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Davallia Sm.

Moderate-sized epiphytes or casually terrestrial. Rhizome long-creeping bearing roots on short lateral branches at the base of the fronds, densely covered with dark, attenuate, pale-margined, +/- ciliate, non-clathrate, peltate-based scales, +/- fleshy, generally lacking sclerenchyma, dictyostelic, the stele with a strong to moderate dorsiventral constriction, 2 meristeles larger and more elongate, the remained (leaf-traces) in 2 lateral arcs of number corresponding to the leaf traces. Fronds long-stipitate, the stipes articulate to short phyllopodia, remote, blabrous, +/- terete or slightly adaxially winged, the wings continuous with those of the higher order rachises, the axes prominent and continuous in the grooves so-formed, fibrovascular bundles several to munerous, in a V-shape with the 2 adaxial bundles larger, the lamina deltoid, bipinnate-pinnatifid to 4-pinnate pinnatifid, the basal acroscopic pinnules nearer to the rachis than the basiscopic pinnules (anadromous), the pinnae and pinnules deltoid, the ultimate segments with crenate or lobed margins, firmly herbaceous to coriaceous, glabrous, veins free, usually forked, terminating in the crenations of the +/- cartilaginous margin, pseudoveins sometimes recurrent from the sinuses; fertile fronds often more contracted than the sterile. Sporanagis borne in small discrete sori terminal on the veins, on small oblique lobes or crenations, the basiscopic and sometime the acroscopic side of the lobe produced into blunt curved teeth, intramarginal, indusium extrorse, elongate towards the margin, attached by the base and sides, sometimes equalling the margin; paraphyses absent, pedicel long, 3-seriate, annulus longitudinal, interrupted of c. 14 thickened cells. Spores monolete, smooth, translucent.

Species in Papuasia

1a. Fronds pubescent, dimorphous D. pullei
Fronds naked 2
2a. False veins present between the true veins 3
False veins absent 4
3a. Indusium reaching the margin D. denticulata
Indusium intramarginal D. papuana
4a. Indusium free, except towards the base D. epiphylla
Sides of indusium attached throughout 5
5a. Indusium hardly longer than broad 6
Indusium twice as long as broad 8
6a. Fronds over 50 cm long 7
Fronds smaller D. pyxidata
7a. Apex of indusium trunicate D. divaricata
Apex of indusium rounded D. tenuisecta
8a. Palae +/- naked, hardly spreading D. solida
Palae ciliate, spreading D. trichomanioides

Humata Carr.

Small, climbing epiphytes or subepiphytes. Rhizome long-creeping bearing roots on short lateral branches at the base of the fronds, densely covered with dark, attenuate, pale-margined, +/- ciliate, non-clathrate, peltate-based scales, slender, +/- fleshy, generally lacking sclerenchyma, dictyostelic, the stele with a strong to moderate dorsiventral constriction, 2 meristeles larger and more elongate, the remainder (leaf-traces) in 2 lateral arcs of 2. Fronds short- to long-stipitate, the stipes articulate to short phyllopodia, remote or in groups of 2-3 on short lateral branches, blagrous or with scattered scales, adaxially winged, the wings continuous with those of the higher order rachises, the axes prominent and continuous in the groove so-formed, fibrovascular bundles 2 uniting upwards into one of +/- U-shape, the lamina oblong-lanceolate and simple or deeply pinnatifid, or deltoid and pinnatifid to 3-pinnate-pinnatifid, the basal acroscopic pinnules nearer to the rachis than the basiscopic pinnules (anadromous), coriaceous, glabrous or with scattered fimbriate scales, the veins thick, free, simple or usually once- or twice-forked, terminating in the +/- cartilaginous margin; fertile fronds often longer and more finely divided than the sterile. Sporanagia borne in small discrete sori terminal on the acroscopic branch of a vein, the branch sometimes reduced so that the receptacle appears dorsal on the other vein, on small oblique lobes or crenations, the basiscopic and sometimes the acroscopic side of the lobe produced into blunt curved teeth, intramarginal, indusium extrose or +/- antrorse, reinform or roundish, attached at the base only, or rarely slightly at the sides, someitmes equalling the margin; paraphyses absent, pedicel long, 3-seriate, annulus longitudinal, interrupted of c. 12 thickened cells. Spores monolete, densely tuberculate, translucent.

Sect. Humata: Sterile fronds simple, fertile fronds deeply pinnatifid; sori on an obvious vein; indusium attached slightly along the side.

Sect. Pachypleuria: Sterile and fertile fronds +/- uniform, simple or bipinnatifid to 3-pinnate-pinnatifid; sori on an obvious vein; indusium completely free laterally.

Sect. Pteroneuron: Sterile and fertile fronds +/- uniform, deeply pinnatifid; sori on a vestigial acroscopic branch of a vein, the receptacle appearing dorsal; indusium completely free laterally.

Species in Papuasia

1a. No fronds more than once-pinnate or -pinnatifid 2
At least fertile fronds bipinnatifid or more divided 6
2a. Fronds dimorphous, the sterile fronds simple H. heterophylla
Fronds uniform 3
3a. Middle segments entire or nearly so (H. pectinata) 4
Middle segments coarsely toothed 5
4a. Veins thick; indusium deep H. parallela
Veins slendder; indusium short and wide H.tenuivenia
5a. Lowest segmetns reduced H. archboldii
Lowest segments not reduced H. sessilifolia
6a. Fertile, not sterile fronds bipinnatifid H. dimorpha
All fronds at least bipinnatifid, deltoid 7
7a. Fronds up to 5 cm long, fertile segments to 1 mm broad 8
Fronds larger or less finely dissected 11
8a. Stipes naked 9
Stipes scaly H. brassii
9a. Sterile segments to 1 mm wide 10
Sterile fronds less finely dissected H. pusilla
10a. Fertile fronds more dissected than sterile H. crassifrons
Fronds not dimorphous H. parvula
11a. Fronds 4 - 8 cm long; sterile hardly bipinnatifid above the base 12
Fronds larger and more compound 13
12a. Fronds not or slightly dimorphous H. repens
Fertile fronds contracted and more dissected H. kinabaluensis
13a. Axes bearing peltate acicular palae 14
Palae plain or wanting 15
14a. Stipe 1 - 3 cm long H. deltoidea
Stipe much longer H. tenuis
15a. Median sterile pinnae subentire 16
Median sterile pinnae at least incised 19
16a. Sterile frond lax 17
Sterile segments and pinnae continguous H. cromwelliana
17a. Fronds naked H. neoguineensis
Axes +/- scaly 18
18a. Palae of frond minute H. werneri
Palae of fronds conspicuous H. vestita
19a. Sori conspicuously intramarginal H. introrsa
Indusium reaching the margin 20
20a. Axes of segments nowhere 1 mm wide H. mecodioides
Less finely dissected H. similis

Scyphularia Fee

Small climbing epiphytes or subepiphytes, sometimes rupestral. Rhizome long-creeping bearing roots on short lateral branches at the base of the fronds, densely covered with dark, attenuate, pale-margined, +/- ciliate, non-clathrate, peltate-based scales, +/- fleshly, generally lacking sclerenchyma, dictyostelic, the stele with a strong to moderate dorsiventral constriction, 2 meristeles larger and more elongate, the remained (leaf-traces) in 2 lateral arcs of 3. Fronds long-stipitate, the stipes articulate to short phyllopodia, remote, glabrous, adaxially winged, the groove so-formed continuous with the rachis, the rachis +/- raised in the groove, fibrovascular bundles 3, the 2 adaxial bundles larger, the lamina simply pnnate with few pinnae, the apical pinna similar to the lateral pinnae, the basal pinnae sometimes forked or basally lobed (in reduced forms the lamina simple), the segmetns oblong to elongate-elliptic, +/- entire or serrulate, coriaceous, costate, veins free, close, once or twice forked, terminating in the teeth of the thick +/- cartilaginous margin; fertile fronds often longer and more contracted than the sterile, the veins simple or once-forked. Sporanagia borne in small discrete sori terminal on the veins, intramarginal, generally beneath a sinus and flanked by 2 teeth, indusium extrorse, elongate towards the margin, attached by the base and sides, sometimes equallying the margin; paraphyses absent, pedicel long, 3-seriate, annulus longitudinal, interrupted of c. 14 thickened cells. Spores monolete, smooth, translucent.

Species in Papuasia

1a. Margin entire, or the sori on teeth

S. pentaphylla

Sori between teeth 2
2a. Indusium +/- reaching the margin S. sinusora
Indusium redmote from the margin S. dorsalis