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Australian Plant Name Index

Introduction to the original 1991 printed version

The Australian Plant Name Index was published in four volumes (totalling 3055 pages) in 1991. The Publication is available from the Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, CANBERRA ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA.

The Index is maintained as a database and can be queried electronically.

Enquiries should be addressed to:

Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research
GPO Box 1600,
Canberra, ACT 2601
Telephone: +61 2 6246 5108
Facsimile: + 61 2 6246 5249

or preferably by email at :

Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra
Australian Flora and Fauna Series - Number 12

Australian Plant Name Index

Arthur D. Chapman

An AGPS Press publication
Australian Government Publishing Service Canberra

(c) Commonwealth of Australia 1991

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission from the Australian Government Publishing Service. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager, AGPS Press, GPO Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601.

The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the Minister for the Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism and Territories, or of the Commonwealth Government.

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry

Chapman, Arthur D. 1947-.
Australian plant name index.

ISBN 0 644 13367 8 (no. 12).
ISBN 0 644 13368 6 (no. 13).
ISBN 0 644 13369 4 (no. 14).
ISBN 0 644 13370 8 (no. 15).

1. Botany - Australia - Nomenclature - Indexes I. Australian Biological Resources Study. II. Title. (Series : Australian flora and fauna series ; no. 12- 15).


Cover Design: by Diana Boyer
Illustration: J.J. Labillardiere, Novae Hollandiae Plantarum Specimen (1807) t.236.
Mimosa suaveolens Smith [Acacia suaveolens (Smith) Willd.]

Australian Biological Resources Study
GPO Box 1383, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia

Printed by
Better Printing Service, 1 Foster Street, Queanbeyan N.S.W. 2620

This work is dedicated to the late Dr Nancy Tyson Burbidge, A.M. (1912-1977). Nancy was a tireless proponent of Australian botany (including the proposal for a new Flora of Australia and an active conservationist, ever ready to advise and assist others. She led the Australian Plant Name Index project in its early years.


Taxonomists and others spend an inordinate amount of time searching literature for the names that have been given to plants since 1753. The present International Code of Botanical Nomenclature demands this, if plant taxonomy is to be done thoroughly. For Australia, as for most countries, that literature is enormous, in many languages, and not all readily available even in the large libraries overseas.

The Australian Plant Name Index has been prepared in order to assist those needing this information. Begun in 1973, it lists all scientific names - more than 62 000 - used for Australian vascular plants in the literature. Almost all have been checked back to the original place of publication. That reference, together with the author of the name, the type citation and supplementary information, is given for each entry.

The Index will save taxonomists many hours of searching, and in that way alone should lead to an increase in their productivity. It should ensure that all names are accounted for in revisionary studies, and, because there can be few names not found, will assist the stabilisation of Australian botanical nomenclature.

As explained in the Introduction, several people shared the compilation of the Index in its early years and others the final stages of editing. Since 1974, however, it has been the principal task of Arthur Chapman. He is to be commended for his perseverance through the hours, days, weeks and months spent both searching literature and editing the data base.

Publication of the Index marks the culmination of a project begun under the auspices of the Australian Academy of Science and transferred in 1976 to the Australian Biological Resources Study. The funds for the initial stages, organised by the late Sir Maurice Mawby have paid their dividend.

Australian Biological Resources Study March 1991


Foreword - vii
Introduction - xi
Layout of the Index - xxiii
Acknowledgements - xvi
Institutions consulted - xvii
References - xx
Index to families and their genera - APNI vol. Q- Z
(Flora & Fauna series no. 15)


      I am a little flower,
      Many an age agone,
      Before man walked on earth,
      I was. ... Man came,
      Evolutional upstart one!
      With the gift of giving a name
      To everything under the sun.
      What have I done? Man came,
      Looked at me with eyes of blame,
      And called me "Squinancy-wort".

      Perhaps in his infinite mercy God will remove this Man!

    Edward Carpenter (1844-1929).

Since early in the 19th Century, attempts have been made to compile lists of the names of plant taxa. The most comprehensive of these Index Kewensis was prepared in the 1880s and 1890s by Benjamin Daydon Jackson, then Secretary of the Linnean Society, under the direction of Joseph Dalton Hooker at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Stafleu, 1966; Meikle, 1971). It first appeared as a two-volume work and has since been updated in 18 supplements. It has become an authoritative index to published angiosperm plant names for the world. Few indexes have attempted to supply more than the name and original place of publication, and occasionally (Chase & Niles, 1962; Farr et al., 1979, 1986) some information on the type. Very few indexes have been based wholly on the original sources, often relying on subsequent publications for early references. Jackson, in the early volumes of Index Kewensis, for example, accepted references given by De Candolle, Pfeiffer, Bentham and other eminent authorities, admitting that he did not trace every name published prior to 1850 back to its source (Meikle, 1971). Many errors have been perpetuated as a result of such practices.

The only previous comprehensive indexes covering Australian plants have been Index Kewensis which lists all angiosperm (flowering plant) names, A. Chase & C.D. Nile's Index to Grass Species which lists all grass names along with information as to their status and type, and C. Christensen's Index Filicum which lists fern names along with their status. In addition N.T. Burbidge's Australian Plant Genera and E.R. Farr et al.'s Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) are indexes to generic names.

There have been three censuses of Australian plants (Mueller, 1882, 1889; Hnatiuk, 1990). These give accepted names along with their distribution but were not intended to be bibliographic works.

The Australian Plant Name Index supplies information associated with the original publication of all vascular plant names that have been used in the literature for plants occurring or thought to occur in Australia, as well as information on their treatment in later revisions. The Index lists infra-generic/supra-specific names and infra-specific names as well as generic and species names and has relied exclusively on original sources for its information.


An essay written for the first volume of the Flora of Australia (George, 1981) gives a comprehensive history of the Flora of Australia project. The early history of the Australian Plant Name Index is intimately linked with that of the Flora.

From discussions held in 1971 there emerged general support for an index to Australian plant names as a preliminary work which would lead towards a new Flora. In November 1971 the Australian Academy of Science Standing Committee for a Flora of Australia decided to initiate the project using the funds made available to the Academy through one of its Fellows, Sir Maurice Mawby. The Australian Plant Name Index project commenced in April 1973 with the appointment of Penelope Hack as bibliographer. She was succeeded in January 1974 when Arthur Chapman was appointed botanist/bibliographer. Nancy Burbidge was released from her duties as Curator of the CSIRO herbarium to lead the project while at the same time she brought up to date her earlier list of taxonomic literature available in Australian libraries (Burbidge, 1951, 1978). In the early stages of the project, both Nancy and Ruurd Hoogland undertook many literature searches. The Academy continued to administer the project until 1976. CSIRO contributed to the project by making available both research and library facilities in the Divisions of Plant Industry and Land Use Research.

In 1976 the financial support for the Australian Plant Name Index organised by Sir Maurice Mawby and the Australian Academy of Science was exhausted. Following an approach to the Government and the Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS), funding for the project was taken over by ABRS.

Preparation of the Index

The Australian Plant Name Index includes the names of taxa at all levels from genus downwards for the flowering plants, gymnosperms and ferns.

It has been compiled from primary sources. All literature known or thought likely to contain new names for Australia or references to plants occurring in Australia has been checked page by page. Indexes such as those mentioned above have been perused for names that may have been overlooked.

Searches began in the libraries of CSIRO in Canberra and were extended to other libraries in Australia and eventually overseas.

During research for the Index all major libraries and herbaria in Australia have been consulted and the literature available in them exhaustively studied. Much of the literature required for compilation of the Index is, however, not available in Australia. During the 18th and 19th Centuries English, French, Spanish, Russian and German scientific expeditions visited Australia and most of the collections from these expeditions were sent back to Europe. Other collectors living and working in Australia sent or sold their plant collections to individuals and institutions in Europe. Subsequently, European botanists published many new taxa in European books and journals. Many collectors took or sent back seeds or live plants for growing by nurseries and botanic gardens. Some of the larger nurseries in Europe sponsored collectors living in Australia and commissioned them to send live material back for cultivation. Again, many new plants were discovered and these were described in European horticultural journals, nursery catalogues, newspapers or seed lists issued by botanic gardens.

Major Australian libraries did not begin to appear until the second half of the 19th Century, and were unable to acquire much of the relevant early literature. It is largely due to private collections such as those of J.A. Ferguson, T. Mitchell and J. MacArthur that Australia has any of this literature at all.

By December 1982 about 50 000 names had been recorded for the Index. Forty one libraries in 34 institutions had been consulted in Australia, but still much literature had not been seen or obtained. Current library practice throughout the world is such that pre-1900 literature is not available for loan through inter-library loan services. It was against this background that two visits were made to institutional libraries in Europe and the United States of America in 1983 and 1987. Literature not available in Australia was studied and photocopies made where possible.

Secondary references such as Index Kewensis (Hooker & Jackson, 1893 et seq., Davies & Lloyd, 1987-1989) were not examined until late in the project as a check for literature that may have been missed and for differences in pagination etc. Where any differences did occur, these were checked against the protologue. Any differences between the Australian Plant Name Index and Index Kewensis etc., are noted in the comments.

At various times portions of the Index have been distributed to the major Australian herbaria, partly to obtain feedback on the Index and partly to provide access to some of the data. The first part was distributed in 1976 (Chapman, 1976), and covered entries up to Akania excepting Acacia. The second part, distributed in 1979, covered Abarema to Acacia (Chapman, 1979). In 1980 A-C was distributed on microfiche (Chapman, 1980). In all cases, the layout of the text was primitive, the data then being in the process of being converted from 8 by 5 inch cards into a computer data base. Feedback from all those preliminary publications was used in improving both the scope and layout of the Index.

In nearly all cases (over 99.8%) the protologue has been seen. Where this has not been the case the reference is cited with a note that the reference has not been seen. This is followed by a secondary reference which cites the name.

Literature entries have been completed up until 31 December 1989. No entries published after that date have been entered with the exception of Volume 18 of the Flora of Australia.

The Index includes over 62 350 names. Of these 4870 are generic names; 37 900 are species names; 5340 are infrageneric and 14 000 are infraspecific (including 1500 subspecies names and 11 350 varietal names). Of the species names, 1780 (4.7%) show some difference from the citation given in Index Kewensis. The compilers of Index Kewensis were notified of some of the errors in citation and corrections were notified in Supplement 18 of Index Kewensis.

The Australian Plant Name Index is purely a nomenclatural work and makes no taxonomic judgment other than the placement of the name within a family. No formal nomenclatural actions such as new combinations, lectotypifications, substitute names or change of status etc. are intended in this work. If any nomenclatural change has inadvertently been made to the status of a name or its typification, then it is to be regarded as not validly published in this Index.

The geographical area covered by the Index includes the six Australian States, the Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territory, immediate offshore islands, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Records for Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands were not included in the Index until well into the project. Coverage of names for these islands, therefore, is not as complete as for the continent.

The Future of the Index

The Australian Plant Name Index is published here in hard copy. The Index has, however, been compiled into a proprietary computer data base system (Oracle), being run under UNIX and maintained by the Australian National Botanic Gardens. On completion of the Index, responsibility for maintenance of the data base and for its continual updating will transfer to the Australian National Botanic Gardens.

Those who detect errors or omissions are invited to advise the Gardens Director, Australian National Botanic Gardens, GPO Box 1777, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601, Australia. In addition, it would be appreciated if authors publishing names in obscure or less readily available works could forward a copy to the Gardens Director. This will help maintain the data base in as complete a form as possible.

It is planned to make the Index available in electronic form in the near future.

Layout of the Index


The Index is arranged alphabetically according to the generic name. Each genus name is followed by infra-generic names in alphabetical order regardless of rank. Where the same name is listed in more than one rank they are arranged in order of decreasing rank. Specific and infra-specific names follow and are listed alphabetically. Where the same infra-specific name is listed in more than one rank, the records are arranged in order of descending rank. In all cases homonyms are listed chronologically in order of publication. A fairly strict interpretation of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter, 1988) has been followed. Spellings have been altered to follow recommendations of the Code, particularly in regard to endings, gender etc., but where a change has been made, the original spelling is also given. Where there is any doubt as to how a name should be spelt, for example Brachyscome or Brachycome, the original spelling has been followed. Invalid names are given in square brackets.

Each name is followed by the abbreviation of the publishing author. Abbreviations follow the Draft Index of Author Abbreviations compiled at The Herbarium Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Meikle, 1980). Pre-'ex' authors are not cited here in accord with Art. 46.3 of the International Code.

The XIII International Botanical Congress, Sydney, 1981, introduced the concept of priority of autonyms into the Code (see Article 57.3, Greuter, 1988). Autonyms are cited as though they were published simultaneously with the first published taxon of a corresponding rank. In the case of endemic taxa, the place of publication given is likely to be accurate; for cosmopolitan taxa and taxa introduced into Australia, varieties etc. may have been published in literature not examined, particularly in non-Australian literature. As a result the corresponding date for the autonym may be earlier than that given in this Index. Autonyms not recorded as occurring in Australia are not included in the Index.


Authors are given in full, along with pre-'ex' and post-'in' authors. A pre-'ex' author is one who supplied the name but did not fulfil the requirements for valid publication or who published the name before the nomenclatural starting date for the group concerned. A post-'in' author is one in whose work a description or diagnosis supplied by another author is published. For a further explanation of pre-'ex' and post-'in' authors and their use see Arts 46.2 and 46.3 of the International Code (Greuter, 1988).

The author cited is as determined from the original publication with no (or little) interpretation. In cases such as W.T. Aiton's Hortus Kewensis (Aiton, 1810-1813) if initials, such as R.Br. are given following the description, then R. Brown is taken as the publishing author. If the initials merely follow the name, then the editor of the volume is taken as the author and R. Brown as the courtesy, or pre-'ex', author. Another example is J. Knight's Proteeae (Knight, 1809) where R.A. Salisbury is often cited as the author of new names published therein. As there is no mention in the work itself that Salisbury was the author (Knight merely acknowledging his assistance), Knight is given as the author in this Index. A comment is given where a different interpretation has been used, for example in Taxonomic Literature (Stafleu & Cowan, 1976-1988).

For autonyms, the name given under Author is that of the establishing author. In many cases the author given may not have cited the autonym himself, but was responsible for establishing it by being the first to publish the name of the appropriate subdivision of the genus or species and therefore automatically established the corresponding autonym. See Articles 22.2 and 26.2 of the International Code (Greuter, 1988).

Reference (Ref.)

The reference cited is the original place of publication of the name and is given in full. Where possible, the title is given as on the title page of the publication itself. Where the name of a journal has changed, the title given is that in use at the time of publication, e.g. the journal now known as Feddes Repertorium was previously known under several titles including Repertorium Specierum Novarum regni Vegetabilis.

The date of publication is given as accurately as could be determined, to the day when known. Taxonomic Literature (Stafleu, 1967; Stafleu & Cowan, 1976-1988) has been used extensively as well as other published references to dates of publication. Where an accurate date of publication is given in the work itself, this has been used.

Base name

For a new combination or name etc., the base name is cited with the publishing author abbreviated (see under Name above). In many cases, but not all, this is the basionym. In the case of autonyms, the parent species or generic name is given, followed by 's. str.'.

Type citation (Type)

The type citation is a direct quote from the protologue. Where no citation was given this is noted. Additional information given by later authors without selecting either a lectotype or a neotype is given in square brackets following the type citation, along with a reference to the place where that information was obtained.

A specific name is given as the type of the name of a generic or infrageneric/supraspecific name in accordance with Article 10.1 of the International Code (Greuter, 1988).


Lectotype and neotype information is cited, again as a direct quote, and is followed with a reference to the place where the lectotypification or neotypification was made.

A specific name is given, as in the type citation, for generic and infra-generic names. In many cases use has been made of the information given in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) (Farr et al., 1979, 1986), however, this information has been checked against the original wherever possible.

The abbreviation 'I.C.B.N.' is used for the International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter, 1988).

Australian references (Austral. ref.)

This is a reference to the first, and selected later, Australian records of plants with non-Australian types. It includes names of introduced taxa and taxa with an extra-Australian as well as Australian distribution. Where later papers give additional information, such as occurrence in another State of Australia, this has also been cited. Later papers that note, for example, an earlier introduction than the reference given here, are usually mentioned under the Comments. For generic names only the first reference to that genus in Australia is given.

The list of references to Australian occurrence makes no attempt to be comprehensive or complete for any name.


For angiosperms (flowering plants) families given are in accordance with A. Cronquist (1981). For an explanation of the acceptance of the Cronquist (1981) system of classification see page 1 of the Introduction to Volume 1 of the Flora of Australia. For an introduction to this system as it applies to Australia, see Kanis (1981).

For gymnosperms (conifers, cycads etc.) and pteridophytes (ferns etc.), families follow H.T. Clifford & J. Constantine (1980).

In some cases possible alternative placements are given, such as for species' names where the species but not the genus has been transferred to another family. Alternative names, such as those sanctioned by long usage (Greuter, 1988, Art. 18.5), are also given.

Secondary references (Secondary refs.)

Major references are cited giving the full pagination of the paper followed, in brackets, with the pagination on which that particular name was treated. A note follows giving an explanation of the treatment of the name by the author of the paper. If no explanation is given, then the name was accepted by the author as being correct for that taxon. For example, a reference cited as:

'L.Pedley, Austrobaileya 1 (1978) 75-234 (172-173)'

for Acacia auriculiformis Benth., indicates that Pedley, in a paper in volume 1 of Austrobaileya on pages 75 to 234, accepted Acacia auriculiformis Benth. as the correct name for the taxon which he treated on pages 172 and 173. On the other hand, a reference cited as:

'L.Pedley, Austrobaileya 1 (1978) 75-234 (222) under Acacia melanoxylon R.Br.'

for Acacia arcuata Sprengel, indicates that Pedley, in the same paper, treated Acacia arcuata Sprengel on page 222 as a synonym of Acacia melanoxylon R.Br.

Where abbreviations for journal titles are used they follow B-P-H (Lawrence et al., 1968). Abbreviations for monographs generally follow Taxonomic Literature ed. 2 (TL-2) (Stafleu & Cowan, 1976-1988). There are, however, inconsistencies due to the Index being edited over a period when much of Stafleu & Cowan's eminent work was not available. F.A. Stafleu kindly supplied a copy of an unpublished list of word abbreviations which he & Cowan used in preparation of TL-2 and this has been used extensively for abbreviations not in Stafleu & Cowan, op. cit.

References are given chronologically. No taxonomic judgment has been made in this Index, merely the taxonomic opinion of the publishing authors being cited. Several different taxonomic opinions may therefore be cited in sequential references.

Due to an early decision in the preparation of the Index, most secondary references cited are post 1935, though there are exceptions.


Comments are made on validity (for a definition see Greuter, 1988, Article 6.2), legitimacy (Greuter, 1988, Article 6.4) and the conservation status of the name (Greuter, 1988, App. III). Notes on misspellings, orthographic and typographic errors are given. Comments are also given when the Index differs from Index Kewensis (Hooker & Jackson, 1893 et seq., Davies & Lloyd, 1987-1989) or Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) (Farr et al., 1979, 1988). Cross references to names for which the name occurs as a base name (see under Base name, above) are also given along with more general references, for example, on dates of publication etc.

As mentioned above, much literature is not available in Australia. Where literature was seen other than in the Australian National Herbarium, a mention is made of where the publication was seen. Institutional abbreviations follow Index Herbariorum (Holmgren et al., 1981). In some cases a library catalogue number is also given for the library in which the publication was seen.

The International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter, 1988) is usually abbreviated to I.C.B.N. The abbreviation ABLO refers to the Australian Botanical Liaison Officer stationed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Australia reference (Fl. Aust. ref.)

The relevant reference is given for all taxa covered in volumes pulished to 1990.

Type herbarium (Type herb.)

Institutions in which types of the name are housed are cited, along with the kind of type (i.e. holotype, isotype, lectotype etc.). Institutional abbreviations follow Index Herbariorum (Holmgren et al., 1981). Where there is doubt, i.e. the author from which the reference was obtained had not seen the specimen in that institution, or in cases where an author noted 'distributed to' etc., a question mark precedes the institutional abbreviation. In cases where the author was uncertain of the status of the type, a question mark is given before the kind of type (e.g. '? holo:', etc.). Where more than one isotype or syntype etc. is known to occur in a particular institution, this is noted by a number in brackets following the institutional abbreviation, e.g. 'BRI (2)' etc. In some cases two authors have supplied different information on the type or types of a particular name. When this occurs both sets of information are given with a number referring to the reference to where the information was obtained. For example '1). holo: BRI; 2).iso: K, MEL.' where the first reference cited under Type herbarium reference (see below) gives the information that the holotype is at BRI and the second reference adds the information that there are also isotypes at K and MEL.

Type herbarium reference (Type herb. ref.)

This gives a reference to where the information in Type herbarium (see above) was obtained. Refer to Secondary references (above) for an explanation of journal and monograph abbreviations . If no reference is given, and an institution is cited under Type herbarium, either the information was obtained from the protologue, in which case it also occurs under Type citation (see above), or it was supplied by the author of this Index. Such cases occur for authors such as C.A. Gardner whose collections are all at PERTH, S.T. Blake whose collections for taxa published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland are at BRI, and K. Domin, whose Australian collections are at PR. The institutional name is preceeded by a question mark in all cases where I have supplied the information.


It is impossible to acknowledge all those who have helped during the life of the Australian Plant Name Index project, but there are some without whom the project would have floundered at an early stage. The project was begun under the direction of the late Nancy Burbidge and her enthusiasm and commitment in the early stages laid a solid basis upon which, ultimately, success was achieved. Hansjoerg Eichler has been unstinting in his support and encouragement. His knowledge of the International Code and nomenclature in general has been more than valuable. The late Andrew Kanis was supportive in the early stages of the project and again his knowledge of nomenclature and literature was extremely valuable. Ruurd Hoogland supported the project in many ways. His knowledge of languages, and in particular Latin, proved valuable on many occasions. He combed through Mueller's Fragmenta (Mueller, 1858-82) and extracted the many names in the text. Edna D'Arnay was also instrumental in checking literature in the erly stages of the project. Much of the literature examined in the course of preparation of the Index was in languages other than English and several people have helped with translations from time to time; for this I must particularly thank Hansjoerg Eichler, Andrew Kanis, Ruurd Hoogland, Alex George and George Brandt. David Ride, Alison McKusker, Peter Bridgewater and Barry Richardson, Directors of the Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS), have, during the life of this project, given continued support in support endless-seeming nature. Alison McCusker, Roger Hnatiuk, and Alex George, Associate Directors of the Flora Section of the Bureau of Flora and Fauna, have been instrumental in their support of the project and of the author.

Staff of the Australian National Herbarium, the CSIRO Black Mountain Library (in particular Carol Murray and John Prance), the Australian Academy of Science, the Australian Biological Resources Study and the Australian National Botanic Gardens have all helped in many ways. Indeed, staff at all the institutions in which work has been carried out have been most helpful; work on the Index could not have been carried out as successfully without their invaluable assistance. I therefore thank the Directors and staff, and in particular the librarians, of all the institutions visited and from which inter-library loan material was sought. Catherine Jordan's help in obtaining copies of obscure literature, much of it not available in Australia, during the final stages of Index preparation was most appreciated.

The Australian Botanical Liaison Officers (ABLOs) have processed many requests for information while stationed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. I thank all those who have helped during their terms as ABLO and in particular Rex Filson, Judy West, Terry Macfarlane, Greg Leach and Gordon Guymer.

A data base the size of the Australian Plant Name Index data base requires a considerable degree of management. Staff involved with the Sequel computer in the Department of the Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism and Territories have done a magnificent job in maintaining access to that machine, and have always shown a willingness to help whenever problems arose. David Berman, Chris Curtis and George Petru have been instrumental in allowing special access to those working on the Index or have helped with programming. Greg Whitbread and Tony Boston have organised transfer of the data to Oracle and spent many hours creating a suitable format and preparing the data base for typesetting.

At various times cards had to be typed or information typed into the data base. I thank all those who have had a hand in that tedious task; they have worked behind the scenes, but their role was nonetheless an essential one.

As the Index neared completion extra resources were allocated to the project to help with the final editing stages. As a result several people put much time and effort into seeing the project to completion. I would particularly like to thank Helen Thompson, Laurie Adams, Frances Quinn, Rachel Kentwell, Cheryl Grgurinovic, Paul Hattersley and Helen Hewson. Without their help and encouragement, along with the encouragement of Alex George and Barry Richardson, the Index would have not reached completion as soon as it has.

I take sole responsibility for all errors and omissions.

A.D. Chapman
March 1991

Institutions consulted

Altogether 134 libraries have been consulted in over 110 institutions in 21 countries:

A full list of libraries consulted is given below. In addition to those listed, the personal libraries of N.T. Burbidge, H. Eichler, A.S. George and A.D. Chapman have been relied upon from time to time.


Canberra, A.C.T.

    CSIRO Black Mountain Library
    Australian National Herbarium, CSIRO (CANB)
    Division of Forest Research Library, CSIRO (FRI)
    Australian National Library
    Menzies Library, Australian National University
    Hancock Library, Australian National University
    Australian Academy of Science
    Australian National Botanic Gardens (CBG)
    Australian Biological Resources Study Library
    Department of the Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism and Territories Library
    Bureau of Mineral Resources

Sydney, N.S.W.

    Royal Botanic Gardens and National Herbarium (NSW)
    Australian Museum
    State Library of New South Wales
    Mitchell Library
    Fisher Library, University of Sydney
    Badham Library, University of Sydney
    Botany Department, University of Sydney (SYD)
    Macquarie University Library
    Biological-Medical Library, University of New South Wales
    Royal Society of New South Wales (1)
    Linnean Society of New South Wales (2)

Melbourne, Vic.

    Royal Botanic Gardens and National Herbarium (MEL)
    Baillieu Library, University of Melbourne
    Botany Department, University of Melbourne (MELU)
    State Library of Victoria
    La Trobe Collection, State Library of Victoria
    National Museum of Victoria
    Royal Society of Victoria (3)
    Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria
    Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria

Geelong, Vic.

    Deakin University Library

Brisbane, Qld

    Queensland Herbarium (BRI)
    Queensland University Library
    Botany Department, Queensland University (BRIU)
    Queensland State Library
    John Oxley Library
    Queensland Museum
    Royal Society of Queensland (4)

Adelaide, S.A.

    Botanic Gardens of Adelaide (AD)
    State Library of South Australia
    South Australian Museum
    University of Adelaide
    Waite Agricultural Research Institute (ADW)
    Royal Society of South Australia

Perth, W.A.

    Western Australian Herbarium (PERTH)
    Library of the University of Western Australia

Armidale, N.S.W.

    Dixson Library, University of New England
    Botany Department, University of New England (NE)

Newcastle, N.S.W.

    Auchmuty Library, University of Newcastle

Wollongong, N.S.W.

    Michael Birt Library, University of Wollongong

Hobart, Tas.

    Tasmanian Herbarium, University of Tasmania (HO)



    Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
    Natural History Museum (BM)
    Botany Department, Natural History Museum (BM)
    Commonwealth Institute of Entomology
    British Reference Library
    British Museum (Bloomsbury)
    Linnean Society of London (LINN)
    Royal Horticultural Society


    Botany Department, University of Oxford (OXF)
    Oxford Botanic Garden


    Botany Department, Cambridge University (CGE)
    Botanic Garden, Cambridge University (CGG)



    Royal Botanic Garden (E)



    Bibliotheque, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle
    Dept. Phanerogamie, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (P)
    Bibliotheque, Faculte de Pharmacie
    Annexe du Jardin des Plantes


    Laboratoire de Botanique, Universite de Provence (MARS)


    Herbiers de l'Universit de Lyon (LY)


    Herbier du Jardin Botanique (BORD)



    Botanical Museum and Herbarium (C)



    Herbariet, Botanisk Institutt, Universitetet i Bergen (BG)


    Botanical Garden and Museum (O)



    Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (S)
    Bergianska Botaniska Tradgarden
    Swedish Academy of Sciences



    Botanical Museum, University of Helsinki (H)
    Biblioteket, Helsingfors Universitets Botaniska Institution



    Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de Ville de Geneve (G)


    Institut fur Systematische Botanik der Universitat Zurich (Z)



    Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum, Berlin, Dahlem (B)
    Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz


    Institut fur Allgemeine Botanik und Botanische Garten (HBG)


    Senckenbergischen Bibliothek (FR)


    Botanische Staatssammlung (M)


    Systematisch-Geobotanisches Institut der Universitat Gottingen (GOET)
    Niederaschsische Staats- und Universitts Bibliothek, Gottingen



    Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise (BR)


    Herbarium et Jardin Botanique de l'Universit de Liege (LG)



    Rijksherbarium (L)


    Institut of Systematic Botany, Rijksuniversiteit trecht (U)



    Biowissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universitat, Wissenschaftsbereich
    Geobotanik und Botanischer Garten (HAL)
    Der Bibliothek der Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher


    Universitat-und Landesbibliothek



Botanicke oddeleni Prirodoved Narodnho muzea v Praze (Department of Botany, National Museum in Prague) (PR)


    Institutum Botanicum-Facultas Rerum Naturalium, Universitas Carolina (PRC)



    Botanische Abteilung, Naturhistorisches Museum (W)
    Mineralogische Abteilung, Naturhistorisches Museum
    Zoologische Abteilung, Naturhistorisches Museum
    Geologische Abteilung, Naturhistorisches Museum
    Osterreichische National Bibliothek (main library)
    Osterreichische National Bibliothek, Augustiner lese Saal
    Osterreichische National Bibliothek, Albertina (Musiksammlung)
    Institut fur Botanik und Botanischer Garten der Universitt Wien (WU)



    Herbarium Universitatis Florentinae (FI)
    La Bibliotheca Nazional Centrale di Firenze
    La Biblioteca Nazional Palatino di Firenze


    Biblioteca Nazionale, Roma
    Istituto Botanico, dell'Universit di Roma (RO)


    Istituto ed Orto Botanico, dell'Universita di Palermo
    Erbario Siculo et Erbario Generale (PAL)


Instituto Botanico della Universita di Napoli (NAP)


    Istituto Botanico dell'Universita di Bologna (BOLO)


    Istituto Botanico 'Hanbury' e Orto Botanico dell' Universita di Genova (GE)



    Le Jardin Exotique



    Institut Botnica de Barcelona (BC)


Washington, DC

    Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution (US)
    United States Library of Congress

Beltsville, Maryland

    National Agricultural Library

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (PH)
    Philadelphia Free Library

San Francisco, California

    Botany Department, University of California at Berkeley (UC)
    San Francisco Academy of Science

Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Arnold Arboretum & Gray Herbarium (A)

New York, New York

    New York Botanical Garden (NY)

Chicago, Illinois

    Field Museum of Natural History (F)

St. Louis, Missouri

    Missouri Botanical Garden (MO)

Denver, Colorado

    Denver Botanic Gardens (KHD)



    Department of Biology, University of Calgary (UAC)


New Delhi

    Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)

1 The library of the Royal Society of New South Wales has been dispersed. Libraries receiving material include the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, the Australian Museum and the Fisher Library, University of Sydney

2 The library of the Linnean Society of New South Wales has been dispersed along with the library of the Royal Society of New South Wales.

3 The library of the Royal Society of Victoria is now housed as part of the National Museum of Victoria library.

4 The library of the Royal Society of Queensland is now housed as part of the Queensland Museum library.


Aiton, W.T. (1810-1813). Hortus Kewensis, or, a catalogue of the plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew by the late William Aiton. 2nd edn. London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown. 5v.

Burbidge, N.T. (1951). Select List of Publications in Systematic Botany Available in Australia. CSIRO Division of Plant Industry, Divisional Report No. 14.

Burbidge, N.T. (1963). Dictionary of Australian Plant Genera: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Sydney. Angus & Robertson. vii, 447pp.

Burbidge, N.T. (1978). Plant Taxonomic Literature in Australian Libraries. Canberra. Australian Biological Resources Study. 520pp.

Chapman, A.D. (1976). Australian Plant Name Index A Preliminary Issue covering Abbotia to Akania (exc. Acacia). Canberra. Australian Academy of Science. 36pp.

Chapman, A.D. (1979). Australian Plant Name Index (Abarema to Acacia). Canberra. Australian Biological Resources Study. 153pp.

Chapman, A.D. (1980). Australian Plant Name Index A-C. Canberra. Australian Biological Resources Study. 1953pp. on microfiche.

Chase, A. & C.D. Niles (1962). Index to Grass Species. Boston (Mass.). G.K. Hall. 3v.

Christensen, C. (1906). Index Filicum, sive enumeratio omnium generum specierumque Filicum et Hydropteridum ab anno 1753 ad finum anni 1905, descriptorum adjectis synonymis principalibus, area geographica etc.. Hafniae, Hagerup. 744pp.

Christensen, C. (1913). Index Filicum: supplementum 1906-1912. Hafniae. Hagerup. 131pp.

Christensen, C. (1917). Index Filicum. Supplment Prliminaire pour les Annes 1913. 1914. 1915. 1916. Hafniae. Hagerup. 60pp.

Christensen, C. (1934). Index Filicum Supplementum Tertium pro annis 1917-1933. Hafniae. Hagerup. 219pp.

Clifford, H.T. & J. Constantine (1980). Ferns, Fern Allies and Conifers of Australia. A Laboratory Manual. St. Lucia. University of Queensland Press. 150pp.

Cronquist, A.J. (1981). An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. New York. Columbia University Press. xviii, 1262pp.

Davies, R.A. & K.M. Lloyd (1987). Kew Index for 1986. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 195pp.

Davies, R.A. & K.M. Lloyd (1988). Kew Index for 1987. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 168pp.

Davies, R.A. & K.M. Lloyd (1989). Kew Index for 1988. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 198pp.

Farr, E.R., J.A. Leussink & F.A. Stafleu (1979). Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Utrecht. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema. 3v.

Farr, E.R., J.A. Leussink & G. Zijlstra (1986). Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) Supplementum I. Utrecht/Antwerpen. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema. 126pp.

George, A.S. (1981). The Background to the Flora of Australia. in Flora of Australia 1: 3-24. Canberra. AGPS.

Greuter, W. (ed.) (1988). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature Adopted at the Fourteenth International Botanical Congress, Berlin, July-August 1987. Konigstein. Koeltz Scientific Books. 328pp.

Hnatiuk, R.J. (1990). Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series No. 11. Canberra. AGPS. 650pp.

Holmgren, P.K., W. Keuken & E.K. Schofield (1981). Index Herbariorum. Part I The Herbaria of the world. Utrecht/Antwerpen. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema. 452pp.

Hooker, J.D. & D.B. Jackson (1893 et seq.). Index Kewensis. An enumeration of the genera and species of flowering plants from the time of Linnaeus to the year 1885 inclusive together with their authors' names, the works in which they were first published, their native countries and their synonyms. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 2v. followed by 18 Supplements 1901-1987 inclusive.

Kanis, A. (1981). An introduction to the System of Classification used in the Flora of Australia. in Flora of Australia 1: 77-111. Canberra. AGPS.

Knight, J. (1809). On the cultivation of the plants belonging to the natural order of Proteeae, with their generic as well as specific characters and places where they grow wild. London. 128p.

Lawrence, G.H.M. et al. (1968). B-P-H Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum. Pittsburgh (Pa). Hunt Botanical Library. 1063pp.

Meikle, R.D. (1971). The history of Index Kewensis in Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 3: 295-299.

Meikle, R.D. (ed.) (1980). Draft Index of Author Abbreviations compiled at The Herbarium Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Basildon. HMSO. 267pp.

Mueller, F.J.H. von (1858-1882). Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae Vols 1-12 pt 1. Melbourne.

Mueller, F.J.H. von (1882). Systematic census of Australian plants with chronologic, literary and geographic annotations. pt 1. Vasculares. Melbourne. Govt Printer. 152pp.

Mueller, F.J.H. von (1889). Second systematic census of Australian plants, with chronological, literary and geographic annotations. Pt 1. Vasculares. Melbourne. Govt Printer. 224pp.

Pichi-Sermoli, R.E.G. (1965). Index Filicum Supplementum Quartum pro annis 1934-1960. (= Regnum Vegetabile Vol. 37). Utrecht. International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature. 370pp.

Stafleu, F.A. (1966). The Index Kewensis in Taxon 15: 270-274.

Stafleu, F.A. (1967). Taxonomic Literature. A selective guide to botanical publications with dates, commentaries and types. (= Regnum Vegetabile Vol. 52). Utrecht. International Bureau for Plant Taxonomy and Nomenclature. 556pp.

Stafleu, F.A. & R.S. Cowan (1976-1988). Taxonomic Literature. A selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types. 2nd edn. 7 Vols. Utrecht/Antwerpen, Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema.

Body of Index follows...

A-C pages 1-898 (Flora & Fauna Series No. 12)
D-J pages 899-1710 (Flora and Fauna Series No. 13)
K-P pages 1711-2476 (Flora and Fauna Series No. 14)
Q-Z pages 2477-3055 (Flora and Fauna Series No. 15)

The last volume also includes and Index to Families and Genera on pp. 3033-3055.

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