An Australian Government Initiative [logo]
Information about Australia's flora - Ferns of Australia and PNG
ANBG logo
Home > Gardens | CANBR > ferns > taxa

A classification of the ferns and their allies
- a work in progress

Higher level classification
Lower level classification
Other useful resources

The following classification of the genera of ferns and their allies is a loose, perhaps tenuous, concensus of a number of published systems, some of which are available on the web. It tries to reflect contemporary views on phylogenetic relationships and as such will change from time to time. Of particular relevance at the moment are the studies of Kathleen Pryer, Alan Smith and Judith Skog summarised on the Tree of Life, James Reveal's work on Index Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium, Dick Brummit's work on Vascular Plants Families and Genera and Ellen Farr and Gea Zijlstra's Index Nominum Genericorum.

The complexity and difficulty of the classification of the ferns and their allies is matched by no other group. After more than two centuries of work, the arrangement of species into genera and genera into families is still a long way from settled with almost every new treatment or flora adopting a different system to any that went before. A quick look at fern synonymy reveals a bewildering history of name changes in taxa at all levels as botanists struggle to find an arrangement that makes sense in terms of both the physical similarities of the plants and in terms of the phylogenetic processes that lead to the pteridophytes that we know today.

The literature of pteriodphyte classification is vast, from all levels from the Divison to the Genus and below at all geographic scales from global to local. Unfortunately, hardly any of this historical material is available via the Internet and equally unfortunately, very little contemporary information is making its waya there.

The arrangement and classification hierarchy here is an attempt to draw together a number of elements into a pragmatic structure for storing and finding information about the diversity of ferns and associated plants.

It is important to remember that this classification is an on-going work in progress and and that the content and concepts will change, evolve, even oscillate, over time. As this resource grows, the hierarchy will serve as a practical directory of where information can be found.

To help users find their way around, a number of commonly encountered synonyms or alternative names are being included. These are italicised in the tables.

Comments and input to this list are welcomed; please email the Webmaster.

Classification from Division to Class to Order

Division Subdivision Class Subclass  Order
Lycopodiophyta Lycopodiophytina Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiidae Lycopodiales
Sellaginellopsida Sellaginellidae Selaginellales
Isoetopsida Isoetidae Isoetales
Equisetophyta Equisetophytina Equisetopsida Equisetidae Equisetales
Psilotophyta Psilotophytina Psilotopsida Psilotidae Psilotales
Polypodiophyta Polypodiophytina Polypodiopsida Marattiidae Marattiales
Ophioglossidae Ophioglossales
Polypodiidae Osmundales
Hymenophyllales
Gleicheniales
Schizaeales
Dicksoniales
Cyatheales
Marsiliales
Salviniales
Pteridales
Blechnales
Davalliales
Polypodiales

Classification from Order to Family to Genus

Order Family Subfamily Genus
Lycopodiales Lycopodiaceae Huperzioideae Huperzia
-- Phlegmariurus
Lycopodielloideae Lycopodiella
-- Lateristachys
Lycopodioideae Lycopodium
-- Diphasiastrum
-- Diphasium
Phylloglossoideae Phylloglossum
Selaginellales Selaginellaceae Sellaginella
Isoetales Isoetaceae Isoetes
-- Stylites
Equisetales Equisetaceae Equisetum
-- Hippochaete
Psilotales Psilotaceae
-- Tmesipteridacee
Psilotum
Tmesipteris
Marattiales Marattiaceae
-- Angiopteridaceae
-- Christenseniaceae
-- Danaeaceae
-- Kaulfussiaceae
Angiopteridoideae Angiopteris
-- Archangiopteris
-- Macroglossum
-- Protangiopteris
-- Protomarattia
'Christensenioideae' ined. Christensenia
-- Kaulfussia
Dannaeoideae Danaea
-- Danaeopsis
-- Heterodanaea
Marattioideae Marattia
-- Eupodium
Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae
-- Botrychiaceae
-- Helminthostachyaceae
Botrychium
-- Botrypus
-- Japanobotrychium
-- Lunularia
-- Osmundopteris
-- Sceptridium

Helminthostachys
-- Botryopteris

Ophioglossum
-- Cheiroglossa
-- Ophioderma
-- Rhizoglossum
Hymenophyllales Hymenophyllaceae
-- Trichomanaceae
Cardiomanidoideae Cardiomanes
Hymenophylloideae Craspedophyllum
Hemicyatheon
Hymenophyllum
-- Amphipterum
-- Buesia
-- Craspedophyllum
-- Diploophyllum
-- Hemicyatheon
-- Leptocionium
-- Mecodium
-- Meringium
-- Myriodon
-- Myrmecostylum
-- Pachyloma
-- Ptychomanes
-- Ptychophyllum
-- Rosenstockia

Polyphlebium
-- Phlebiophyllum

Rosenstockia
Trichomanoideae Abrodictyum
Callistopteris
Cephalomanes
-- Calistopteris
-- Davalliopsis
-- Macroglena
-- Nesopteris
-- Selenodesmium

Crepidomanes
-- Craspedoneuron
-- Crepidium
-- Crepidophyllum
-- Crepidopteris
-- Gonocormus
-- Lacosteopsis
-- Leucomanes
-- Microtrichomames
-- Mortoniopteris
-- Pleuromanes
-- Reediella
-- Taschneria
-- Vandenboschia

Gonocormus
Hymenoglossum
Microtrichomanes
Nesopteris
Pleruomanes
Polyphlebium
Serpyllopsis
Sphaerocionium
-- Apteropteris
-- Dermatophlebium

Trichomanes
-- Abrodictyum
-- Didymoglossum
-- Feea
-- Hemiphlebium
-- Homoeotes
-- Hymenostachys
-- Lacostea
-- Lecanolepis
-- Macroglena
-- Mascalosorus
-- Microgonium
-- Neuromanes
-- Neurophyllum
-- Odontomanes
-- Ptilophyllum
-- Pyxidaria
-- Ragatelus
-- Trigonophyllum
Hymenophyllopsidaceae Hymenophyllopsis
Osmundales Osmundaceae Leptopteris
Osmunda
Todea
Gleicheniales Gleicheniaceae
-- Dicranopteridaceae
Dicranopteris
Diplopterygium
Gleichenia
Sticherus
Platyzomataceae Platyzoma
Matoniaceae Matonia
Phanerosorus
Stromatopteridaceae Stromatopteris
Dipteridaceae Dipteris
Cheiropleuriaceae Cheiropleuria
Schizaeales Schizaeaceae
-- Anemiaceae
-- Mohriaceae
Actinostachys
Anemia
Mohria
Schizaea
Lygodiaceae Lygodium
Plagiogyriales Plagiogyriaceae Plagiogyria
Dicksoniales Dicksoniaceae
-- Culcitaceae
-- Cystodiaceae
-- Lophosoriaceae
-- Thyrsopteridaceae
Cibotioideae Cibotium
'Cystodioideae' ined. Cystodium
Dicksonioideae Dicksonia
Lophosorioideae Lophosoria
Thyropteridoideae Calochlaena
Culcita
Thyrsopteris
Dennstaedtiaceae
-- Hypolepidaceae
-- Lindsaeaceae
Dennstaedtioideae Blotiella
Dennstaedtia
Histiopteris
Hypolepis
Leptolepia
Lonchitis
Microlepia
Oenotrichia
Paesia
Pteridium
Lindsaeioideae Lindsaea
Odontosoria
Ormoloma
Sphenomeris
Tapeinidium
Xyropteris
Saccalomatoideae Orthiopteris
Saccoloma
Cyatheales Cyatheaceae Cyathea
Metaxyaceae Metaxya
Loxsomataceae
-- Loxomataceae
Loxsoma
Loxsomopsis
Marsileales Marsileaceae
-- Pilulariaceae
Marsilea
Pilularia
Regnellidium
Salviniales Salviniaceae Salvinia
Azollaceae Azolla
Pteridales Actinopteridaceae Actinopteris
Adiantaceae
-- Cheilanthaceae
-- Cryptogrammataceae
-- Hemionitidaceae
-- Monachosoraceae
-- Negripteridaceae
-- Sinopteridaceae
-- Taeintidaceae
Adiantoideae Adiantum
Cheilanthoideae Adiantopsis
Bommeria
Cheilanthes
Coniogramme
Cryptogramma
Doryopteris
Hemionitis
Jamesonia
Llavea
Negripteris
Notholaena
Paraceterach
Sinopteris
Trachypteris
Monachosoroideae Monachosorum
Taenitoideae Anogramma
Austrogramme
Cerosora
Eriosorus
Nephopteris
Onychium
Pityrogramma
Pterozonium
Syngramma
Taenitis
Parkeriaceae Ceratopteris
Pteridaceae
-- Acrostichaceae
Pteridoideae Afropteris
Anopteris
Nevrocallis
Ochropteris
Pteris
Acrostichoideae Acrostichum
Vittariaceae
-- Antrophyaceae
Ananthacorus
Anetium
Antrophyum
Hecistopteris
Monogramma
Rheopteris
Vaginularia
Vittaria
Blechnales Blechnaceae
-- Stenochlaenaceae
Blechnoideae Blechnum
Barinea
Doodia
Pteridoblechnum
Sadleria
Salpichlaena
Steensioblechnum
Woodwardia
Stenochlaenoideae Stenochlaena
Aspleniaceae Antigramma
Asplenium
Camptosorus
Ceterach
Diellia
Holodictyum
Pleurosorus
Schaffneria
Dryopteridaceae
-- Aspidiaceae
-- Hypoderriaceae
-- Peranemataceae
-- Tectariaceae
Acrophorus
Aenigmopteris
Amphiblestra
Arachiodes
Atalopteris
Ataxipteris
Camptodium
Chlamydogramme
Coveniella
Ctenitis
Cyclodium
Cyclopeltis
Cyrtomium
Diacalpe
Didymochlaena
Dryopolystichum
Dryopsis
Dryopteris
Fadyenia
Heterogonium
Hypoderris
Lastreopsis
Leptorumohra
Lithostegia
Maxonia
Megalastrum
Nothoperanema
Peranema
Phanerophlebia
Phanerophlebiopsis
Plecosorus
Pleocnemia
Pleuroderris
Polybotrya
Polystichopsis
Polystichum
Pseudotectaria
Psomiocarpa
Pteridrys
Rumohra
Stenolepia
Stigmatopteris
Tectaria
Tectaridium
Triplophyllum
Lomariopsidaceae
-- Bolbitidaceae
-- Elaphoglossaceae
Bolbitis
Elaphoglossum
Lomagramma
Lomariopsis
Peltapteris
Teratophyllum
Thysansoria
Thelypteridaceae Amauropelta
Ampelopteris
Amphineuron
Chingia
Christella
Coryphopteris
Cyclogramma
Cyclosorus
Glaphyropteridopsis
Glaphyropteris
Goniopteris
Macrothelypteris
Meniscium
Menisorus
Mesophlebion
Metathelypteris
Nannothelypteris
Oreopteris
Parathelypteris
Phegopteris
Plesioneuron
Pneumatopteris
Pronephrium
Pseudocyclosorus
Pseudophegopteris
Sphaerostephanos
Stegnogramma
Steiropteris
Thelypteris
Trigonospora
Woodsiaceae
-- Athyriaceae
-- Hypodematiaceae
-- Onocleaceae
Acystopteris
Adenoderris
Anisocampium
Athyrium
Cheilanthopsis
Cornopteris
Cystoathyrium
Cystopteris
Diplaziopsis
Diplasium
Gymnocarpium
Hemidictyum
Hypodematium
Kuniwatsukia
Lunathyium
Matteuccia
Onoclea
Trichoneuron
Woodsia
Davalliales Davalliaceae
-- Gymnogrammitidaceae
Davallioideae Araiostegia
Davallia
Davallodes
Gymnogrammitis
Leucostegia
Oleandraceae
-- Nephrolepidaceae
Oleandroideae Arthropteris
Oleandra
Psammiosorus
Nephrolepidoideae Nephrolepis
Polypodiales Polypodiaceae
-- Drynariaceae
-- Loxogrammaceae
-- Platyceriaceae
Drynarioideae Aglaomorpha
-- Drynariopsis
-- Holostachyum
-- Merinthosorus

Drynaria
Microsoroideae Arthromeris
Belvisia
Christiopteris
Colysis
Diblemma
Lecanopteris
Leptochilus
Microsorum
Paraselliguea
Podosorus
Polypodiopteris
Selliguea
-- Crypsinus
-- Holcosorus
-- Phymatopteris
Platycerioideae Platycerium
Pyrrosia
-- Drymoglossum

Saxiglossum
Pleopeltoideae Belvisia
Dicranoglossum
Drymotaenium
Lemmaphyllum
Lepisorus
Marginariopsis
Microgramma
Neolepisorus
Neurodium
Pleopeltis
Paragramma
Polypodium
Solanopteris
Synammia
Thylacopteris
Polypodioideae Anapausia
Anarthropteris
Campyloneurum
Dictymia
Goniophlebium
Niphidium
Pecluma
Phlebodium
Polypodium
Thylacopteris

Hyalotrichopteris
Neocheiropteris
Paragramma
Pycnoloma
Synammia
Loxogrammoideae Loxogramme
Grammitidaceae
-- Grammitaceae
Acrosorus
Adenophorus
Calymmodon
Ceradenia
Chrysogrammitis
Cochlidium
Ctenopteris
Glyphotaenium
Grammitis
Lellingera
Prosaptia
Scleroglossum
Themelium
Xiphopteris
Zygadenia
Zygophlebia

Other useful resources for pteridophyte classification


Updated October 1999 by Webmaster (anbg-info@anbg.gov.au)