Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata (Maiden, Blakely
& J.Simm.) J.B. Kirkp., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 69: 1010 (1975).
T: cultivated in Paris, France.
E. globulus var. bicostata (Maiden, Blakely & J.Simm.)
Ewart, Fl. Victoria 804 (1931); E. bicostata
Maiden, Blakely & J.Simm. in J.Simmonds, Trees Shelter & Timber
New Zealand, Eucalypt 133, t. 48 (1929). T: Mundaroo State Forest,
Tumbarumba, N.S.W., July 1921, W.A.W. de Beuzeville s.n.;
Tree to 45 m tall. Forming a lignotuber.
Bark smooth apart from base which has persistent slabs, shedding
in large strips and slabs; smooth bark white, cream, grey, yellowish
or pale creamy orange, often with ribbons of decorticated bark in
the upper branches.
Juvenile growth (coppice or field seedlings to 50 cm):
stem square in cross-section and prominently winged, glaucous; juvenile
leaves opposite and sessile for many pairs, oblong to elliptical then
ovate or broadly lanceolate, 4-10.5 cm long, 2.2-5 cm wide, base amplexicaul,
margin sometimes crenulate, usually discolorous with upper surface
green or slightly glaucous and the lower surface copiously white-waxy.
Adult leaves alternate, petiole 3-6 cm long; blade lanceolate
to falcate, 14-40 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, base usually to tapering to
petiole, glossy, side-veins greater
than 45° to midrib, densely reticulate, intramarginal vein
well removed from margin, oil glands island and intersectional.
Inflorescences axillary unbranched, peduncle usually short
and stout, 0.1-0.3 cm long; buds 3, usually sessile, hypanthium obconical,
glaucous, warty, with 2 longitudinal ribs, scar present, operculum
flattened and umbonate, stamens inflexed, anthers cuboid to oblong,
versatile, dorsifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits (non-confluent),
style long, stigma blunt or tapered, locules 4 or 5, the placentae
each with 6(8) vertical ovule rows; flowers white.
Fruit sessile, hemispherical to obconical, 1-2 cm wide, 2-ribbed
longitudinally, glaucous or non-glaucous, disc raised-convex and lobed
over the 4 or 5 valves which are usually near rim level.
Seed black, brown or grey, 1.5-3 mm long, ovoid to flattened-ovoid
or slightly cuboid, often lacunose, dorsal surface shallowly pitted,
Cultivated seedlings (measured at ca node 10): ): cotyledons
bilobed; stems squared in cross-section and prominently winged also,
glaucous; leaves sessile, opposite for many nodes, oblong to ovate
or elliptical, 4-11 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, amplexicaul, margin entire
or subcrenulate, apex pointed, glaucous to blue.
Eucalyptus globulus (Latin
globulus, a globe, a ball, refers to the fruit shape).
E. globulus is a forest tree species that is widespread in
the ranges and subcoastal forests of southern New South Wales, eastern
Victoria and Tasmania. It is notable for the very conspicuous seedlings,
coppice and young saplings with square stems and large, glaucous,
oblong to ovate sessile juvenile leaves. The trunks are mostly smooth
and the adult leaves are large, bright glossy green and usually falcate.
There are 4 subspecies:
Of largely lowland distribution in Tasmania and central-south, coastal
and subcoastal distribution in Victoria. It has a single, large, sessile,
glaucous, warty bud per axil (rarely in 3s).
subsp. bicostata (Latin bicostatus, two-ribbed, of the
A montane and tableland subspecies in southern New South Wales and
Victoria mostly on the northern slopes of the Great Dividing Range
west to the Pyrenees, and with a single population in South Australia
on Mt Bryan north of Burra. It has similar sessile buds to subsp.
globulus but they are slightly smaller and occur in 3s.
subsp. pseudoglobulus (Latin pseudo-, false and globulus,
refers to its resemblance to E. globulus ).
From the coastal ranges in east Gippsland but with inland populations
at Lerderderg Gorge and north of Toongabbie. It is close to subsp.
bicostata but has stoutly pedicellate buds in 3s.
subsp. maidenii (after Joseph Henry Maiden, 1859-1925. In 1881
Maiden was appointed first curator at the Technological Museum Sydney,
where he remained until 1896. In the same year he was appointed Government
Botanist of New South Wales and Director of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney,
where he remained until 1924. When Maiden took over this position,
the state had no herbarium, no collection of local flora, no museum
and no library of botanical works, a situation he quickly rectified.
Maiden is one of the great names in the study of Eucalyptus.
He is the author of the monumental eight volume publication, A
Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus).
Occurs in subcoastal ranges of far south-eastern New South Wales and
far eastern Victoria and has smaller, pedicellate buds in 7s, often
not glaucous, but still with the warty, umbonate operculum typical
of the group.
Intergradation commonly occurs between subspp. globulus, bicostata
and pseudoglobulus where they come into contact and with populations
in southern Victoria it may be impossible to attribute a specimen
to any particular subspecies. Also the natural distribution of subsp.
globulus in Victorian and Tasmanian forests has undoubtedly
been confused by forestry plantings in the twentieth century.
globulus belongs in Eucalyptus
subgenus Symphyomyrtus section Maidenaria, a large group
of species more or less restricted to south-eastern Australia, characterized
by bilobed cotyledons, simple axillary inflorescences, buds with two
opercula, stamens with versatile anthers and flattened seeds with
a ventral hilum. Within this section, E.
globulus belongs in series Globulares subseries Euglobulares,
having large, sessile, glaucous, juvenile leaves opposite for many
pairs on square, winged stems, buds solitary or in clusters of 3 or
7 and fruit with prominent disc partly covering valves.
Eucalyptus globulus is a widely used species in pulp and timber
production and has been the subject of much forestry research.
E. globulus subsp. bicostata is widely planted as an
ornamental in southern Australia and overseas.