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Glossary


acute
ending in a sharp point (apex of a leaf); with an angle less than 45 degrees to the midrib (leaf side veins)
adnate
fused to another organ; when the anthers are rigidly held (not pivotally) at the summit of the filament
adult
the final growth phase of the leaves
alternate
when the leaves are "scattered" along the stem and not opposite
amplexicaul
stem-clasping; when the sides of the base of the sessile leaf continue to the opposite side of the stem and overlap with the base of an opposite leaf if present
annular
ring-like; when the disc of the fruit is prominent, flat or raised and free from the valves
anther
the pollen-bearing organ at the apex of the stamen
anthesis
the process of flowering; in eucalypts this means the shedding of the operculum, spreading of the stamens and opening of the anthers to release pollen
apically
at the apex of (tip)
apiculate
ending abruptly in a short point
areole
any small green area of a leaf blade surrounded by veinlets, visible when a leaf is held up to sunlight and inspected with a handlens; may contain a pale dot which is an oil gland
ascending
when the disc of the fruit is convex or raised between the staminophore and the valves
auriculate
of the leaves, bearing a lobe or lobes at the base
axil
the upper angle between the leaf and the stem
axillary
referring to the location of a plant organ in an axil, for example, the axillary inflorescence
axis
stem, or the central pillar of tissue in the ovary that bears the placentae
basifixed
when the summit of the filament is attached to the base of the connective of the anther
beaked
when the operculum is markedly or slightly contracted to form a beak
box-bark
dead bark that is persistent, short-fibred, firm, often breaking into a tessellated pattern, often also partly deciduous and bleached
campanulate
bell-shaped; of the fruit, but seen upside-down
chamber
a division of the ovary containing the ovules
clavate
club-shaped; of the buds, distinctly pedicellate and widening towards the top
compacted
when the dead bark is persistent and compact with narrow fissures, usually kino impregnated
compound
when the inflorescence is branched
concolorous
when the leaves are the same colour on both sides
confluent
when the slits formed in dehiscence of the anther join in a single crescent-shaped opening
connate
when the bases of opposite leaves are fused around the stem
coppice
young stems shooting from a stump or the juvenile growth sprouting from mature trunks or branches
cordate
heart-shaped, refers particularly to the indented base of the leaf
cotyledon
one of the first pair of leaves in an embryo, seen following germination (seed leaf)
crenulate
with a scalloped edge
crown
the leafy head of a tree
cuboid
resembling a cube
cuneate
wedge-shaped
cupular
cup-shaped
deciduous
of the leaves or bark, shed yearly or at the end of a recurring growth period
decorticate
of the bark, shed yearly or at the end of a recurring growth period
dehiscence
of the eucalypt flower bud, when the operculum sheds; of the anther, when the lobes open and shed the pollen; of the fruit, when the capsule splits and sheds the seed
decurrent
the leaves are sessile on the stem and the leaf bases extend as short narrow wings down the side of the stem. In Eucalyptus only seen in the juvenile leaves of some species related to E. flocktoniae.
decussate
of leaves, where pairs of opposite leaves are arranged successively at right-angles to each other up the stem
deltoid
triangular or D-shaped
denticulate
finely toothed along the margin
descending
when the disc lines the upper tubular part of the hypanthium, or slopes downwards towards the valves
diamond-shaped
rhomboidal, or ovoid and angular
disc
the tissue in the bud or fruit between the staminophore and the top of the ovary
discolorous
when the upper and lower leaf surfaces differ in colour
dorsal
as a surface remote from its axis, top-side, back-side
dorsifixed
when the summit of the filament is attached to the connective of the anther on the back-side, i.e. the side away from the centre of the flower when the stamen is erect
drip-tip
referring to leaf tip, which is prominently acuminate, often tapering to a fine point
elliptical
shaped like an ellipse but often pointed at one or both ends
emarginate
of the leaves, notched at the end
endemic
when the natural distribution of a species is restricted to a certain defined area
entire
when the edges of the leaves are smooth, i.e. unrelieved by crenulations, teeth, indentations, etc.
epicormic buds
dormant vegetative buds embedded beneath the bark that have a regenerative function after crown destruction, for example by fire
falcate
curved like the blade of a sickle
fertilisation
when the male nucleus of the pollen unites with the female nucleus of the ovule
fibrous
when the bark is non-decorticating and is held in short or long fibres, usually dense, but often held loosely on old branches or towards base of trunk
filament
the stalk of a stamen, bearing the anther at the tip
fruit
the final reproductive organ in a plant; in a eucalypt a composite structure of the seed-bearing capsule held within a woody hypanthium, opening at the top where the seed are shed after dehiscence
fusiform
spindle-shaped, cigar-shaped
geniculate
bent sharply (strongly elbowed)
genus
a unit of classification in living organisms comprising one or many related species
glabrous
smooth, without hairs
gland
in eucalypts, small or minute oil containing structures seen near the surface of the young stems, leaves, buds and fruits; also near, or at, the top of the connective of the anther; or in the path of the branchlets
glaucous
covered with a white wax on the surface
globoid
of the anthers, somewhat globular in shape
globose
of the fruit, somewhat globular in shape
habit
the general appearance or characteristic growth-form of a plant
habitat
the external environment in which a plant lives
hilum
the scar on the seed indicating its point of attachment to the placenta
hybrid
the progeny resulting from the crossing of two parents with different genetic systems, i.e. usually of different species
hypanthium
an enlarged receptacle; in eucalypts specifically the broadened, invaginated structure at the top of the pedicel partly or wholly enclosing the ovary, i.e the bottom part of the bud or flower.
inflexion
of the stamens in the bud, when they are at first erect then down-turned
inflorescence
the arrangement of flowers on an axis, may be simple or compound
insect scar
the horizontal, usually black scars on the bark of some eucalypts caused by burrowing insect larvae
intermediate
the growth phase of the leaves between the juvenile and the adult
internode
the part of the stem between the points of leaf attachments
intersectional
when the leaf oil glands occur at the intersections of the veinlets or touches them
intramarginal vein
the prominent vein of a leaf near the margin and running more or less parallel with it
ironbark
dead bark that is persistent, usually hard, thick, widely and deeply furrowed, and impregnated with kino
irregular (leaf oil glands)
not rounded in outline; may be either island oil glands (not connected to veinlets) or intersectional oil glands (connected to veinlets)
island (glands)
when the leaf oil glands occur within the smallest unreticulated areas (areole) of the leaf
juvenile
the growth phase of the leaves between the seedling and the intermediate
kino
a dark gum exudate that often impregnates the dead bark
lacunose
with small hollows or cavities, referring here only to the dorsal surface of some eucalypt seeds
lamina
leaf blade
lanceolate
lance-shaped, with the widest part below the middle and tapering to a point at the apex
lenticels (of leaves)
"pores" found on the margins of the leaves of some species
lignotuber
a woody tuber developed in the axils of the cotyledons or the first few leaf pairs, becoming massive in many mature trees or mallees, possessing embedded vegetative buds for regeneration following crown destruction, for example by fire
linear
breadth very narrow in relation to length, usually with parallel sides
locule
chamber of the ovary seen by cross-section of the bud or inside a dehisced fruit
mallee
the growth form of many eucalypts, i.e. a multi-stemmed shrub with a lignotuber; (sometimes used loosely for a low straggly short-trunked tree)
mallet
a specialized tree growth form found only in Western Australia, having slender erect stems and steeply angled branches but lacking the regenerative structures found in many other eucalypts, viz. lignotubers and epicormic buds
marlock
a single-stemmed shrub or small tree which has spreading branches that are densely leafy often almost to the ground, and lacks a lignotuber
mop-top
refers to the stigma shape, the stigma looks slightly shaggy and is formed by long papillae
morphology
shape or form, or the study of them
node
the point of attachment of leaves on a stem
obconical
conical but inverted with the narrow end to the point of attachment
oblanceolate
the reverse of lanceolate, with the widest part between the middle of the leaf and the apex
oblique
of the leaves, when the two sides of the leaf base meet at different points on the midrib or petiole; of the anther, when the slits of dehiscence slope inwards towards the top of the groove separating the sacs
oblong
when the sides of the leaves are parallel and narrow abruptly at both ends
obovate
when the broadest part of a leaf is beyond the middle, the opposite of ovate.
obovoid
egg-shaped (3 dimensional structures) with the broadest part towards the apex, the opposite of ovoid
 
operculum
in eucalypts, the cap (or caps) of a flower bud which is formed by the fusion of the sepals or the petals, and dehisces at maturity exposing the reproductive organs
operculum scar
ring scar on bud left by shedding of the outer operculum
orbicular
more or less round
ovary
the base of the female reproductive part of a flower comprising a central axis, the placentae, the ovules and the ovule-containing chambers
ovate
when the leaves are egg-shaped with the broadest part towards the petiole
ovoid
egg-shaped (3 dimensional structures), with the broadest part at the base
ovule
the organ of a seed-plant borne on the placenta that develops into a seed after fertilisation
panicle
a branched inflorescence
papillose
covered with short blunt protruberances
pedicel
the stalk of a flower, bud or fruit
peduncle
the common stalk of a cluster of flowers, buds or fruit
peltate
when the petiole of the leaves is attached on the underside within the margin
penniveined
feather-like; when the side veins of the leaf are very numerous, parallel, close together and at a relatively wide angle to the midrib
peppermint
of the bark, when the dead bark is persistent, relatively short-fibred, firm, interlaced and finely fissured longitudinally; of the leaf oils, detected when a strong peppermint smell is obtained by crushing the leaves
persistent
when the dead bark is not shed yearly and accumulates in the following forms - stringy, peppermint, compact, box, ironbark
petiole
leaf stalk
phyllotaxis
leaf arrangement on the stem, e.g. decussate, spiral etc.
pith
the inner core of tissue of a plant stem
pin-head
refers to stigma shape, the stigma widens suddenly at the top of the style, like the head of a pin
placenta
in flowering plants, the tissue in the ovary chamber bearing the ovules
powdery
when the bark surface has a white powder that can be rubbed off easily with fingers
primordia
cells or tissues in the earliest stages of differentiation
 
pyriform
pear-shaped
ramiflorus
for eucalypts, flowering from the naked branches and not the axils of the leaves
 
reniform
kidney-shaped; of the anthers and cotyledons
reticulation
network of veins in the leaf
ribbony
when long strips of partly shed bark remain in the crown or drape down the trunk
rim
the upper edge of the fruit
rugose
wrinkled
scar
ring scar on the side of a flower bud left by the loss of the outer operculum
scribbles
the irregular markings on the living bark of some species caused by burrowing insect larvae
seedling
the next growth phase of the leaves after the cotyledons but before the juvenile leaves
sepal
the outer perianth whorl of a flower which in eucalypts may become fused into a single structure, the outer operculum
series
a natural subgeneric grouping between section and species level in the classification of plants
sessile
of a leaf, bud or fruit, lacking a stalk
shrub
a mallee that is low and very irregularly branched, without a principal erect main stem
simple
of the inflorescence, when it is unbranched
species
the basic unit of classification which usually refers to one or several groups of plants or other living organisms that interbreed and maintain their distinctive identity through successive generations
stamen
the male reproductive part of a flower comprising, in eucalypts, a long filament surmounted by a pollen-bearing anther
staminode
a sterile stamen, one without an anther or with a reduced non-functional anther
staminophore
the band of tissue in a flower bud that subtends the stamens. In most species it is not conspicuous and, after flowering, it is either shed in fragments when the stamens fall or remains inconspicuous on the developing fruit. In some species it remains intact, persisting as an obvious dry annulus on the top of the fruit for some time after the stamens have fallen, but ultimately is deciduous. In E. polyanthemos subsp. longior the staminophore, complete with stamens, sheds as a "fairy ring" immediately after flowering.
stellate
of hairs with radiating papillae; or a star-shaped bud cluster
stigma
receptive pollen-collecting structure at the tip of the style
stocking
the persistent bark on the lower trunk of an otherwise smooth-barked tree
striate
marked with more or less parallel longitudinal ridges
stringybark
dead bark that is persistent, long-fibred, thick, furrowed, and often interlaced beneath the surface
style
the filament surmounting the ovary through which the pollen tube travels from the stigma to the ovules to effect fertilisation
subgenus
a natural group between genus and section used in the classification of plants
subspecies
a form of a species having a distinctive identity and occupying a particular habitat or region
syncarpy
where all buds in the cluster (or fruit in a cluster) are fused together by the bases
T
(type) the element of a taxon (for a species or subspecies, usually a botanical specimen) to which the name for that group is permanently attached, either as a correct name or as a synonym
terminal
of the inflorescence, occurring at the end of a branchlet and not axillary (in the axils of a leaf)
tessellated
occurring in small thick flakes or small squares
tubular
in the form of tube or tubicle
 
truncate
cut off, as in a truncate-globose fruit, which is globular but cut off at the top
turban-shaped
of the operculum, like a sheik's turban, a word to describe those opercula with rounded bases wider than the hypanthium
umbel
inflorescence with sessile or pedicellate flowers arising from the top of a peduncle; a simple inflorescence is a single umbel; a compound inflorescence has several to many umbels as subunits of the whole
uncinate
with a delicate hook at the tip (of a leaf)
undulate
of a leaf surface, wavy, not all of the lamina is in the same plane
urceolate
urn-shaped
valve
a sector of the roof of the capsule of a eucalypt fruit which is formed by dehiscence and is usually raised to allow the passage of seed and chaff
variety
one of two or more forms of a species with a minor morphological distinction
venation
the pattern of veins of the leaves
versatile
of the anthers, attached to a fine tip of the filament and able to pivot
winged
the longitudinal "wings" of a prominently 4-sided stem, or on some gumnuts; the thin, membranous, (usually transparent) appendage on the edge of some seed