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Flora of New South Wales

Cumulative Glossary for Vascular Plants


abaxial:

facing away from axis or stem, such as the lower surface of a leaf. cf. adaxial.

abortive:

imperfectly developed; infertile.

abscission:

the normal shedding from a plant of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. a ripe fruit, an old leaf. adj. abscissile.

accrescent:

expanding after flowering, increasing in size with age, e.g. the calyx expanding around the base of a fruit.

achene:

a dry indehiscent 1-seeded fruit, from an either superior or inferior ovary of 1 carpel, with the seed not fused to the fruit wall; e.g. as in Ranunculaceae (from a superior ovary) and Asteraceae (from an inferior ovary and usually topped by the pappus and sometimes called a cypsela). Fig.18 Q, R &W.

acicular:

needle-shaped.

actinomorphic:

of a flower with the parts in each whorl particularly sepals, petals and stamens not differing in shape, size or placement. The flower therefore can be bisected symmetrically in several planes. cf. zygomorphic.

acuminate:

gradually tapering to a point. Fig.6 C.

acute:

pointed, having a short sharp apex, the converging edges forming an angle of less than 900. Fig.6 D. cf. obtuse.

adaxial:

facing towards the axis or stem. cf. abaxial.

adhesion:

where two dissimilar parts or organs stick together but without organic fusion. adj. adherent. cf. cohesion.

adnate:

(1) fusion of unlike parts, e.g. stamens fused to the corolla, cf. connate; (2) of an anther which has a broad point of attachment by which it is rigidly held at the apex of the filament, as in some eucalypts (family Myrtaceae). cf. versatile.

adventitious:

term describing any organ arising in an abnormal position, e.g. roots arising from the shoot system.

adventive:

introduced accidentally, as most exotic weeds are; often used of introductions that are not fully naturalized.

aerial root:

an adventitious root growing from the stem above ground level.

aestivation:

arrangement of the sepals and petals or their lobes in the unopened bud. Fig.11. cf. vernation.

aggregate fruit:

cluster of fruits derived from a single flower in which the carpels are free, or almost so, from each other. e.g. as in many Ranunculaceae, Annonaceae, Rosaceae. Fig.18 VX. cf. multiple fruit.

alternate:

(1) of leaves or flowers, inserted singly at different levels along the branches (commonly used to include spiral arrangement), Fig.2 A & B; (2) between, as in `stamens alternate with the petals'.

amplexicaul:

a term used of a leaf base, where it clasps the stem.

anastomosing:

fusing to form a network, as in the veins of a leaf.

androecium:

a collective name for the stamens, the male partof the flower. cf. gynoecium.

androgynophore:

a stalk bearing both the stamens and superior ovary, e.g. in Passifloraceae. cf. gynophore.

angiosperms:

the flowering plants; plants with ovules enclosed in an ovary.

annual:

a plant completing its life cycle within one year from germination to fruiting and then dying.

annular:

ring-shaped.

annulus:

the elastic ring of cells that initiates dehiscence in the sporangium of a fern.

anomalous:

irregular; abnormal.

anterior:

away from the axis, toward the subtending (enclosing) bract. cf. posterior.

anther:

the pollen-bearing part of the stamen, most often 2-locular with the loculi (pollen cavities) joined by the connective. Fig.20 AE.

anthesis:

the time of flowering; the time when pollen is shed.

anthocarp:

a false fruit consisting of the true fruit surrounded by the base of the perianth, as in Nyctaginaceae.

anthotelic (= determinate inflorescence):

an inflorescence with the inflorescence or parts of the inflorescence ending in a flower or an aborted but distinctly floral bud, e.g. panicle, thyrsoid, dichasium, monochasium, Fig.17 A, B, D & E. cf. indeterminate.

antrorse:

turned towards the apex, e.g. of hairs. cf. retrorse.

apex:

the tip. pl. apices.

apical:

of the apex or attached at the apex or top, e.g.`ovules attached to an apical placenta'. Fig.13 G.

apiculate:

with a small abrupt point which is demarcated from the organ to which it is attached, e.g. of some anthers.

apocarpous:

a gynoecium consisting of two or more carpels which are free and distinct from each other, e.g. as in Ranunculaceae and Dilleniaceae. cf. syncarpous.

apomixis:

the process whereby a plant produces viable seed without fertilization. adj. apomictic.

appendage:

an attachment developed on and projecting from the surface of an organ, e.g. anthers Fig. 20 H.

appressed:

pressed closely against another organ, e.g. of hairs on a leaf.

aquatic:

living in water.

arborescent:

tree-like.

archegonium:

a multicellular female sex organ producing and surrounding the egg.

areolate:

of surface pattern or venation, divided into many angular or squarish spaces, e.g. the venation and surface pattern in dried specimens in many Lauraceae. Fig.9 I.

areole:

(1) in Cactaceae, a cluster of hairs and/or spines borne at the node of a leafless stem; (2) a space in any reticulated surface, e.g. space between veins. adj. areolate.

aril:

an expansion of the funicle into a fleshy or membranous appendage, sometimes partially or wholly covering the surface of the seed, and often brightly coloured, as in some Sapindaceae. Fig.19 C. adj. arillate.

aristate:

having a stiff, bristle-like awn or tip. Fig.6 B.

armed:

with spines and/or prickles.

article:

(1) part of an organ which separates readily from the rest of an organ, e.g. as in a lomentum ; (2) portion of branchlet between whorls of teeth in Casuarinaceae.

articulated:

jointed; usually separating at the point of articulation into segments or articles, e.g. see unifoliolate leaf.

ascending:

at first spreading horizontally and then becoming erect. Fig.1 B.

asexual:

without that part of the life cycle which involves fertilization and meiosis.

asymmetric (oblique):

of a leaf, leaf base or other organ, having the sides unequal. Fig.7 E.

attenuate:

narrowing gradually. Fig.7 A.

auricle:

(1) an ear-like outgrowth at the base of the sheath of some grasses and other monocots; (2) an ear-shaped lobe at the base of a leaf or other organ. adj. auriculate. Fig.7 G.

autotrophic:

independent of other organisms in respect of organic nutrition, able to form carbohydrates by process of photosynthesis. cf. parasite.

awn:

a bristle-like appendage terminating an organ or inserted on its back. adj. awned. cf. aristate.

axil:

the upper angle between one part of a plant and another part, e.g. the stem and a leaf, primary and secondary veins. adj. axillary.

axile:

(1) on the axis; (2) of placentation, with the placentas and ovules along the central axis of the ovary ina compound ovary with septa, Fig.13 C & D.

axillary bud:

the bud or buds formed in the angle between the stem and the subtending (enclosing) leaf or bract.

axis:

the central stem of a plant or an inflorescence, or the elongated part of the receptacle on which floral organs are situated.

barbed:

term describing a bristle or awn with terminal or lateral backward

pointing projections, each projection being a barb. Fig.15 J.

barbellate:

minutely barbed.

basal:

(1) (radical) attached or grouped at the base, e.g. of leaves in a rosette, Fig.2 I; (2) of placentation, with the placenta at the base of the ovary, Fig.13 H.

basifixed:

attached at or by the base, e.g. of anthers attached by the base to the filament. Fig. 20 B. cf. dorsifixed, versatile.

beak:

a prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.

berry:

a fleshy or pulpy indehiscent fruit with 1 or more seeds, the seeds embedded in the fleshy tissue of the pericarp; may be formed from either a superior or an inferior ovary. Fig.18 D & E.

biennial:

a herb completing the cycle from germination to fruiting in more than one, but less than two, years and then dying.

bifid (2-fid):

divided into two parts, usually to about halfway.

bifoliolate (2-foliolate):

of a compound leaf, with two leaflets. Fig.3 J.

bilocular (2-locular):

having two cavities, e.g. of ovary or anther.

bipinnate (2-pinnate):

of a compound leaf, with the lamina divided twice pinnately, i.e. with the pinnae themselves divided pinnately into pinnules. Fig.3 B.

bipinnatifid (2-pinnatifid):

of a simple leaf, with the primary lobes cut into smaller lobes (i.e. lobes pinnatifid) Fig 5 T. cf. bipinnate.

biseriate (2-seriate):

arranged in two rows or whorls.

bisexual:

of a flower, with both stamens and carpels present and functional. cf. unisexual.

biternate (2-ternate):

twice ternate, the 3 pinnae each divided into 3 pinnules (a total of 9 pinnules). Fig.3 M.

blade (lamina):

an expanded portion of a leaf.

blastotelic (indeterminate inflorescence):

an inflorescence or part of an inflorescence not ending in a flower, i.e. ending in a non-floral bud, e.g. a thyrse, raceme or spike, Fig.17 C, H &I. cf. determinate.

bloom:

the white waxy covering on some fruits, leaves or stems. See also pruinose.

bole:

the trunk of a tree below the lowest branch. cf. crown.

boss:

a protuberance.

botryoid:

a term describing an inflorescence of similar form to a botryum but ending in a flower or floral bud; includes raceme-like, spike-like, umbel-like and other variants.

botryum:

a simple inflorescence ending in a vegetative (non-floral) bud in which the main axis bears lateral flowers; includes racemes, spikes, umbels and corymbs.

brackish:

slightly salty.

bract:

usually a more or less modified leaf, especially a smaller one associated with a flower or part of an inflorescence.

bracteole:

bract-like structure borne singly or in pairs on the pedicel or calyx of a flower.

bristle:

a more or less straight stiff hair. Fig. 14 N. adj. bristly. cf. spine.

bulb:

a storage organ, usually underground, composed of stem and leaf bases.

bulbil:

a small bulb formed in the axil of a leaf or bract and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.

bulblet:

a small bulb arising from another bulb.

bullate:

with the surface blistered or puckered. Fig.16 F.

burr:

a prickly propagule consisting of a seed or fruit and associated floral parts.

buttress:

a flange protruding from the lower part of the trunk, frequent in rainforest trees.

C3 plants:

plants that use the C3 pathway of carboxylation and do not have specialized Kranz anatomy, i.e. the majority of autotrophic plants. See also Kranz anatomy.

C4 plants:

plants that use the C4 pathway of carboxylation and have specialized Kranz anatomy. See also Kranz anatomy.

caducous:

falling early, e.g. of stipules. cf. deciduous.

caespitose:

growing in tufts.

callosity:

a thickened and hardened swelling on the surface of an organ.

callus:

(1) a small hard protrusion, e.g. on the labellum of some Orchidaceae; (2) a hard point below the lemma, in spikelets of Poaceae; (3) a protective layer of tissue formed over an injury. pl. calli.

calyculus:

the collective term for the involucral bracts (or phyllaries) surrounding a head in the Asteraceae.

calyptra (operculum):

a cap-like covering or lid of some flowers or fruits that becomes detached at maturity by abscission; e.g. (1) the cap on the buds of eucalypts, (2) the lid of circumsciss capsules.

calyx:

the sepals of one flower collectively. pl. calyces.

calyx tube:

a tube formed by the fusion of the sepals, but sometimes wrongly used in the sense of hypanthium.

cambium:

the meristem (growing region) in woody stems and fruits that forms the woody tissue.

campanulate:

bell-shaped.

canopy:

(1) the branches and foliage of a tree; (2) often used as a collective term for the crowns of trees in a forest.

capitate:

(1) shaped like a head; (2) in a head-like cluster.

capitulum (head):

a dense cluster of more or less sessile flowers, e.g. in Asteraceae a group of florets sessile on a common receptacle. Fig.17 O & P.

capsule:

a dry dehiscent fruit derived from two or more carpels. Capsules may dehisce in various ways. Fig.18 LP. adj. capsular.

carnivorous:

capable of trapping and digesting animals.

carpel:

a unit of the female part of the flower (gynoecium), consisting of an ovary bearing one or more ovules, a receptive stigma, and often a stalk-like style between them. A flower can have a solitary carpel (and then the terms gynoecium and pistil are synonymous, Fig. 13 A & G) or more than one carpel. If the carpels (pistils) are free the gynoecium is apocarpous or if the carpels are fused the gynoecium (pistil) is syncarpous (or compound).

carpophore:

in a fruit, the stalk of a mericarp. Fig. 18 H.

caruncle (strophile):

an appendage of a seed, near the hilum (scar). Fig.19 D. adj. carunculate.

caryopsis:

a dry, indehiscent 1-seeded fruit in which the seed is fused to the wall of the fruit, as in family Poaceae. Fig.18S.

cataphyll:

(1) a scale leaf associated with a vegetative part of a plant; (2) a leaf composed mostly of a leaf sheath or base with the lamina reduced to a minute awn, e.g. in some Juncus species.

catkin:

a dense spike-like inflorescence, usually pendulous, with minute unisexual flowers.

caudate:

bearing a narrow tail-like appendage.

cauliflory:

the production of flowers or fruits on well-developed trunks or major branches. adj. cauliflorous. cf. ramiflory.

cauline:

borne on the more or less elongated aerial portion of a stem, e.g. describing leaves. cf. radical.

cell:

the basic unit of plant structure consisting, at leastwhen young, of a protoplast surrounded by a wall.

chaff:

(1) membranous scales or bracts; (2) thin dry unfertilized ovules among the fully developed seeds of a fruit, as in many eucalypts.

character:

any feature of an organism or taxonomic group that can be measured, counted or otherwise assessed.

chasmogamous:

of flowers that are pollinated while open. cf. cleistogamous.

chlorophyll:

pigment(s) constituting the green colouring matter in plants and absorbing radiant energy in photosynthesis.

ciliate:

having the margin fringed with hairs, resembling an eyelash. Fig.14 I. cf. fimbriate.

ciliolate:

having the margin minutely fringed.

circinate:

spirally coiled with the tip innermost as in the young fronds of many ferns. Fig.11 A.

circular (orbiculate):

a 2-dimensional shape with length and breadth more or less equal. Fig.5 E.

circumsciss (circumscissile):

breaking open along a transverse line so that the top (calyptra) comes off like a lid, as in some capsules. Fig.18 O.

cladode:

a photosynthetic stem whose foliage leaves are usually reduced or absent.

clasping:

surrounding or embracing, e.g. stem-clasping, of a lamina surrounding the stem.

clathrate:

latticed.

clavate:

club-shaped.

claw:

a narrow, stalk-like basal portion of a petal, sepal orbract. cf. limb.

cleistogamous:

of flowers that remain closed and are self-pollinating and set fertile seed. cf. chasmogamous.

closed forest (rainforest):

a forest dominated by broad-leaved trees with dense crowns that form a continuous layer (canopy) and with one or more of the following growth forms

cobwebbed:

covered with long weak, loosely entangled hairs, resembling a spiderweb; usually whitish. adj. cobwebby.

coccus:

one of the segments (usually 1-seeded) of a distinctly lobed fruit which becomes separated at maturity; sometimes called a mericarp. Fig.18 H & P. pl. cocci.

cohesion:

the sticking together of two or more similar parts that are not organically fused. adj. coherent. cf. adhesion.

colliculate:

of a surface, rough with low rounded protuberances. Fig.16 A.

columella:

the persistent central axis in some fruits and cones.

column:

(1) (gynostemium) a structure formed by the union of stamens, style and stigmas, as in Orchidaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Stylidiaceae; (2) the lower part of an awn in grasses, when different in form from the upper part.

coma:

a tuft of hairs, especially on a seed or fruit.

complicate:

folded together.

compound:

composed of several more or less similar parts, as opposed to simple; e.g. of an ovary formed from severalunited carpels or of a leaf divided into leaflets. Fig.3 AF, IM.

concolorous:

with the same colour throughout or on both surfaces. cf. discolorous.

conduplicate:

folded flat together lengthwise, e.g. as in aestivation. Fig.11 C.

cone:

(1) a group of sporophylls arranged tightly on a central axis, as in cycads and conifers

conflorescence:

a branch system bearing flowers in which the main axis bears uniflorescences, but is itself qualitatively different in structure from the uniflorescences.

conical:

cone-shaped, with the broad end at the base.

connate:

fusion of similar parts, e.g. petals into a corolla tube. cf. adnate.

connective:

the sterile part of an anther connecting the loculi.

conspecific:

belonging to one and the same species.

contorted:

twisted; a form of imbricate aestivation in which each segment has one edge overlapping the next segment. Fig.11 E.

convolute:

rolled with margins overlapping. Fig.11 D.

coppice shoot:

a shoot developed from a dormant bud in the trunk or larger branches of a tree, the leaves on such a shoot often differ from the adult leaves and are called juvenile leaves (similar to sapling leaves); a common feature of many eucalypts and rainforest trees. Coppiceshoots usually develop after damage to the trunk by fire, cutting etc. fIG. 1 G.

cordate:

of a leaf or leaf base, heart-shaped with a basal notch. Fig.7 F.

coriaceous:

leathery.

corm:

a short, broad, fleshy, subterranean stem which produces aerial stems, leaves and flowers and in which food reserves are stored.

corolla:

the petals of a flower collectively, frequently brightly coloured or white.

corona:

any ring of tissue or appendage that stands between the perianth and the stamens, or on the perianth. e.g. as in Passiflora species.

corymb:

an inflorescence (without a terminal flower) in which all the flowers are at the same level even though the pedicels arise at different levels. Fig.17 K.

cotyledon:

the first leaf or leaves of the embryo, present in the seed.

crenate:

of a margin, with shallow, rounded teeth. Fig.8 B.

crenulate:

finely crenate.

crested:

with a terminal ridge or tuft.

crisped:

very strongly, and usually finely, wavy. Fig.8 I. cf. undulate.

crown:

the part of a tree or shrub above the level of the lowest branch.

culm:

an aerial stem bearing the inflorescence, in grasses, rushes etc.

cultivar:

cultivated variety, a variety developed incultivation. An assemblage of cultivated individuals distinguished by any characters significant for the purposes of agriculture, forestry or horticulture, and which, when reproduced retains its distinguishing features.

cuneate:

wedge-shaped, e.g. of a leaf or leaf base. Fig. 7B.

cyathium:

an inflorescence of reduced unisexual flowers surrounded by involucral bracts, e.g. in Euphorbia species. Fig.17 R.

cylindric:

tubular or rod-shaped.

cyme:

an inflorescence in which the main axis ends in a flower and further growth of the inflorescence is by one or more branches which themselves end in a flower (the main and lateral branches may bear bracteoles but have no bracts, leaves or nodes). adj. cymose. e.g. dichasium, monochasium. Fig.17 D & E.

cypsela (an achene):

the fruit formed in most Asteraceae; a dry indehiscent 1-seeded fruit formed from inferior ovary of 1 carpel, with the seed not fused to the fruit wall and usually topped by the pappus. Fig.18 R.

cystoliths:

mineral concretions, usually of calcium carbonate on a cellulose stalk, chiefly occurring in specialized hairs in some Urticaceae and Cannabaceae and in Acanthaceae; often appearing as tubercle-based hairs. Fig.15 B.

deciduous:

(1) falling seasonally, e.g. of the leaves and bark of some trees, cf. caducous; (2) a plant losing its leaves for part of the year, cf. evergreen.

decumbent:

spreading horizontally with the ends growingupwards. Fig.1 J.

decurrent:

extending downwards beyond the point of insertion, e.g. of a petiole extending down the stem as a ridge. Fig.4C.

decurved:

bent downwards and curved. cf. deflexed.

decussate:

in pairs, with successive pairs borne at right angles to each other. Fig.2 D.

deflexed:

bent sharply downwards. cf. reflexed, decurved.

dehiscent:

opening at maturity to release the contents, e.g of a fruit, anther etc.

deltate:

a 2-dimensional triangular shape.

deltoid:

triangular, but a 3-dimensional solid.

dendritic:

much branched, like the crown of a tree, e.g. of hairs. Fig.15 F.

depauperate:

impoverished.

depressed:

flattened as if pressed down from the top or end, especially of 3

dimensional shapes.

determinate:

(1) of growth or branching, with a bud or flower terminating the main axis; (2) of an inflorescence (= anthotelic), with the inflorescence or parts of the inflorescence ending in a flower or an aborted but distinctly floral bud, e.g. panicle, thyrsoid, dichasium, monochasium, Fig.17 A, B, D & E. cf. indeterminate.

diadelphous:

having the stamens united by their filaments into two groups, as in Fabaceae subfamily Faboideae. Fig.20 F. cf. monadelphous.

dichasium:

a cyme in which branches appear in regular opposite pairs. Fig.17 D. cf. monochasium.

dichotomous:

divided into two equal forks, e.g. of the branching pattern of stems or veins. Fig.9 G.

dicotyledons:

a major group of angiosperms (flowering plants) characterized by the embryo usually having two (rarely more) cotyledons (seed leaves). cf. monocotyledons.

didynamous:

in 2 pairs of unequal length.

digitate (palmate):

of a compound leaf with 3 or more leaflets arising from one point at top of petiole, Fig.3 E.

dimorphic:

occurring in two different forms.

dioecious:

with male and female flowers on different plants. cf. monoecious.

diploid:

having two lots of the basic set of chromosomes in the nucleus. cf. haploid, polyploid.

disarticulate:

to separate at a joint.

disc:

an outgrowth of tissue from the receptacle in the form of a ring or plate, sometimes divided into lobes or separate bodies, occurring between whorls of floral parts; generally glandular.

disc florets (disc flowers):

usually actinomorphic flowers produced in the central part of the head and with a tubular corolla with more or less equal lobes, as in most Asteraceae. cf. ray floret.

discoid:

(1) disc-shaped, flat and circular; (2) having only disc florets.

discolorous:

coloured differently on the two surfaces. cf. concolorous.

disjunct-opposite:

a variant of opposite and decussate leaf arrangement in which during development the leaves of a pairbecome separated on the axis owing to elongation of the nodal region, often giving the appearance of `alternate' leaf arrangement but distinguished by decussate, not spiral, sequence.

dissected:

divided at least partially into segments.

distal:

towards the free end or apex, away from the point of attachment.

distichous (2-ranked):

arranged in two rows on opposite sides of a stem and in the same plane. Fig. 2 B.

distinct:

separate, free.

divaricate:

broadly spreading, more or less horizontal. Fig.1E.

domatia:

small structures on the lower surface of some leaves, usually consisting of depressions, partly enclosed by leaf tissue or hairs, usually located in the axils of the primary and secondary veins. Fig.19 A & B.

dorsal (abaxial):

relating to the back of an organ, i.e. the surface of a lateral organ facing away from the axis. cf. ventral.

dorsifixed:

attached at or by the back. cf. basifixed, versatile.

dorsiventral:

term describing leaves in which the upper and lower surfaces differ from each other in texture, presence of hairs, stomates etc. cf. isobilateral.

doubly toothed:

with smaller regular teeth on the margins of larger teeth, as in some Prunus species. Fig. 8 D.

drupaceous:

term describing a fruit which is a drupe or drupe-like.

drupe:

an indehiscent succulent fruit derived from a single carpel in which the pericarp consists of three layers

drupelet:

one drupe of a mature fruit composed of a cluster of small drupes, as in blackberries, the `seed' being a pyrene. Fig.18 X.

dry sclerophyll forest:

an open forest in which scleromorphic (hard-leaved) shrubs form a layer below the trees (usually species of eucalypts). cf. wet sclerophyll forest.

dyad:

in twos, a pair.

ellipsoid:

the 3-dimensional equivalent of elliptic.

elliptic:

a 2-dimensional shape, oval in outline, broadest about the middle. Fig.5 D.

elongate:

lengthened; stretched out.

emarginate:

having a broad shallow notch at the apex. Fig.6 G.

embryo:

the rudimentary plant present in a mature seed or within the archegonium after fertilization and some development.

emergent:

of a plant, (1) rising above the surrounding plants, e.g. of a tree above the rainforest canopy; (2) rising above the surface of the water.

enation:

epidermal outgrowth, projection.

endemic:

having a natural distribution confined to a particular geographic region. cf. native.

endocarp:

the innermost layer of the pericarp. cf. exocarp.

endosperm:

nutritive tissue within the seed, usually surrounding the embryo or to one side of it, and formed within the embryo sac (in angiosperms a product of accessory fertilization). cf. perisperm.

entire:

of a margin, neither dissected nor toothed. Fig.8 A.

ephemeral:

short-lived annual.

epicalyx:

a whorl of bracts just below the flower, resembling an extra calyx.

epicarp:

the outermost layer of the pericarp.

epicormic:

term describing buds, shoots or flowers borne on the old wood of trees, often applied to shoots arising from dormant buds after injury or fire, as in eucalypts.

epidermis:

the outer layer of cells of an organ.

epigynous:

of floral parts, especially stamens, inserted on or above the ovary, and arising from tissue that is fused to the ovary wall. Fig.12 B. cf. hypogynous, perigynous.

epimatium:

the ovule-bearing scale in some conifers, as in Podocarpus species.

epipetalous:

borne on the petals.

epiphyllous:

growing on leaves, as plantlets on the leaves in some Crassulaceae.

epiphyte:

a plant perched, but not parasitic, on another plant. Fig. 1 I.

equitant:

of leaves, folded longitudinally with the two inner surfaces (representing the upper leaf surface) fused except towards the base where it clasps another leaf on the opposite side of the stem; one margin represents the leaf keel and the lamina is vertically orientated; as in Iris. Leaf arrangement, Fig.2 E; cross section through equitant arrangement Fig.11 B.

erect:

(1) upright, e.g. of a shrub, Fig.1 A; (2) perpendicular to a surface, e.g. of hairs.

eremean:

pertaining to regions of low, irregular rainfall.

ericoid:

of leaves, small and sharply pointed like those of the heaths.

erose:

of margins, irregular as if nibbled. Fig.8 E.

eusporangiate:

of ferns, having sporangia with walls more than one cell thick, originating from a group of cells. cf. leptosporangiate.

evergreen:

a plant bearing leaves throughout the year. cf. deciduous.

excentric:

not centrally placed, without a fixed centre.

exine:

the outer layer of a pollen grain or spore.

exocarp:

the combined epicarp and mesocarp of a fruit. cf. endocarp.

exotic:

introduced from outside the area concerned, in the case of N.S.W. usually from overseas.

exserted:

projecting beyond the surrounding objects, e.g. of stamens protruding beyond the perianth, or of valves projecting beyond the rim of a capsular fruit. cf. included.

extrafloral:

not within the flower, usually applied to nectariferous glands, e.g. as those on the petiole in some Croton species and on the phyllodes of some wattles. Fig. 19 EH.

extrorse:

of stamens, dehiscing towards the outside of theflower. cf. introrse, latrorse.

falcate:

sickle-shaped, e.g. of a leaf. Fig.5 N.

family:

a group of one or more genera believed to be related. cf. genus.

fascicled:

arranged in bundles or clusters, e.g. leaves. Fig. 2J.

feldmark:

high altitude plant community characterized by scattered, dwarf prostrate plants with a mat or cushion habit.

felted:

matted with very short interlocked hairs, having the appearance or texture of felt. Fig. 14 d. cf. tomentose.

fertile:

capable of reproducing itself; also used of portions of a plant or organ producing reproductive structures.

fertilization:

the union of female and male gametes.

-fid:

a suffix

filament:

(1) any thread-like body; (2) the stalk of a stamen.

filiform:

thread-like. Fig. 5 A.

fimbriate:

having the margin fringed with long hair-like processes. Fig.14 J. cf. ciliate.

flexuous (flexuose):

bent from side to side in one plane in zigzag form.

floccose:

covered with soft woolly hairs which are entangled and tend to rub off.

flora:

(1) the assemblage of plant taxa of an area; (2) a book dealing systematically with the plants of an area.

floral:

belonging to or associated with a flower.

floret:

(1) a small flower, one of a spikelet or densecluster, as in Asteraceae; (2) a grass flower, together with the lemma and palea that enclose it.

flower:

the sexual reproductive structure of angiosperms, typically consisting of an axis bearing perianth parts, androecium and gynoecium. Fig.12.

-foliolate:

an adjective used with a number prefix to indicate the number of leaflets forming a compound leaf.

follicle:

a dry fruit derived from a single carpel and opening along one suture. Fig.18 F & G.

forb:

a non-woody plant other than a grass, sedge, rush, etc. cf. herb.

forest:

a plant community dominated by long-boled trees in close proximity. cf. woodland.

form (forma):

the smallest taxonomic category, generally used for variations occurring among individuals of any population.

free:

not united with any other organ.

free-central:

of placentation, with the placenta along the central axis in a compound ovary without septa. Fig.13 E&F.

frond:

the leaf of a fern or cycad; sometimes used for a large compound leaf as in palms.

fruit:

the seed-bearing structure in angiosperms, formed from the ovary after flowering. Fig.18.

funicle:

the stalk of the ovule.

fused:

joined and growing together.

fusiform:

spindle-shaped, i.e. narrower at both ends than at the middle.

galea:

in Orchidaceae, a perianth segment or group of perianth segments shaped like a helmet.

gamete:

a reproductive cell; a cell or nucleus that fuses with another in sexual reproduction.

gametophyte:

the body that bears gametes; produced by the germinating spore. cf. prothallus.

gamophyllous:

having the bases of opposite leaves fused around the stem. Fig. 4 E.

geniculate:

bent like a knee.

genus:

a taxonomic group of closely related species or a single species without close relatives; closely related genera are grouped into families. pl. genera.

geophyte:

a plant with an underground storage organ (e.g. corm, tuber, bulb or rhizome) and with annually renewed aerial shoots.

glabrescent:

becoming glabrous.

glabrous:

without hairs or scales.

gland:

a structure, within or on the surface of a plant, with a secretory function; e.g. surface glands (Fig.16 E), petiolar or lamina glands (Fig.19 EH).

glandular:

having glands, e.g. of hairs (Fig.15 C), of a surface (Fig. 16 E).

glaucous:

dull blue-green in colour, with a whitish bloom which can often be rubbed off; sometimes characteristic of young leaves, as in some eucalypts. cf. pruinose.

globose (globular, orbicular, spherical):

a 3-dimensional shape, ball-shaped, more or less circular in outline.

glochid:

a barbed bristle, as in many Cactaceae.

glomerule:

a small compact cluster, e.g. of flowers.

glumaceous:

having the nature of or resembling a glume, tending to be chaffy or membranous in texture.

glume:

a bract in the inflorescence of some monocots; (1) one of the two bracts at the base of the grass spikelet; (2) also used in Cyperaceae and Restionaceae for the small bracts on the spikelet in which flower is subtended.

grain:

the fruit of grasses, see caryopsis.

granular:

of a surface, finely mealy, covered with small granules.

gymnosperms:

plants, such as conifers and cycads, whose seeds are naked, the ovules not being enclosed in an ovary.

gynobasic:

of a style, arising near the base of the gynoecium between the lobes of the ovary.

gynoecium:

the carpel (if solitary) or carpels of a flower collectively; the female part of the flower. cf. androecium.

gynophore:

the stalk of a superior ovary. cf. androgynophore.

gynostemium:

see column.

habit:

the general appearance of a plant, including size, shape and growth

form. Fig.1.

habitat:

the kind of place in which a plant grows.

hair:

an outgrowth of the epidermis, usually elongate and consisting of one or more cells. Figs 14 & 15.

half-inferior:

of an ovary, partly below and partly above the level of attachment of the perianth and stamens. Fig.12 C.

halophyte:

a plant adapted to living in a highly saline area;a plant that accumulates a high concentration of salt in its tissues.

haploid:

having a single set of chromosomes in the nucleus. cf. diploid, polyploid.

hastate:

spear-shaped; of a leaf, with a narrow, pointed lamina with two basal lobes spreading more or less at right angles to the petiole. Fig.7 I.

haustorium:

the absorbing organ of some parasitic or hemiparasitic plants through which substances pass from the host to the parasite.

head (capitulum):

a dense cluster of more or less sessile flowers, e.g. in Asteraceae a group of florets sessile on a common receptacle. Fig.17 O & P.

heath:

(1) a plant community dominated by small, closely spaced shrubs, most of which have stiff and often small leaves; (2) a plant with small hard leaves, as in many Epacridaceae.

hemiparasite:

an organism that is partly parasitic on another organism, e.g. mistletoes.

hemispherical:

semiglobose.

herb:

a plant that does not produce a woody stem, although it may be woody at the base. adj. herbaceous. cf. forb.

herbaceous:

herb-like, not woody; often applied to bracts, bracteoles or floral parts that are green and soft in texture.

hermaphrodite:

of a plant with all flowers bisexual.

heterosporous:

a plant producing spores of two different kinds in the sexual reproductive cycle. See megaspore,microspore. cf. homosporous.

heterostylous:

flowers with styles of different lengths, sizes or shapes in the same species. cf. homostylous.

hilum:

the scar on the seed coat where the seed was attached to the funicle.

hip:

the false aggregate `fruit' in Rosa species. Fig.18 V.

hirsute:

bearing coarse, moderately stiff, longish hairs. Fig.14L.

hispid:

bristly. See bristle.

hoary:

with a dense covering of hairs so that the surface appears whitish or greyish.

homosporous:

producing only one kind of spore in the sexual reproductive cycle, and hence each with gametophyte producing both male and female gametes. cf. heterosporous.

homostylous:

flowers with styles of similar length, size and shape in the same species. cf. heterostylous.

host:

an organism on which a parasite lives and by which it is nourished; also applied to a plant supporting an epiphyte.

hyaline:

translucent.

hybrid:

the offspring of genetically different parents (in a flora, usually applied where the parents are of different species).

hybrid swarm:

a variable population resulting from crossing and segregation amongst the offspring of a hybrid or hybrids, including one or both of the parent taxa.

hydrophyte:

a plant growing submerged in water, sometimes partly emergent.

hygroscopic:

capable of expanding or contracting in responseto presence or absence of water or atmospheric moisture.

hypanthium:

a cup-like or tubular structure formed above the base, and often above the top, of the ovary with the stamens and perianth parts inserted on the rim. e.g. as in Onagraceae and some Myrtaceae. Fig.12 D.

hypogynous:

inserted below the level of the ovary, e.g. of sepals, petals and stamens. Fig.12 A. cf. perigynous, epigynous.

imbricate:

(1) of perianth parts, having their edges overlapping in the bud, see aestivation, Fig.11 F; (2) of leaves, closely packed and overlapping, Fig.2 H.

imparipinnate:

term describing a pinnate leaf with a single terminal leaflet, and therefore usually with an odd number of leaflets. Fig.3 C. cf. paripinnate.

included:

enclosed, not protruding, e.g. of stamens not projecting beyond the perianth or of valves which do not extend beyond the rim of a capsular fruit. cf. exserted.

incurved:

of leaf margins, curved inwards or upwards. Fig.10 B. cf. recurved, involute.

indefinite:

variable in number; numerous; of an inflorescence, not terminating in a flower.

indehiscent:

not opening at maturity to release seed or pollen.

indeterminate:

(1) term describing growth or branching in which the terminal bud persists and produces successive lateral branches; (2) of an inflorescence of part of an inflorescence (=blastotelic), not ending in a flower, i.e.ending in a non-floral bud, e.g. a thyrse, raceme or spike, Fig.17 C, H &I. cf. determinate.

indigenous:

native to the area; not introduced. cf. endemic.

indumentum:

a general term for the hairy or scaly covering of plants.

induplicate:

of perianth parts, having their edges folded inwards in bud, but without overlapping, see aestivation. Fig.11 H.

indusium:

(1) the tissue covering the sorus of a fern; (2) the pollen-cup of the style of some Goodeniaceae.

inferior ovary:

an ovary below the level of attachment of the perianth parts and stamens and completely fused with the hypanthium or at most with a free summit (Fig. 12 B); if less fused see half-inferior (Fig. 12 C). The floral parts of a flower with such an ovary are said to be epigynous.

inflexed:

bent inwards.

inflorescence:

a general term for the flower-bearing system of a plant, and more particularly for portions of such systems separated from one another by vegetative portions of the plant. Fig.17.

infraspecific:

of taxa, below the level of species

infructescence:

the inflorescence in the fruiting stage; the arrangement of fruits, including peduncle, pedicels, bracts and fruit.

insectivorous:

trapping and feeding on insects and, by extension, other small invertebrates.

inserted (on):

attached to; arising from.

integument:

a covering; one of the outer layers of tissue of an ovule.

inter-:

a prefix

intercalary:

of a meristem (growing region), situated between regions of permanent tissue, e.g. at the base of nodes and leaves in many monocotyledons.

interjugary:

of glands, present on the rachises of bipinnate leaves between the junction of pairs of pinnae or of pinnules. as in some Acacia species. cf. jugary.

intermediate leaves:

leaves that develop after the juvenile and before the mature leaves in plants which have dimorphic or trimorphic foliage.

internode:

the portion of the stem between two successive nodes.

interpetiolar:

of stipules, between the petiole bases of two opposite leaves. Fig. 4 J.

interrupted inflorescence:

one with flowers in distinct clusters and with bare axis or stem between the clusters.

intramarginal:

situated inside the margin but close to it, e.g. of veins in the leaves of many Myrtaceae.

intricate:

of plants, with many entangled branches. Fig.1 D.

introduced:

not native to the area; not indigenous.

introrse:

of anthers, dehiscing towards the centre of the flower (check in bud!). cf. extrorse, latrorse.

invagination:

the process of forming a pocket by turning in on itself, as in the floral axis of figs (e.g. Ficus species where the minute flowers and fruits are actually inside theswollen inflorescence stem, the `fig'); the resulting multiple fruit is a syconium. Fig.18 Y.

involucre:

(1) a whorl or several whorls of bracts surrounding a flower or an inflorescence (as around the head in many Asteraceae); (2) a layer of tissue enveloping a particular structure, such as sporangia in many ferns, e.g. Hymenophyllaceae.

involute:

rolled inwards; of a leaf margin rolled upwards. Fig.10 C. cf. revolute.

isobilateral (isolateral):

having structurally similar upper and lower surfaces. cf. dorsiventral.

joint:

(1) an articulation, as in a 1-foliolate leaf, Fig.3 I; (2) a segment of some cladodes, as in many Cactaceae; (3) a node.

jugary:

of glands, present on the rachises of bipinnate leaves at the junctions of pairs of pinnae or of pinnules, as in some Acacia species. Fig. 19 H. cf. interjugary.

juvenile leaves:

the first-formed leaves, especially when they differ from the adult leaves.

keel:

(1) a ridge like the keel of a boat, usually on the back of an organ; (2) the two fused anterior petals of the pea flower, see Fabaceae subfamily Faboideae.

kino:

reddish exudate from the bark or wood of some trees, see ironbarks in Myrtaceae.

Kranz anatomy:

a specialized anatomy associated with the C4 carboxylation pathway in plants. The vascular system isassociated with at least two distinct photosynthetic cell types usually arranged in concentric layers. The cell types differ in ultrastructure and in function. Found in some grasses (Poaceae) and chenopods (Chenopodiaceae). See papers for explanation of terms. Refs Carolin, Jacobs, & Vesk (1973 & 1978).

labellum:

the distinctive median petal in Orchidaceae, usually differing in size and shape from those either side.

lacerate:

as if torn; irregularly cut or cleft. Fig.8 F.

laciniate:

as if cut into narrow slender teeth or lobes. Fig.8G.

lacuna:

a gap or cavity.

lamella:

a thin plate-like layer. adj. lamellose.

lamina:

an expanded portion of a leaf or petal. pl. laminas.

laminate:

broadened into a lamina.

lanceolate:

lance-shaped; 36 times as long as broad and broadest below the middle and tapering to the apex. Fig.5I.

latex:

a fluid exuded from cut surfaces of the leaves and stems of some plants, usually milky, sometimes yellowish and watery, e.g. as in many Moraceae and Apocynaceae.

latrorse:

turned sideways; of anthers, dehiscing longitudinally on the side. cf. extrorse, introrse.

leaf:

an organ borne on the stem of a plant, usually expanded and green; typically consisting of the more or less expanded lamina and the petiole or leaf stalk.

leaflet:

one of the ultimate segments of a compound leaf. cf.pinna, pinnule.

leaf-opposed:

arising from the stem opposite a leaf-base, as do some tendrils or inflorescences.

legume:

(1) a pod, a dry dehiscent fruit formed from one carpel and having two longitudinal lines of dehiscence, Fig.18 I; (2) a member of the family Fabaceae.

lemma:

the lower of two bracts enclosing the flower of a grass; male lemma

lemma enclosing a male flower; sterile lemma - an empty lemma.

lenticel:

a small raised corky spot or line appearing on young bark, through which gaseous exchange occurs.

lenticular:

a 3-dimensional shape like a doubly convex lens, circular in outline.

leptosporangiate:

of ferns, having sporangia with walls consisting of a single layer of cells; the sporangium originating from a single cell. cf. eusporangiate.

liana (liane):

a woody climbing plant.

lignotuber:

a woody swelling, partly or wholly underground, at the base of certain plants and containing numerous cortical buds, as in many eucalypts (Fig. 1 H); see mallee.

ligulate:

(1) with a ligule; (2) of ray florets in Asteraceae, with a strap

shaped limb.

ligule:

(1) a variously shaped appendage facing towards the base of a leaf (especially in grasses), petiole, or perianth segment; (2) the strap

shaped corolla lobe or limb in ray florets of Asteraceae.

limb:

the expanded and usually flat portion of an organ, e.g. of a petal, or the expanding part of the corolla above acorolla tube.

linear:

long and narrow with more or less parallel sides, more than 12 times as long as broad. Fig.5 B.

linear-lanceolate:

more than 12 times as long as broad and broadest in the lowest third and tapering to the apex.

linear-oblanceolate:

more than 12 times as long as broad and broadest in the upper third and tapering to the base.

littoral:

on or growing near the seashore.

loculicidal dehiscence:

in capsules, dehiscence in median lines through the walls of the loculi rather than at the partitions between the loculi or at the placentas. Fig.18 L. cf. septicidal.

loculus:

a more or less closed cavity, containing the pollen in anthers (Fig.20 C) and the ovules in an ovary (Fig.13). pl. loculi.

lodicule(s):

one or two scale-like structures below the stamens and ovary of a grass and regarded as a reduced perianth.

lomentum:

a legume that breaks transversely into usually 1-seeded indehiscent articles when mature. Fig.18 J. cf. schizocarp.

longitudinal:

of venation, with several veins extending from the base to the apex of the lamina but the veins not more or less parallel with each other. Fig.9 E.

lyrate:

lyre-shaped, of pinnatifid or pinnatisect leaves with the terminal lobes much larger than the basal ones. Fig.5 P.

Malesia:

a phytogeographic region; including the Malay Peninsula, Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea.

mallee:

(1) a growth form in which many stems arise from a lignotuber, usually applied to eucalypts; (2) of a plant community dominated by mallee eucalypts.

mangrove:

a shrub or small tree growing in salt or brackish water and often with pneumatophores or aerial roots.

marginal:

(1) at or very close to the margin; (2) of placentation, with the placenta along the margin of a simple ovary, as in many legumes, Fig.13 A.

maritime:

belonging to the sea; confined to the sea-coast.

marsh:

a waterlogged area; swampy ground without trees.

mealy:

covered with coarse flour-like powder.

megasporangium:

a sporangium producing megaspores.

megaspore:

the spore in heterosporous plants that gives rise to a female gametophyte and is generally larger than the microspore; the spore usually not shed but remaining on the parent plant and developing in situ. cf. microspore.

meiosis:

the two-stage division of a diploid nucleus in which the genetic recombination occurs and the number of chromosomes characteristic of the species is halved prior to the production of the sexual gametes; this process takes place once in every sexual life cycle.

membranous:

thin and translucent.

mericarp:

one segment of a fruit that breaks at maturity into units derived from the individual carpels, sometimes called a coccus. Fig.18 H & P. See schizocarp.

meristem:

a growing region of a plant in which cells divide to produce new cells.

-merous:

a suffix indicating that the number of parts in each floral whorl is divisible by the same basic number, e.g. a 5-merous flower is one with the number of sepals, petals and stamens divisible by 5; e.g. 5 sepals, 10 or 5 petals, and 5, 15 or 20 stamens. The number of carpels and their styles or stigmas often does not conform to the basic number.

m mesocarp:

the fleshy part of the wall of a succulent fruit; the middle layer of the pericarp in a drupe.

mesomorphic:

soft and with little fibrous tissue, but not succulent. cf. scleromorphic.

microphyllous:

having small leaves that are usually hard and narrow.

micropyle:

the small canal through the integuments (outer layers of tissue) of an ovule, usually at the point furthest away from the funicle (ovule stalk), persisting as a pore in the seed coat.

microspecies:

segregate species of a larger species or species-aggregate, e.g. see Rubus fruticosus.

microsporangium:

the sporangium producing the microspores, within the anthers in angiosperms.

microspore:

the spore in heterosporous plants that gives rise to a male gametophyte and is generaly smaller than a megaspore; microspores are shed at maturity. cf. megaspore, pollen.

microsporocarp:

a body containing the microsporangium, e.g. as in some ferns.

midrib:

term applied to the midvein or primary vein, especially when it is prominently raised or depressed.

midvein:

the primary vein which runs from the base to the apex of the lamina, usually the most prominent vein, from which arise the secondary or lateral veins.

minute:

very small, usually less than 1 mm long.

monadelphous:

of stamens, with their filaments fused into one group, as in many Malvaceae. Fig. 20 G. cf. diadelphous.

moniliform:

of a pod or other organ

monochasium:

a cyme with the branches arising singly. Fig.17 E. cf. dichasium.

monocotyledons:

a major group of angiosperms, characterized by the embryo usually having one cotyledon (seed leaf). cf. dicotyledons.

monoecious:

having male and female flowers on the same plant.

monopodial:

with a persistent terminal growing point producing many lateral organs progressively. cf. sympodial.

monotypic:

of a genus, having only one species. cf. unigeneric.

mucilage:

a slimy, gummy substance sometimes secreted by hairs or glands. adj. mucilaginous.

mucro:

a sharp, usually suddenly constricted, apical point.

mucronate:

having a mucro. Fig.6 K.

multiple fruit:

a cluster of fruits produced from more than one flower and appearing as a single fruit, often on a swollen axis, as in Moraceae. Fig.18 Y & Z. e.g. syncarp, syconium. cf. aggregate fruit.

muricate:

of a surface, rough with pointed protuberances or short hard tubercles. Fig.16 B.

mycorrhiza:

a symbiotic association between a fungus and a plant root.

naked:

of flowers, without a perianth; of sporangia, not covered with an indusium; of seeds, not enclosed in an ovary, exposed on the surface of a sporophyll.

native:

naturally occurring in the area, but not necessarily confined to it. cf. endemic.

naturalized:

originating elsewhere but established and reproducing itself as though native to the area.

nectar:

a more or less sweet fluid secreted from a specialized gland or nectary.

nectary:

a gland that secretes nectar.

nerve:

a vein, usually applied to rather straight and strong veins.

net veins (reticulate):

forming a network or reticulum; e.g. of veins, Fig.9 H.

neuter:

sterile.

node:

the level of a stem at which one or more leaves arise.

nut:

a dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit formed from two or more carpels. Fig.18 T.

ob-:

a prefix

oblanceolate:

a 2-dimensional shape, lanceolate but broadest in the upper third. Fig.5 L. cf. lanceolate.

oblate:

almost circular, but with breadth slightly greaterthan the length. Fig.5 F.

oblique (asymmetric):

of a leaf, leaf base or other organ, having the sides unequal. Fig.7 E.

oblong:

a 2-dimensional shape, rectangular with length greater than breadth. Fig.5 C.

obovate:

a 2-dimensional shape, ovate but broadest above the middle. Fig.5 M.

obpyriform:

pear-shaped but broadest above the middle.

obsolete:

reduced to a rudiment, or completely lacking.

obtuse:

blunt or broadly rounded, the converging edges separated by an angle greater than 900, e.g. of an lamina apex, Fig.6 E, or of a lamina base, Fig.7 C.

ocrea (ochrea):

a sheath formed from two fused stipules encircling the node in Polygonaceae. Fig.4 H. pl. ocreae.

oil glands (oil dots):

small structures embedded in a leaf or other organ, secreting a volatile oil, mostly visible as small translucent dots (hand lens needed) against a strong light; usually making the organ aromatic when crushed.

one-foliolate (1-foliolate, unifoliolate):

a compound leaf reduced to a single leaflet, usually recognized by the articulated or jointed `petiole', which is in fact a petiole plus a petiolule. Fig.3I.

open forest:

a forest dominated by trees with relatively narrow isobilateral leaves forming sparsely foliaged crowns (usually species of eucalypts); the forest canopy is sparse and often not continuous, allowing sunlight to reach the ground within the forest. cf. closed forest.

operculum (calyptra):

a cap-like covering or lid of someflowers or fruits that becomes detached at maturity by abscission; e.g. (1) the cap on the buds of eucalypts, (2) the lid of circumsciss capsules.

opposite:

inserted at the same level, as in leaves on the opposite side of the stem (Fig.2 C & D), or in flowers the floral parts on the same radius. cf. alternate.

order:

a taxonomic group consisting of one or more closely related families.

orbicular:

orb-shaped, strictly a 3-dimensional shape but often used for a 2

dimensional circular shape, as for leaves (orbiculate).

orifice:

a small opening or aperture.

ovary:

the basal portion of a carpel or a group of fused carpels in which one or more ovules are enclosed, and which after fertilization develops into the fruit.

ovate:

a 2-dimensional shape, with the length 13 times the breadth, and broadest below the middle. Fig.5 J.

ovoid:

the 3-dimensional equivalent of ovate; egg-shaped.

ovule:

a structure in seed plants within which one or more megaspores are formed, and which after fertilization develops into the seed.

ovulode:

a sterile ovule.

palea:

(1) the upper of 2 bracts enclosing the flower of a grass; (2) one of the chaffy scales on the petiole and rachis of many ferns.

palmate (digitate):

(1) of a compound leaf with 3 or more leaflets arising from the one point at the top of thepetiole, Fig.3 E & L; (2) of veins in a lamina, radiating from the one point, Fig.9 C & D. adv. palmately.

palmately trifoliolate:

of a leaf, with 3 leaflets arranged palmately, i.e. all the petiolules of about the same length. Fig. 3 L. cf. pinnately trifoliolate.

palmatifid:

of a leaf cut into lobes to less than halfway in a palmate form. Fig. 5 U.

palmatisect:

of a leaf cut into lobes to more than halfway in a palmate form. Fig. 5 V.

panicle:

a compound inflorescence with a main axis and lateral branches which are further branched, and in which each axis ends in a flower or flower bud. Fig.17 A. adj. paniculate.

papilla:

a small elongated or nipple-shaped protuberance on an organ. pl. papillae.

papillose:

of a surface, rough with papillae. Fig.16 D.

pappus:

the group of appendages, usually hairs or scales, above the ovary and outside the corolla in Asteraceae (possibly a modified calyx); often persisting on the fruit and aiding in its dispersal.

parallel:

of veins in a lamina, all running in the same direction and equally distant from one another, as in grass leaves. Fig.9 F.

paraphysis:

a sterile filament occurring amongst the sporangia of some ferns. pl. paraphyses.

parasite:

an organism growing and feeding upon another organism (the host). A hemiparasite is partly parasitic, partly autotrophic, and has some chlorophyll.

parietal:

(1) attached to the wall; (2) of placentation, with placentas on the wall or intruding partitions of a unilocular compound ovary, Fig.13 B.

paripinnate:

term describing a pinnately compound leaf without a single terminal leaflet, and therefore usually with an even number of leaflets. Fig.3 D. cf. imparipinnate.

partial inflorescence:

a portion of an inflorescence, particularly a part sufficiently branched to show the same structural plan as the inflorescence as a whole.

patelliform:

knee-shaped; shaped like a small dish, circular and rimmed.

pedate:

term describing a palmately compound leaf with the lateral leaflets divided again. Fig.3 F. cf. ternate.

pedicel:

the stalk of a flower (above the subtending bract or leaf); bracteoles are sometimes present on a pedicel.

peduncle:

the stalk of an inflorescence

pellucid:

transparent.

peltate:

term describing an organ with a stalk or point of attachment on its lower surface away from the margin, often umbrella-like; e.g. leaves (Fig.4 A), scales (Fig.15 H).

pendent:

drooping, hanging downwards, pendulous. Fig. 1 O.

penniveined:

pinnately arranged veins in which the secondary veins are conspicuous and numerous and are more or less parallel to each other, as in a feather.

perennial:

a plant whose life-span extends over more than onegrowing season. cf. biennial, annual.

perfoliate:

of a sessile leaf or bract, having its base completely surrounding the stem. Fig.4 F.

perianth:

the calyx and corolla collectively; especially when they are similar, individual segments then being called tepals.

pericarp:

the wall of the fruit, developed from the ovary wall. cf. endocarp, exocarp, mesocarp.

perigynous:

term describing sepals, petals and stamens that are attached to the rim of a lateral or upward expansion of the receptacle, or attached to the rim of a hypanthium which is not fused to the ovary. Fig.12 D.

perisperm:

nutritive tissue within the seed which is formed outside the embryo sac, lies between the embryo sac and the testa. cf. endosperm.

persistent:

remaining until the part that bears it is fully matured, e.g. of floral parts remaining until fruit is mature; of a leaf base, remaining attached to the plant after the leaf or frond has been shed.

petal:

a free segment of the corolla.

petaloid:

resembling a petal, especially in colour and texture.

petiole:

the stalk of a leaf. adj. petiolate. Fig.4B.

petiolule:

the stalk of a leaflet. See also terminal petiolule.

phyllary:

an involucral bract of the Asteraceae, collectively the phyllaries surrounding a head form the calyculus.

phyllode:

a flattened petiole, leaf-like in appearance andfunction, replacing the lamina, as in many wattles.

pilose:

hairy with long soft weak hairs which are clearly separated but not sparse. Fig.14 H.

pinna:

a primary segment of the lamina of a compound leaf. pl. pinnae.

pinnate:

(1) (1-pinnate) of a leaf, with the lamina divided into pinnae in 2 rows along a rachis, once compound, Fig.3 C & D, see imparipinnate, paripinnate. cf. bipinnate, tripinnate; (2) of veins, with the secondary veins arranged regularly, Fig.9 A, cf. penniveined. adv. pinnately.

pinnately trifoliolate:

of a leaf, with three leaflets arranged pinnately, i.e. the terminal petiolule usually jointed and longer than the lateral ones. Fig.3 K. cf. palmately trifoliolate.

pinnatifid:

of simple leaves or leaflets, of the lamina cut into lobes on both sides of the midrib. Fig. 5 R. cf. pinnatisect.

pinnatisect:

of simple leaves or leaflets, of the lamina cut down almost to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it. e.g. as in the ultimate segments of some fern fronds. Fig. 5 S. cf. pinnatifid.

pinnule:

a leaflet of a bipinnate leaf. pl. pinnules.

pistil:

a free carpel or a group of fused carpels. See gynoecium.

pith:

the centremost tissue of a stem, often soft and spongy.

pitted:

having numerous small depressions on the surface.

placenta:

the part of the ovary to which the ovules are attached.

placentation:

the arrangement of the placentas and the attached ovules. Fig.13.

plano-convex:

with upper surface convex, lower surface more or less flat. Fig.10 A.

plicate:

longitudinally folded. Fig. 11 I.

plumose:

feather-like, with a central axis and fine hairs arising from it; e.g. (1) the styles in Clematis species, (2) the pappus of some Asteraceae, Fig.15 K.

plumule:

the shoot of the embryo.

pneumatophores:

specialized vertical roots produced by some vascular plants which grow in water, water-logged mud or tidal swamps; the roots contain spongy tissue which enables them to exchange gases with the atmosphere through lenticels in their aerial portions, as in many mangroves.

pod:

a legume or superficially similar fruit. Fig.18 I.

pollen:

the microspores of seed plants, formed in and shed from the anthers, by which time some nuclear division has taken place to form a gametophyte enclosed in the spore wall.

pollination:

the transference of pollen from the anther to the stigma of flowers, and from the microsporangium to the pollen chamber of conifers and cycads.

pollinium:

a mass of pollen grains cohering by means of their wavy texture or fine threads, as in Asclepiadaceae. pl. pollinia.

polygamous:

having bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same plant.

polymorphic:

displaying a number of varieties of form.

polyploid:

having more than two lots of the basic set of chromosomes in the nucleus. cf. diploid, haploid.

pome:

a fleshy false fruit, formed from an inferior ovary, in which the hypanthium has enlarged to enclose the true fruit, as in Malaceae. Fig.18 C.

poricidal:

opening by pores, e.g. of anthers (Fig.20 E) or capsules (Fig.18 N).

posterior:

toward the axis, away from the subtending bract. cf. anterior.

prickle:

a hard, pointed outgrowth from the surface of a plant, involving several layers of cells, but not containing a vascular system. Fig. 14 O. adj. prickly. cf. spine, bristle.

processes:

outgrowths or projections from a surface.

procumbent:

having stems trailing or spreading over the ground. Fig.1 K.

proliferous:

plants which bear adventitious buds on the leaves or flowers, such buds being capable of rooting and forming separate plants. e.g. bulbils, epiphyllous plantlets.

propagule:

a structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant, e.g. (1) a seed, (2) part of the vegetative body capable of independent growth if detached from the plant.

prostrate:

lying flat on the ground. Fig.1 L.

protandrous:

of a flower, shedding pollen before the stigma is receptive.

prothallus:

the gametophyte stage of ferns and fern allies; usually flattened and delicate.

protogynous:

of a flower, with the stigma becoming receptiveand ceasing to be receptive before the pollen is shed.

pruinose:

of a surface, having a waxy bloom that may be rubbed off. cf. glaucous.

pseudo-:

a prefix

pseudopinnate:

term describing a lateral shoot resembling a pinnate leaf, i.e. a shoot with limited growth and with simple leaves arranged in 2 rows like the leaflets of a pinnate leaf.

pseudowhorled:

of leaves, arranged in clusters on the stem, the clusters separated by regular intervals, usually produced behind a scaly bud. Fig.2 G. cf. whorl.

puberulous:

a dense covering of very short soft hairs, minutely pubescent.

pubescent:

a somewhat dense covering of short, weak, soft hairs. Fig.14 B.

pulvinule:

the pulvinus at the base of a petiolule.

pulvinus:

the swelling at the base of the petiole, often capable of changing form to bring about movement of leaf, sometimes glandular or responsive to touch. A similar swelling near the apex of a petiole is referred to as an upper pulvinus. pl. pulvini.

punctate:

marked with dots.

pungent:

(1) ending in a stiff, sharp point; (2) having an acrid taste or smell.

pyramidal:

pyramid-shaped, broadest at or near the base.

pyrene:

the endocarp and enclosed seed of a drupaceous fruit.

pyriform:

pear-shaped.

raceme:

a simple inflorescence ending in a non-floral bud and in which the flowers are stalked, i.e. an indeterminate inflorescence. Fig.17 H. cf. raceme-like, spike.

raceme-like:

applied to a simple inflorescence ending in a floral bud in which the flowers are stalked, i.e. resembling a raceme but determinate; also used for conflorescences of similar form, particularly where there has been reduction from more complex types. cf. raceme, spike-like.

rachilla:

the axis of a grass spikelet above the glumes, also the axis in sedge spikelets.

rachis:

the axis of an inflorescence, pinnate leaf, or of a pinna in a bipinnate leaf.

radical (basal):

of leaves, clustered at the base of the stem. Fig.2 I. cf. cauline, rosette.

radicle:

the portion of an embryo that gives rise to the primary root system of a plant.

rainforest (closed forest):

a forest dominated by broad-leaved trees with dense crowns that form a continuous layer (canopy) and with one or more of the following growth forms

ramiflory:

the production of flowers and fruits behind the current foliage on woody branches formed in previous, but recent, seasons. adj. ramiflorous. cf. cauliflory.

rank:

(1) a vertical row; (2) leaves that are 2-ranked are in 2 vertical rows, and may be alternate or opposite.

ray floret (ray flower):

a zygomorphic flower in many Asteraceae, usually formed towards the periphery of the headand with the corolla extended into a strap-shaped ligule. cf. disc floret.

receptacle:

the often more or less expanded top of the stalk on which a flower or flower-head arises; an axis on which sporangia arise in ferns.

recurved:

curved backwards (and hence usually downwards), e.g. of the margins of a leaf. Fig.10 D. cf. revolute, incurved.

reflexed:

bent sharply backwards (and hence usually downwards).

reniform:

kidney-shaped. Fig.5 G.

r replum:

a longitudinal partition in fruits of the family Brassicaceae, see silicula, siliqua.

resinous:

with a hardened sticky surface.

resupinate:

twisted through 1800 as in the ovary of most Orchidaceae.

reticulate:

forming a network or reticulum; e.g. of veins, Fig.9 H.

retinaculum:

(1) a hook-like structure to which another structure is tethered, as in Orchidaceae and Asclepiadaceae (the structure to which pollen masses are attached) or in Acanthaceae (the persistent stalk of an ovule); (2) the marginal outgrowth from a spadix, as in Zosteraceae. pl. retinacula.

retrorse:

directed backwards (and thus often downwards).

retuse:

having the apex rounded and with a small notch. Fig.6H.

revolute:

rolled backwards (and thus often downwards), e.g. ofthe margins of a leaf. Fig.10 E. cf. recurved, involute.

rhizoid:

a thread-like, unicellular absorbing structure, in fern gametophytes and some non-vascular plants.

rhizome:

an underground stem, usually growing horizontally. adj. rhizomatous. Fig. 1 N.

rhombic:

having the form of a 2-dimensional diamond-shaped figure. Fig.5 H.

rhomboid:

having the form of a 3-dimensional diamond-shaped solid.

riparian:

of plants growing by rivers or streams.

root:

part of the underground axial system of a plant which does not bear leaves and tends to grow downwards or laterally in the soil. See also adventitious, aerial root.

rootstock:

a swollen region at the junction of root system and stem, mostly below ground level.

rosette:

a radiating cluster of leaves, usually close to the ground at the base of a plant. Fig.2 I. See also radical.

rostellum:

in orchids, a projection of the upper edge of the stigma in front of the anthers.

rostrate:

beaked.

rotate:

term applied to a shortly tubular corolla with spreading lobes or limbs.

rudimentary:

imperfectly developed and non-functional.

rugose (wrinkled):

covered with coarse lines or furrows. Fig.16G.

ruminate:

(1) of a surface or tissue, with an irregular, involuted outline, as in a rumen; (2) mottled in appearance.

runcinate:

term describing a pinnatifid or pinnatisect leafwith sharply incised lobes or teeth pointing towards the base. Fig.5 Q.

runner:

a slender prostrate stem having a bud at the end which sends out leaves and roots.

sac:

a pouch. adj. saccate.

sagittate:

shaped like an arrow-head, with the two lobes at the base acute and retrorse; e.g of a lamina or sometimes applied to the base of a lamina. Fig.7 H.

samara:

a dry indehiscent fruit with its wall expanded into a wing. Fig.18 U.

saprophyte:

an organism deriving its nourishment from dead organic matter and usually lacking chlorophyll. cf. parasite.

scabrous:

rough to the touch; having the surface rough with minute hard processes or very short rigid hairs. Fig.14 K.

scale:

(1) any thin and often scarious body, often a reduced or rudimentary leaf, e.g. covering a dormant bud, Fig.3 G; (2) a thin flap of tissue, e.g. at the base of stamens; (3) a small papery surface structure on stems and leaves. Fig.15 H & I.

scandent:

climbing, usually applied in cases where special climbing organs are not developed.

scape:

the stem-like flowering stalk of a plant with radical leaves.

scarious:

dry and more or less membranous.

schizocarp:

a dry fruit which splits into individual carpels, each of which is called a mericarp or coccus. Fig.18 H.

schizocarpic capsule:

a schizocarp in which the individual cocci or mericarps dehisce, as in some Rutaceae. Fig.18 P.

scleromorphic:

hard and with a large amount of fibrous tissue. cf. mesomorphic.

sclerophyll:

a plant with hard, stiff leaves. adj. sclerophyllous.

scribbles:

irregular lines on the barks of some eucalypts, being the old tunnels burrowed by moth larvae between the bark layers and exposed when the outer layer sheds.

scurfy:

covered with small bran-like membranous scales.

secund:

flowers or other structures arranged on, or turned to one side of an axis, e.g. inflorescence of many Grevillea species.

seed:

the reproductive body formed from a fertilized ovule, and comprising an embryo, with or without endosperm or perisperm, and a surrounding protective seed coat or testa.

segment:

a free or almost free part or subdivision of an organ. Calyx and corolla segments called sepals and petals respectively. Undifferentiated segments are called tepals.

segregate:

distinct, kept apart

semi:

half.

sepal:

one of the outer leaf-like structures surrounding the corolla (if present) and fertile organs of the flower, usually green; collectively the calyx.

sepaloid:

resembling a sepal, i.e. not petaloid.

septate:

divided by internal transverse partitions.

septicidal capsule:

dehiscing by splits along the sutures between adjacent carpels. Fig.18 M.

septum:

a partition or cross-wall; pl. septa.

seriate:

in series, usually in whorls or apparent whorls; usually applied to floral parts.

sericeous (silky):

covered with fine soft more or less straight appressed hairs aligned in the same direction, with a lustrous sheen and satin-like to the touch. Fig. 14 C.

sessile:

without a stalk, e.g. of a leaf without a petiole. Fig.4 D.

setaceous:

bristly.

sheathing:

clasping or surrounding the stem. Fig.4 G.

shrub:

a much-branched woody plant less than 8 m high and usually with many stems. Tall shrubs are mostly 28 m high; small shrubs 12 m high; subshrubs less than 1 m high.

silicula:

a fruit like a siliqua but less than 3 times as long as broad.

siliqua:

a dry dehiscent fruit derived from a superior ovary of two carpels and with 2 parietal placentas connected by a false septum, usually at least 3 times as long as broad, as in family Brassicaceae. Fig.18 K.

silky:

covered with fine soft more or less straight appressed hairs aligned in the same direction, with a lustrous sheen and satin-like to the touch. Fig. 14 C.

similifacial (isobilateral):

having structurally similar upper and lower surfaces. cf. dorsiventral.

simple:

of a single piece or series; (1) of a leaf, withlamina not divided into leaflets, Fig.3 H, cf. unifoliolate, compound; (2) of an inflorescence, unbranched with the pedicels arising from the main axis.

sinuate:

with a deeply wavy margin. Fig.8 K. cf. undulate.

sinus:

the gap or recess between two lobes or segments.

solitary:

borne singly, not grouped together, e.g. of flowers not grouped into an inflorescence. Fig.17 L & M.

sorus:

a discrete aggregate of sporangia in ferns.

spadix:

a spicate inflorescence with a thickened, often succulent axis, the whole often being surrounded by a spathe. Fig.17 Q.

spathe:

a large bract at the base of a spadix, which it encloses (at least initially) as a sheath.

spathulate:

spoon-shaped, e.g. of a leaf. Fig.5 O.

species:

a taxon comprising individuals, or populations of individuals, that show certain common features and are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring. cf. genus.

spicate:

in the form of a spike.

spicule:

a small slender sharp-pointed process.

spike:

a simple inflorescence, terminating in a non-floral bud, in which the flowers are sessile, i.e. a type of indeterminate inflorescence. Fig.17 I. cf. spike-like, raceme.

spikelet:

the small partial inflorescence (unit) in Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Restionaceae, composed of an axis bearing glumes, most of which enclose a small flower. Fig.17 N.

spike-like:

of a simple inflorescence, terminating in a floralbud and having the flowers sessile, i.e. a type of determinate inflorescence. cf. spike, raceme-like.

spine:

a stiff process with a sharp point, formed by a modification of a plant organ that contains vascular tissue, e.g. a lateral branch or a stipule. Fig. 14 P. adj. spinose. cf. prickle.

spinescent:

ending in a spine; modified to form a spine.

spiral:

of leaves or floral organs, borne singly at different levels on the axis, but not in a single vertical line; leaves borne spirally are said to be alternate on the stem. Fig.2 A. cf. whorled, alternate.

spongy:

having the texture of a sponge, the cells being separated by air spaces and containing air, as in pith or some seed coats.

sporangiophore:

the stalk of a sporangium.

sporangium:

a structure in which spores are formed. pl. sporangia.

spore:

a unicellular or few-celled asexual or sexual reproductive unit, not containing an embryo. cf. heterosporous, homosporous.

sporocarp:

the fruiting body containing sporangia found in water ferns.

sporophyll:

a specialized leaf-like organ on which one or more sporangia are borne.

sporophyte:

a plant, or phase of a life cycle, that bears the spores formed during the sexual reproductive cycle. cf. gametophyte.

spur:

A slender sac-like or hollow protuberance from a part ofthe calyx or corolla, often secreting nectar. adj. spurred.

stamen:

one of the male organs of the flower, consisting of a pollen-bearing anther and a filament or stalk. adj. staminate. cf. androecium.

staminode:

a sterile stamen, often reduced or modified.

standard:

the large upper petal of a pea flower, see Fabaceae subfamily Faboideae.

stellate:

star-shaped; e.g. of hairs with radiating branches. Fig.15 G.

stem:

the main axis or a branch of the main axial system of a plant, developed from the plumule of the embryo and typically bearing leaves and generally above the ground.

sterile (barren):

(1) without reproductive structures, not producing seed, spores or pollen; (2) of seeds, spores or pollen, not capable of germination. cf. fertile.

stigma:

the part of the carpel receptive to pollen, generally terminal on the style. adj. stigmatic.

stilt roots:

oblique adventitious roots from the stem, as in some mangroves and palms.

stinging hair:

a hollow hair seated on a gland which secretes an irritating fluid, e.g. as in Dendrocnide species.

stipe:

(1) a stalk or support, e.g. of a gynoecium or carpel; (2) the petiole of a fern frond. adj. stipitate.

stipel:

a stipule-like organ at the base of a leaflet.

stipule:

one or a pair of appendages sometimes developed at the base of a leaf in many dicotyledons; can be leaf-like, scarious or spinose. Fig.4 1

-L.

stolon:

a more or less horizontal stem growing above groundand rooting at the nodes. adj. stoloniferous. Fig.1 M.

stomate:

a pore bounded by two guard cells in the epidermis, especially in leaves, through which gases diffuse.

stomium:

a region of dehiscence, e.g. of an anther in flowering plants, of a sporangium in ferns.

striate:

striped with parallel longitudinal ridges or lines. Fig.16 H.

strigose:

covered with sharp appressed rigid bristly hairs that are often swollen at the base. Fig.14 M.

strobilus (cone):

fertile stem with short internodes and sporophylls bearing sporangia, for example, as in many species of Lycopodium.

strophiole:

see caruncle.

style:

the part of the carpel between the stigma and ovary, often elongated.

sub-:

a prefix

subsericeous:

covered with appressed hairs aligned in the same direction, but lacking a lustrous sheen; like silky but coarser.

subshrub:

undershrub; a small and sometimes sparsely branched woody plant less than 1 m high.

subspecies:

a taxonomic category below species, differing in minor morphological characters such as size or shape of parts, and either partially or completely isolated, usually by means of geographical or ecological barriers.

subtend:

to stand below or close to something, to enclose.

subtending:

term describing a leaf or bract whose axil givesrise to a bud (the axillary bud) which may develop into a branch or inflorescence; less commonly (as in Notelaea species) more than one bud is subtended in each axil.

subulate:

narrow and gradually tapering to a fine apex. Fig.6A.

sucker:

a vegetative shoot of underground origin. Fig. 1 F.

superior:

inserted above another organ or part; a superior ovary is free from the receptacle, with the perianth and stamens inserted below it or on a perigynous hypanthium. Fig.12A&D.

superposed:

placed vertically over some other part.

suture:

a seam or line as formed at the junction of two margins.

syconium:

a `fig', the multiple fruit formed in figs (Ficus species) by the invagination of the floral axis where the minute flowers and fruits are actually inside the swollen inflorescence stem. Fig.18Y. cf. aggregate fruit, syncarp.

symmetric:

divisible into two or more equal parts.

sympodial:

with a growing point which either terminates in an inflorescence or dies each year, the growth being continued by a new lateral branch. cf. monopodial.

synangium:

composite sporangium with a number of loculi. pl. synangia.

syncarp:

a multiple fruit consisting of several united fruits, originating from several originally free carpels, usually fleshy. Fig.18 Z. cf. aggregate fruit, syconium.

syncarpous:

a gynoecium consisting of a number of carpels inwhich at least the ovaries are united; the ovary is then said to be compound. Figs 12, & 13 BF. cf. apocarpous.

taproot:

the main, descending root of a plant that has a single, dominant root system.

taxon:

a term used to describe a member of any taxonomic category, e.g. genus, species. pl. taxa.

tendril:

a long slender, coiled organ derived from an axis or leaf, or from part of one of these.

tepal:

a free segment of a perianth that is not differentiated into a calyx and corolla.

terete:

cylindric and elongated. Fig. 10 H.

terminal:

at the apex.

terminal petiolule:

the stalk of the terminal leaflet of a pinnately 3-foliolate leaf or an imparipinnate leaf; the stalk is usually jointed at the point where the rachis extension beyond the last leaflet meets the true petiolule of the leaflet. Fig. 3 C & K.

ternate:

in threes, e.g. of a single leaf, having the leaflets arranged in groups of three. Fig.3 K & L. cf. biternate.

terrestrial:

of the land as opposed to living in water. cf. aquatic.

tessellate:

with colours or shapes arranged in squares to give a chequered appearance, e.g. of bark.

testa:

the seed coat.

tetrad:

a group of four; as in four pollen grains remaining together at maturity in Epacridaceae.

thorn (spine):

a stiff process with a sharp point, formed by a modification of a plant organ that contains vascular tissue, e.g. a lateral branch or a stipule. cf. prickle.

throat:

of a corolla tube or hypanthium, the top where the tube joins the lobes.

thyrse:

a compound inflorescence ending in a vegetative (non-floral) bud and with mixed types of branching, the main axis bearing several or many lateral cymes. Fig.17 C.

thyrsoid:

a compound inflorescence which ends in a flower and in which the main axis is raceme-like and the lateral ones cymose, i.e. similar to a thyrse except for the terminal flower. Fig.17 B.

tomentose:

covered with dense intertwined hairs. Fig.14 E. n. tomentum. cf. woolly.

toothed:

of margins, regularly or irregularly incised. Fig.8 C.

tree:

a woody plant usually with a single distinct trunk and generally more than 5 m high.

tri-:

a prefix

triad:

a three-flowered inflorescence of dichasial form. Fig. 17F.

triangular:

a 2-dimensional shape, 3-angled and 3-sided. Fig.5K.

trichome:

a hair, bristle, scale or other such outgrowth of the epidermis. Figs 14 & 15.

trifoliate:

having three leaves. cf. trifoliolate.

trifoliolate:

of a leaf, having three leaflets. Fig.3 K & L. See also palmately trifoliolate, pinnately trifoliolate.

trigonous:

triangular in cross-section and with the angles somewhat rounded. Fig. 10 F. cf. triquetrous.

tripinnate leaf (3-pinnate):

a compound leaf with lamina pinnately divided three times, i.e. the pinnules are again pinnately divided. Fig.3 A. cf. bipinnate.

triquetrous:

triangular in cross-section and sharply angled; with three distinct longitudinal ridges. Fig. 10 G. cf. trigonous.

tristylous:

heterostylous species with styles of 3 different lengths (short, mid, long).

truncate:

with an abruptly transverse edge as if cut off, e.g. of a lamina apex (Fig. 6 F), or base (Fig. 7 D).

tuber:

an underground storage organ formed by the swelling of a stem, e.g. a potato. adj. tuberous.

tubercle:

a small wart-like outgrowth, e.g. forming the base of a hair.

tuberculate (warty):

having the surface rough with tubercles or small wart-like outgrowths. Fig.16 C.

turbinate:

top-shaped.

turgid:

swollen owing to high water content.

two-ranked (2-ranked):

arranged in two rows on opposite sides of a stem and in the same plane. Fig.2 B.

type:

the designated representative of a taxon constituting a fixed point for the application of its name, for determining priority of usage.

umbel:

an inflorescence (strictly an indeterminate one) inwhich all the flowers or flower-stalks arise from one point at the top of the peduncle. Fig.17 J. adj. umbellate. cf. umbelliform.

umbellaster:

a group of flowers (with the terminal bud ending in a flower) more or less arising from the one point, which may be derived from the condensation of a cyme, thyrsoid or panicle.

umbelliform:

having the form of an umbel.

umbo:

a conical projection arising from the surface. adj umbonate.

unarmed:

without spines or prickles.

undershrub:

a small shrub, often partially herbaceous.

undulate:

wavy, i.e. not flat. Fig.8 J. cf. sinuate.

uniflorescence:

a unit inflorescence forming part of a conflorescence.

unifoliolate leaf (1-foliolate):

a compound leaf reduced to a single leaflet, usually recognized by the articulated or jointed `petiole', which is in fact a petiole plus a petiolule. Fig.3K.

unigeneric:

of a family, having only one genus. cf. monotypic.

unisexual:

bearing only male or female reproductive organs, not both. cf. dioecious, monoecious.

urceolate:

urn-shaped.

utricle:

a small bladder; a membranous bladder-like sac enclosing an ovary or fruit.

valvate:

(1) opening by valves, e.g. loculicidal andsepticidal capsules (Fig.18 L & M), or of anther dehiscence (Fig.20 D); (2) of floral parts, with the edges touching but not overlapping, Fig.11 G. cf. imbricate.

valve:

a lid or segment of an anther or capsule which opens or separates at dehiscence.

variety:

a taxonomic category below that of species (and subspecies if both used); differentiates variable populations.

vascular plants:

plants containing vascular tissue; the more highly evolved plants above mosses and liverworts.

vascular tissue:

tissue specialized for the conduction of fluids.

vein:

a strand of vascular tissue; the primary vein or midvein gives rise to secondary or lateral veins and in turn tertiary veins. See venation.

velamen:

a water-retaining outer layer of aerial roots of some epiphytes, especially orchids.

velum:

a membranous covering; a veil.

velvety:

very densely covered with fine short soft erect hairs. Fig. 14 A.

venation:

the arrangement of veins in a leaf. Fig.9.

ventral (adaxial):

towards the axis or stem. cf. dorsal.

vernation:

the arrangement of the unexpanded leaves in a bud. Fig.11. cf. aestivation.

verrucose:

warty.

versatile:

of an anther, attached near its midpoint to a filament so that the anther swings freely. Fig.20 A. cf. basifixed, dorsifixed.

verticillate:

in a whorl.

vesicle:

a bladder-like sac or cavity filled with gas or liquid. adj. vesicular, e.g. of hairs that are inflated and bladder-like; vesicular hairs often collapse and form a silvery layer on the surface of the organ on which they are formed. Fig.15D.

vestigial:

reduced from the ancestral condition and no longer functional. cf. rudimentary, obsolete.

vicariant:

of species, one of a closely related group with a replacement pattern in different areas of distribution; e.g. see Casuarina obesa and C. glauca.

villous:

covered with long shaggy hairs, not matted. Fig.14G.

virgate:

with many long slender ascending almost parallel branches. Fig.1 C.

viscid:

sticky.

viviparous:

of seed, germinating while the fruit is still attached to the plant, as in Rhizophoraceae. cf. proliferous.

warty (tuberculate):

covered with wart-like protuberances. Fig.16 C.

wet sclerophyll forest:

an open forest in which mesomorphic (soft-leaved) shrubs form a layer below the trees (usually species of eucalypts). cf. dry sclerophyll forest.

whorl:

a ring of leaves, bracts or floral parts borne at the same level on a stem or axis. Fig.2 F. See also verticillate, pseudowhorled.

wing:

(1) a membranous expansion of a fruit or seed which aids dispersal; (2) a thin flange of tissue on a stem or petiole; (3) a lateral petal in the family Fabaceae subfamily Faboideae.

woodland:

a plant community dominated by short-boled trees (usually species of eucalypts) that are separated from each other and with grasses and other herbs forming a more or less continuous ground cover between them.

woolly:

densely covered with matted long hairs. Fig. 14 F. cf. tomentose, villous.

wrinkled:

covered with coarse lines or furrows. Fig.16G.

xerophyte:

a drought-tolerant plant.

zygomorphic:

of a flower with the parts such as sepals and petals differing in shape, size, position and/or number so that the flower can be bisected in one plane only; bilaterally symmetrical. cf. actinomorphic.


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