base of the perianth where enclosed within the floral bracts is glabrous; in the descriptions, 'above base' refers to the exserted part. Unless otherwise stated, the curvature of the pistil is described just before anthesis. The relative lengths of the perianth and pistil are most easily observed immediately before anthesis; afterwards, the perianth in many species relaxes, making its measurement difficult.

To observe and measure characters such as the floral bracts and perianth it is essential to dissect an inflorescence. This is done relatively easily in the fresh state by cutting an inflorescence from the base upwards with a pair of secateurs. With practise a cut through the middle will result in two halves that, for herbarium purposes, may be pressed more easily than an intact head. A similar approach is useful for cutting fruiting heads.

Acknowledgments The Australian Biological Resources Study provided financial support, especially for a field trip in 1986, and some research facilities over a number of years. Margaret Pieroni, Leader of the Dryandra Study Group of the Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants, has assisted this study greatly with collections, data on fruit and seeds, photographs and illustrations and many discussions on taxa and relationships. The following have also assisted by collecting specimens: K.Alcock, J.Browne, A.Cavanagh, R. & G.Cugley, R.Garstone, E.A.George, E.A.Griffin, L.A.S.Johnson, B. & M.Smith. The herbaria cited in the text have provided research facilities and/or made available material on loan. The Western Australian Herbarium has been especially supportive in providing working space and access to collections.

Since publication of the Flora of Australia the Australian Plant Census accepts A.R.Mast & K.R.Thiele's transfer of Dryandra to Banksia in Austral. Syst. Bot. 20: 63–71 (2007). Dryandra is treated under Banksia ser. Dryandra .

R.Brown, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 10: 211–215 (1810); R.Brown, Suppl. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 37–40 (1830); C.D.F.Meisner, in A.L.P.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 467–482 (1856); G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 5: 562–584 (1870); A.S.George, Introd. Proteaceae W. Australia 30–45 (1984); R.M.Sainsbury, Field Guide to Dryandra (1985); A.S.George, New taxa and a new infrageneric classification in Dryandra R.Br. (Proteaceae: Grevilleoideae), Nuytsia 10: 313–408 (1996); M.Pieroni & A.S.George, Illustrated Key to Dryandra , Dryandra Study Group Newsletter 30: iii–vi, 1–19 (1996); A.R.Mast, Molecular systematics of subtribe Banksiinae (Banksia and Dryandra ; Proteaceae) based on cpDNA and nrDNA sequence data: implications for taxonomy and biogeography, Austral. Syst. Bot. 11: 321–342 (1998).

KEY TO INFRAGENERIC TAXA

1 Separator absent; seed wing annular, and with a large supplementary wing each side and attached at the base

subg. Diplophragma

1: Separator present between seeds (often only 1 seed fertile); seed wing terminal or absent

2

2 Seed not winged

3

2: Seed winged

subg. Dryandra

3 Follicle ±cartilaginous

subg. Hemiclidia

3: Follicle woody

ser. Ionthocarpae

4 Pistil exceeding perianth by 1 mm or more

5

4: Pistil shorter than or as long as perianth

23

5 Perianth straight or the limb inflexed centripetally before anthesis; pistil similarly straight or curved inwards, rarely outwards

6

5: All perianths and pistils in head markedly curved downwards or upwards

21

6 Pollen presenter markedly swollen; perianth lobes flared widely at apex of basal tube; flowers fewer than 20 per head

ser. Pectinatae

6: Pollen presenter not or scarcely enlarged; perianth not flared but in some species succulent near base; flowers 30–250 per head

7

7 Perianth swollen and succulent above base (appears thick but irregularly shrivelled in dried specimens)

ser. Runcinatae

7: Perianth not swollen or succulent

8

8 At least some leaves bipinnatifid; hairs of perianth claws sticky

ser. Acuminatae

8: No leaves bipinnatifid; hairs of perianth claws not sticky

9

9 Flowers at anthesis forming a circle leaving a central hole

ser. Niveae

9: Flowers at anthesis ±evenly spaced in head

10

10 Leaves pinnatisect with large triangular lobes

ser. Triangulares

10: Leaves otherwise

11

11 Follicle 5–6 mm long; seed wing obscure; flowers fewer than 45 per head

ser. Capitellatae

11: Follicle 6–24 mm long; seed wing prominent; flowers typically more than 50 per head

12

12 Longest involucral bracts as long as flowers

13

12: Longest involucral bracts shorter than flowers

15

13 Leaves pinnatipartite; lamina usually 20–45 cm long and 5–14 cm wide with linear lobes

ser. Aphragma

13: Leaves cuneate, dentate or serrate, or linear with widely spaced short recurved teeth; lamina usually less than 12 cm long, or if longer, then linear

14

14 Leaves cuneate, less than 12 cm long; involucral bracts narrow, tomentose and plumose; pistil 41–52 mm long

ser. Ilicinae

14: Leaves linear, to 35 cm long; involucral bracts broad, sparsely pubescent to glabrous except hairy margins; pistil 27–29 mm long

ser. Decurrentes

15 Leaves pinnatisect

16

15: Leaves not pinnatisect

17

16 Follicles loosely attached; style evenly curved; pollen presenter scarcely thickened

ser. Marginatae

16: Follicles firmly attached; style geniculate below pollen presenter which is narrowly conical

ser. Folliculosae

17 Flowers golden orange or reddish pink

ser. Dryandra

17: Flowers pale to deep yellow, occasionally creamy white, rarely golden orange

18

18 Involucral bracts almost as long as flowers

ser. Foliosae

18: Involucral bracts usually much shorter than flowers

19

19 Follicles tomentose

ser. Ilicinae

19: Follicles sparsely hairy or glabrous, in 1 species silky

20

20 Follicles ovate to obovate; seed wing not or shortly decurrent

ser. Armatae

20: Follicles typically transversely elliptic to transversely obovate; seed wing decurrent almost to base of seed

ser. Acrodontae

21 Involucral bracts prominently hirsute, with longest hairs to 3–5 mm long

ser. Plumosae

21: Involucral bracts tomentose, velvety or shortly hirsute, with longest hairs less than 2 mm long

22

22 Follicles oblique, ovate, elliptic or oblong, firmly attached; pollen presenter 0.3–0.8 mm long

ser. Concinnae

22: Follicles erect, ovate, obovate, cuneate or transversely elliptic, loosely attached; pollen presenter 1–1.8 mm long

ser. Obvallatae

23 Leaves subtending inflorescence reduced, rigid, entire, pungent, scabrous

ser. Subulatae

23: Leaves subtending inflorescence lobed, or if entire then not rigid or scabrous

24

24 Involucre of broad brown bracts, usually shining

25

24: Involucre of narrow, hairy bracts, usually dull

27

25 Involucral bracts cartilaginous, very hairy or almost glabrous; flowers gold, orange or pinkish; seed wing entire

26

25: Involucral bracts papery, cobwebby; flowers red and white; seed wing notched

ser. Inusitatae

26 At least some leaves 20 mm or more wide, with large triangular to linear lobes; involucral bracts villous, hirsute, tomentose or pubescent all over

ser. Aphragma

26: Leaves less than 6 mm wide, shortly pinnatifid, serrate or entire; involucral bracts appressed-pubescent to glabrous except shortly pubescent margins

ser. Tenuifoliae

27 Leaves cuneate to flabelliform; margins flat

ser. Floribundae

27: Leaves linear; margins recurved to revolute

ser. Gymnocephalae

KEY TO SPECIES

1 Pistil exceeding perianth by 1 mm or more

2

1: Pistil as long as or slightly shorter than perianth

93

2 Involucral bracts shorter than pistil (of outer flowers in taxa in which inner flowers are shorter than outer ones)

3

2: Involucral bracts as long as or exceeding pistil

80

3 Pistil crook-shaped, 68–79 mm long; pollen presenter prominent, ovoid; tepals flared widely at apex of basal tube; flowers 12–17 per head (Badgingarra district)

nana

3: Pistil straight to curved but not crook-shaped, usually less than 60 mm long; pollen presenter narrowly cylindrical; tepals not flared; flowers 20–250 per head

4

4 Receptacle prominently convex; flowers at anthesis forming a circle leaving a central hole

5

4: Receptacle gently concave, or flat, or gently convex; flowers ±equally-spaced in head at anthesis

13

5 Leaves pinnatipartite, usually with at least some lobes also pinnatipartite; involucral bracts acuminate; perianth loosely hirsute with sticky hairs (between Woodanilling, Cranbrook & Collie)

preissii

5: Leaves simply pinnatipartite; involucral bracts obtuse to shortly acute; perianth villous, hirsute or pubescent with non-sticky hairs

6

6 Leaf lobes linear

7

6: Leaf lobes oblong or triangular

8

7 Leaf lobes not twisted, held vertically (Kojonup to Ongerup, Stirling Ra. & Albany)

arctotidis

7: Leaf lobes twisted so that apical half of lobe is ±horizontal (Eneabba to Cataby)

tortifolia

8 Leaf lobes oblong or narrowly triangular

9

8: Leaf lobes broadly triangular

10

9 Plant with underground stems, fire-tolerant; leaf lobes 15–35 each side (Bannister and Wandering to Manjimup)

lindleyana

9: Plant with stems above ground, fire-sensitive; leaf lobes 40–75 each side (Albany to Stirling Ra. & E to Fitzgerald R.)

brownii

10 Plant with underground stems, fire-tolerant

11

10: Plant with above-ground stems, fire-sensitive (Lake Indoon to Nyabing & E to Cape Arid, on the Scott R. plain & E of Busselton)

nivea

11 Leaf lobes 1–3 mm wide at base, the lower (basal) margin more revolute than the upper, slightly overlapping the lobe below (near Badgingarra)

stenoprion

11: Leaf lobes 2–8 mm wide at base, both margins slightly and ±equally recurved to revolute, not overlapping; widespread

12

12 Leaves usually markedly convex (lobes recurved towards apex) (W of Arrino to Alexander Morrison Natl Park)

cypholoba

12: Leaves not or slightly convex (Geraldton to Cape Naturaliste and E to Corrigin and Traysurin)

lindleyana

13 At least some leaves more than 20 cm long; mostly low shrubs with short stems

14

13: Leaves usually less than 20 cm long, in several species some longer

27

14 Leaves pinnatipartite usually only in lowest third to half, with subulate lobes, otherwise entire (Pingelly to Tambellup)

subpinnatifida

14: Leaves prominently pinnatipartite or pinnatifid throughout

15

15 Leaves 4–20 mm wide

16

15: Most leaves more than 20 mm wide

21

16 Pistil pilose in lower half (Kamballup)

ionthocarpa

16: Pistil glabrous except hairs on ovary

17

17 Perianth 17–19 mm long; pistil 18–21 mm long; leaf lobes markedly twisted (Stirling Ra.)

montana

17: Perianth lobes more than 20 mm long; pistil more than 25 mm long; leaf lobes not twisted

18

18 Leaves with 60–110 lobes each side (near Busselton, Stirling Ra. to Albany)

baxteri

18: Leaves with fewer than 50 lobes each side

19

19 Flowers 150–250 per head (Esperance to Mt Ragged)

longifolia

19: Flowers fewer than 120 per head

20

20 Pistil 42–56 mm long; at least some leaves more than 10 mm wide (Eneabba to Katanning)

nobilis

20: Pistil 30–40 mm long; leaves 4–8 mm wide (Tarin Rock, Ravensthorpe)

foliosissima

21 Leaf lobes linear

22

21: Leaf lobes triangular, usually broadly so

23

22 Prostrate shrub with lignotuber; involucral bracts to 2 cm long; pistil 38–53 mm long (Badgingarra to Moore R., Perth, Gairdner R. to Cape le Grand)

pteridifolia

22: Bushy shrub without lignotuber; involucral bracts 4.5–5.5 cm long; pistil 58–74 mm long (Cadoux to Hyden)

shanklandiorum

23 Involucral bracts 30–40 mm long (Newdegate to Ravensthorpe)

ferruginea

23: Involucral bracts 25 mm or less long

24

24 Leaves less than 25 mm wide (Eneabba to Katanning)

nobilis

24: Leaves 25–75 mm wide

25

25 Stems with recurved, ovate-oblong tomentose prophylls (near Badgingarra)

catoglypta

25: Stems with appressed, lanceolate, villous prophylls

26

26 Leaf lobes acute, with margins straight to gently curved; perianth limb 8–11 mm long; flowers 50–85 per head (Nyabing to Hyden)

octotriginta

26: Leaf lobes obtuse, with margins prominently curved in to apex; perianth limb 11–14 mm long; flowers 60–100 per head (Mogumber to Bremer Bay)

drummondii

27 Leaves pinnatipartite with at least some lobes also pinnatipartite; perianth claws loosely hirsute with sticky hairs (Woodanilling to Cranbrook & Collie)

preissii

27: Leaves simply divided or lobed; perianth hairs not sticky

28

28 Pistil c. 15 mm longer than perianth; leaves 3–4 mm wide (Wongan Hills)

pulchella

28: Pistil usually no more than 10 mm longer than perianth, if longer than 15 mm then leaves at least 6 mm wide

29

29 Leaf lamina excluding lobes cuneate to obovate, commonly with more than 5 teeth each side

30

29: Leaf lamina excluding lobes linear, oblong, lanceolate, elliptic, or narrowly obovate to narrowly cuneate and then with fewer than 5 teeth per side, or pinnatipartite to pinnatisect with large triangular lobes

35

30 Leaves white-tomentose below

31

30: Leaves glabrous below except pits

32

31 Leaves sessile or almost so, commonly more than 25 mm wide; involucral bracts to 12–15 mm long; floral bracts 2 mm long (Clackline to Dwellingup)

praemorsa

31: Leaves petiolate, 12–22 mm wide; longest involucral bracts to 20–25 mm long; floral bracts 15–17 mm long (Stirling Ra.)

anatona

32 Follicles 6–7 mm long, not indurated; perianth limb glabrous or sparsely hairy

33

32: Follicles 9–14 mm long, indurated; perianth limb hairy

34

33 Leaves bright green; flowers ±bright yellow (Stirling Ra. to Israelite Bay)

falcata

33: Leaves glaucous; flowers pale yellow (Eneabba to Mogumber)

glauca

34 Involucral bracts pale; pistil 24–40 mm long; pollen presenter 1–1.3 mm long, pale red; flowers 35–100 per head (Narrogin to Albany & Israelite Bay)

cuneata

34: Involucral bracts dark brown; pistil 22–26 mm long; pollen presenter 1 mm long, dark brown; flowers 180–190 per head (Gillingarra)

fuscobractea

35 Leaf lamina narrowly obovate to narrowly cuneate with no or 1–4 teeth each side

36

35: Leaf lamina linear, oblong, lanceolate or elliptic, sometimes narrowly cuneate or narrowly obovate, usually with more than 5 teeth or lobes each side, or pinnatipartite to pinnatisect with large triangular lobes

37

36 Heads terminal, conspicuous; pistil 16–23 mm long; perianth creamy-white, often pink-tinged; shrub without lignotuber (Geraldton to Gingin)

carlinoides

36: Heads on short branchlet near base of stem, inconspicuous; pistil 30–40 mm long; perianth yellow; many-stemmed shrub with lignotuber (Arrowsmith to Hill R.)

tridentata

37 Pistils within head straight or incurved or outcurved

38

37: All pistils within head curved downwards or downwards and with the apex upturned

72

38 Leaves 2.5–7 cm wide; perianth limb 8–14 mm long

39

38: Leaves commonly less than 2.5 cm wide; perianth limb less than 7 mm long

40

39 Stems with ±straight lanceolate villous prophylls; perianth limb 8–11 mm long; flowers 50–85 per head (Nyabing to Hyden)

octotriginta

39: Stems with recurved, ovate-oblong tomentose prophylls; perianth limb 12–15 mm long; flowers 85–110 per head (near Badgingarra)

catoglypta

40 Leaves pinnatisect

41

40: Leaves serrate, pinnatifid or pinnatipartite

42

41 Pistil 16–19 mm long (New Norcia to Bindoon)

polycephala

41: Pistil 28–42 mm long (Kalbarri to Cranbrook)

fraseri

42 Leaf lobes linear or lanceolate

43

42: Leaf lobes or teeth triangular

46

43 Flowers 15–26 per head; stem covered with prophylls (Kulin to Nyabing & E to Forrestania)

erythrocephala

43: Flowers 30–120 per head; prophylls few or none on mature stem

44

44 Perianth 29–34 mm long; pistil 32–42 mm long; shrub without lignotuber (Stirling Ra. to Munglinup)

cirsioides

44: Perianth 20–27 mm long; pistil 22–33 mm long; shrub with lignotuber, usually suckering

45

45 Flowers c. 80–100 per head; leaves 40–55 mm wide; sinuses 10–25 mm across (Kulin & L. Magenta to Hyden & Frank Hann Natl Park)

xylothemelia

45: Flowers c. 35 per head; leaves 10–25 mm wide; sinuses 3–7 mm across (Kulin to Nyabing)

meganotia

46 Flowers orange or pink

47

46: Flowers yellow, commonly with deep yellow or golden limb

50

47 Perianth 19–23 mm long; shrub to 50 cm (Badgingarra, Mogumber)

serratuloides

47: Perianth 25–42 mm long; shrub to 3 or 4 m

48

48 Leaves soft; floral bracts glabrous (Busselton to Two Peoples Bay & Stirling Ra.)

formosa

48: Leaves rather leathery; floral bracts hirsute or villous

49

49 Leaves divided more than half way to midrib, usually dark green above; at least some leaf laminas 15–20 cm long; follicles 16–19 mm long (Eneabba to Katanning)

nobilis

49: Leaves divided less than half way to midrib, usually bluish green above; leaves never more than 15 cm long; follicles 9–11 mm long (York to Broomehill)

stuposa

50 Leaves 3–9 mm wide

51

50: Leaves 10–35 mm wide

58

51 Pistil loosely hirsute, at least in lower quarter

52

51: Pistil glabrous except a few hairs on ovary

55

52 Pollen presenter 3–5 mm long; leaf lobe margins flat or equally recurved

53

52: Pollen presenter 0.9–1.3 mm long; leaf lobes revolute but the upper margin much less so than the lower

54

53 Perianth 25–39 mm long; pistil 28–42 mm long; flowers yellow (widespread, Mt Lesueur to Albany & E to Israelite Bay)

armata

53: Perianth 19–23 mm long; pistil 22–29 mm long; flowers pink and greenish cream (rare, Badgingarra, Mogumber)

serratuloides

54 Pollen presenter noticeably thicker than apex of style; perianth 12–20 mm long; pistil markedly looped before anthesis (Eneabba to Armadale)

kippistiana

54: Pollen presenter scarcely thicker than apex of style; perianth 19–22 mm long; pistil gently bowed before anthesis (Eneabba to Badgingarra)

sclerophylla

55 Pistil 37–49 mm long

56

55: Pistil 22–31 mm long

57

56 Involucral bracts appressed-pubescent, shining brown; leaves with 10–25 teeth each side (Ravensthorpe)

corvijuga

56: Involucral bracts glabrous at base, plumose above, pale; leaves with 3–8 teeth each side (Pingelly to Woodanilling)

cynaroides

57 Pistil 27–31 mm long; perianth limb hirsute (Three Springs to Badgingarra)

stricta

57: Pistil 22–26 mm long; perianth limb glabrous or with a few basal hairs (New Norcia to Regans Ford and Gingin)

echinata

58 At least some leaves 15 cm or more long

59

58: Leaves less than 13.5 cm long (juvenile leaves may be longer)

63

59 Involucral bracts 40–50 mm long (Ravensthorpe)

corvijuga

59: Involucral bracts to 30 mm long

60

60 Flowers 150–250 per head; involucral bracts 14–30 mm long; perianth limb hairy at least in lower half (Esperance to Mt Ragged)

longifolia

60: Flowers 35–65 per head; involucral bracts to 12 mm long; perianth limb glabrous

61

61 Pistil 29–33 mm long (Wongan Hills)

wonganensis

61: Pistil 23–27 mm long

62

62 Perianth limb c. 2.5 mm long; involucral bracts pubescent with densely ciliate margins; pollen presenter 1–1.5 mm long (Moora to New Norcia and Cataby)

hewardiana

62: Perianth limb 3–4 mm long; involucral bracts glabrous or scurfy, with shortly ciliate margins; pollen presenter 1.8–2 mm long (Three Springs)

trifontinalis

63 Leaves with subulate teeth on petiole and base (Woodanilling to Katanning)

acanthopoda

63: Leaves without teeth on petiole and base

64

64 Perianth limb 10–11 mm long; flowers 15–20 per head (Pingelly to Woodanilling)

cynaroides

64: Perianth limb less than 9 mm long; flowers more than 40 per head

65

65 Perianth limb 7–8.5 mm long; involucral bracts 30–35 mm long, obtuse (Kalbarri to Three Springs)

borealis

65: Perianth limb 2–6.5 mm long; involucral bracts commonly less than 20 mm long, if longer then tomentose

66

66 Pistil 45–48 mm long; involucral bracts 22–32 mm long (Stirling Ra.)

hirsuta

66: Pistil 20–42 mm long; involucral bracts less than 20 mm long

67

67 Pistil glabrous

68

67: Pistil hirsute in lower quarter to half

69

68 Perianth 25–27 mm long; limb hirsute (Kulin to Nyabing & Frank Hann Natl Park)

pallida

68: Perianth 17–23 mm long; limb glabrous or almost so (Regans Ford to New Norcia & Gingin)

echinata

69 Pollen presenter 0.8–1.5 mm long

70

69: Pollen presenter 2.5–6 mm long

71

70 Pistil 20–26 mm long; involucral bracts usually recurved; leaf teeth up to 10 each side (Bindoon to Albany; Whicher Ra.)

squarrosa

70: Pistil 28–32 mm long; involucral bracts all erect; leaf teeth 1–6 each side (N of Southern Cross)

arborea

71 Perianth 25–39 mm long; limb 4–4.5 mm long; floral bracts glabrous (Mt Lesueur to Albany & E to Israelite Bay)

armata

71: Perianth 22–24 mm long; limb 4.5–6.5 mm long; floral bracts hirsute at base (Tathra Natl Park to Bendering)

purdieana

72 Pistils curved downwards then up

73

72: Pistil curved ±evenly downwards, in D. columnaris curved up but then downwards in upper half

74

73 Leaf lamina excluding lobes elliptic; involucral bracts silky-villous; floral bracts hirsute both sides (Stirling Ra., Albany)

concinna

73: Leaf lamina excluding lobes linear; involucral bracts appressed-pubescent; floral bracts hirsute one side, glabrous the other (Bow R. to Mt Manypeaks)

serra

74 Leaf lamina excluding lobes oblong or oblanceolate; lobes obliquely ovate

75

74: Leaf lamina excluding lobes linear; lobes linear to narrowly triangular; involucral bracts linear to subulate

76

75 Leaf lobes 10–35 each side; involucral bracts ovate to lanceolate (Stirling Ra.)

foliolata

75: Leaf lobes 8–11 each side; involucral bracts linear to subulate (Darling Plateau SE of Perth)

insulanemorecincta

76 Leaf lobes strongly twisted (Stirling Ra.)

montana

76: Leaf lobes not twisted

77

77 Involucral bracts with glandular as well as non-glandular hairs (Brookton to Narrogin)

columnaris

77: Involucral bracts without glandular hairs

78

78 Floral bracts 5–6 mm long; pollen presenter 1.5–1.8 mm long (Miling to South Stirling)

conferta

78: Floral bracts 3.5–4 mm long; pollen presenter 1 mm long

79

79 Leaf lobes 10–25 each side; follicles transversely ovate (Eneabba to Mogumber)

platycarpa

79: Leaf lobes 2–5 each side; follicles narrowly ovate (Stirling Ra.)

seneciifolia

80 Pistil straight or gently curved outwards or inwards

81

80: Pistil curved down, at least in upper half

90

81 Involucral bracts 80–90 mm long (near Kulin)

epimicta

81: Involucral bracts 30–75 mm long

82

82 Involucral bracts broad, obtuse or acute, dark red-brown, often shining

83

82: Involucral bracts acute or acuminate, plumose, silky, villous or tomentose, pale to dark brown

87

83 Perianth not swollen at apex of basal tube; limb usually 5–7 mm long, occasionally to 7.5 mm

84

83: Perianth swollen and succulent at apex of basal tube; limb 7–9 mm long

85

84 Pollen presenter 5–5.5 mm long; pistil 35–38 mm long; leaf lobes obtuse (Fitzgerald R. to Israelite Bay)

obtusa

84: Pollen presenter 2.8–3 mm long; pistil 27–29 mm long; leaf teeth acute, pungent (Wongan Hills)

comosa

85 Leaves serrate; erect shrubs

86

85: Leaves pinnatifid or pinnatipartite, rarely almost entire; low or prostrate shrubs (Pingelly to Stirling Ra. & E to Forrestania)

ferruginea

86 Longest involucral bracts 40–50 mm long (Ravensthorpe)

corvijuga

86: Longest involucral bracts 50–75 mm long (Toodyay to Narrogin)

proteoides

87 Leaves cuneate or obovate, serrate (Gairdner R. to Ravensthorpe)

quercifolia

87: Leaves linear, pinnatifid or pinnatipartite

88

88 Perianth 15–20 mm long

89

88: Perianth 25–30 mm long (Tarin Rock, Ravensthorpe)

foliosissima

89 Involucral bracts abruptly narrowed but acute, silky, villous or tomentose; leaf lobes 40–60 each side (Stirling Ra. area)

mucronulata

89: Involucral bracts tapering, long-villous; leaf lobes 15–31 each side (Stirling Ra. area)

pseudoplumosa

90 Involucral bracts softly plumose, villous or woolly, with longest hairs 3–5 mm long (Stirling Ra. to West Mt Barren)

plumosa

90: Involucral bracts pubescent, tomentose, hirsute or silky-villous, with longest hairs less than 2 mm long

91

91 Leaves pinnatifid; involucral bracts with glandular hairs (Pingelly)

columnaris

91: Leaves serrate or dentate; involucral bracts silky-villous, without glandular hairs

92

92 Style yellow with red pollen presenter; pistil 23–31 mm long (Corrigin to Kukerin)

fasciculata

92: Style red with green pollen presenter; pistil 18–22 mm long (Woodanilling to Nyabing & Tarin Rock)

rufistylis

93 Leaves cuneate to flabelliform, sometimes almost oblong, serrate (Kalbarri to Bremer Bay)

sessilis

93: Leaves linear or narrowly cuneate, or deeply divided

94

94 Leaves bipinnatipartite (Eneabba to Manjimup)

bipinnatifida

94: Leaves serrate, pinnatifid or pinnatipartite, sometimes entire

95

95 Involucral bracts broad, obtuse, glabrous to appressed-pubescent, dark brown, shining (Darkin to Cape Arid)

tenuifolia

95: Involucral bracts not as above

96

96 Leaves entire

97

96: Leaves dentate, serrate, pinnatifid or pinnatipartite

98

97 Leaves subtending inflorescence not or little reduced, pliable; involucral bracts 40–50 mm long, spreading-hirsute; leaf lamina 5–10 cm long; perianth 24–30 mm long; erect, bushy shrub with flowers on upper branches (Tathra Natl Park to Badgingarra; Tammin)

speciosa

97: Leaves subtending inflorescence short, rigid, pungent; involucral bracts 10–12 mm long, appressed-hirsute; leaf lamina 15–35 cm long; perianth 22–24 mm long; low shrub with flowers almost at ground level (Eneabba to Badgingarra)

subulata

98 All or most leaves more than 15 mm wide

99

98: All or most leaves less than 15 mm wide

106

99 Involucral bracts papery, the outer almost glabrous, the inner rusty-pubescent along midrib, with upper margins cobwebby; flowers red and white (Newdegate)

idiogenes

99: Involucral bracts firm, tomentose, silky-villous or villous; flowers various shades of yellow, pink, brown or orange

100

100 Pistil 49–52 mm long (Dumbleyung to Lake Grace & Harrismith)

fililoba

100: Pistil 31–45 mm long

101

101 Longest involucral bracts 9–15 mm long

102

101: Longest involucral bracts 20–42 mm long

103

102 Leaf lobes triangular; stems with scattered prophylls (Tenterden to Albany and Wellstead)

calophylla

102: Leaf lobes linear; stems covered with prophylls (Woodanilling)

lepidorhiza

103 Bushy shrub with erect stems; perianth limb 13–15 mm long (Stirling Ra. to Lort R.)

nervosa

103: Shrub with prostrate, usually underground stems; perianth limb 8–13 mm long

104

104 Leaves 50–130 mm wide (Stirling Ra.)

blechnifolia

104: Leaves 20–45 mm wide

105

105 Flowers 20–30 per head; perianth tomentose above base, golden; pistil 37–40 mm long; leaf lobes 30–40 each side (Woodanilling to Ongerup & Mount Barker)

porrecta

105: Flowers c. 80 per head; perianth villous above base, orange-pink; pistil 33–36 mm long; leaf lobes 18–28 each side (E of Mundaring Weir)

aurantia

106 Leaves with 15–75 teeth each side (usually more than 20)

107

106: Leaves with 2–12 teeth each side

109

107 Involucral bracts to 60 mm long, viscid; pistil 54–55 mm long (E of Hyden)

viscida

107: Involucral bracts 15–40 mm long, not viscid; pistil 24–35 mm long

108

108 Shrub with above-ground stems to 70 cm tall; involucral bracts 30–40 mm long; perianth cream and dull purple (Geraldton to Gingin)

shuttleworthiana

108: Shrub with underground stems; involucral bracts to 22 mm long; perianth yellow (Mogumber, Perth, Whicher Ra.)

mimica

109 Pistil 37–49 mm long; pollen presenter 6–7 mm long (Pingelly to Woodanilling)

cynaroides

109: Pistil 22–36 mm long; pollen presenter 3–4 mm long

110

110 Flowers 15–26 per head (Kulin to Nyabing & E to Forrestania)

erythrocephala

110: Flowers 30–60 per head

111

111 Leaves narrowly linear with revolute margins; branchlets hirsute (Tammin to Corrigin & Narembeen)

horrida

111: Leaves broadly linear with recurved margins; branchlets tomentose (Eneabba to Lake Grace)

vestita

112 Published since the Flora of Australia treatment

prionotes

 

Data derived from Flora of Australia Volumes 16 (1995), 17A (2000) and 17B (1999), products of ABRS, ©Commonwealth of Australia