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Australian Biological Resources Study

Checklist of the Lichens of Australia and its Island Territories
Introduction | A–D | E–O | P–R | S–Z | Oceanic Islands | References
Xanthoparmelia scabrosa (Taylor) Hale
  Phytologia 28: 488 (1974); Parmelia scabrosa Taylor, London J. Bot. 6: 162 (1847). T: Swan River, W.A., 1843, J.Drummond; holo: FH; iso: BM. *****Parmelia conspersa var. hypoclystoides Müll.Arg., Flora 66: 201 (1883); Parmelia hypoclystoides (Müll.Arg.) Gyeln., Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl Hung. 29: 25 (1935); Xanthoparmelia hypoclystoides (Müll.Arg.) Hale, Phytologia 28: 487 (1974). T: Mt Macedon, Vic., Moffat 41; lecto: G, fide M.E.Hale, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 74: 189 (1990). *****Parmelia linkolae Gyeln., Magyar Bot. Lapok 28: 60 (1930). T: Dunedin, New Zealand, W.L.Lindsay; lecto: H-NYL; isolecto: BP, fide M.E.Hale, loc. cit. *****Parmelia subreagens Gyeln., Ann. Mycol. 36: 291 (1938). T: Waratah, N.S.W., J.Gregson; lecto: BP 24016, n.v., fide M.E.Hale, loc. cit. *****Parmelia scabropustulata Elix, Austral. J. Bot. 29: 369 (1981). T: Ellas Track, Port Hills, Christchurch, New Zealand, 15 Mar. 1980, J.A.Elix 7612; holo: CHR; iso: MEL. *****[Parmelia conspersa var. hypoclista f. isidiosa auct. non Müll.Arg. [= Xanthoparmelia subramigera (Gyeln.) Hale]: R.B.Filson, Checklist of Australian Lichens 1st edn, 66 (1983)].  
  Thallus foliose, loosely adnate to adnate, to c. 5 cm wide. Lobes imbricate or not, flat, subirregular to sublinear-elongate, irregularly branched, 0.8–2 (–3) mm wide. Upper surface yellow-green, dull, emaculate, smooth; isidia numerous, globose or warty, sometimes becoming cylindrical and branched; isidia apices epicorticate, becoming erumpent and pustulate-sorediate with age. Medulla white. Lower surface pale brown to dark brown, somewhat darker towards lobe apices; rhizines sparsely to moderately dense, simple, slender, concolorous. Apothecia subpedicellate, to 7 mm wide; disc strongly concave, less so at maturity, shiny, dark brown; thalline exciple isidiate, strongly involute at first. Ascospores 8–12 × 5–6 µm. Pycnidia rare. Conidia bifusiform, 6–7 × 0.5 µm. CHEMISTRY: cortex K-, UV-; medulla K-, C-, KC+ rose, P-; containing usnic acid, loxodin, norlobaridone, ±scabrosin 4,4'-diacetate, ±scabrosin 4-acetate 4'-butyrate, ±scabrosin 4,4'-dibutyrate and ±scabrosin 4-acetate 4'-hexanoate; rarely containing traces of isonorlobaridone, norlobariol, norlobariol methyl ester, conloxodin or conorlobaridone.
  One of the most common species of Xanthoparmelia in Australia, present in all States and Territories; also occurs on Norfolk Is., both main islands of New Zealand, in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, South America (Argentina), South Africa and Japan. Xanthoparmelia scabrosa has a very wide substratum tolerance, and although predominantly found on rock in undisturbed sites, it will also colonise tree bark, decorticated wood, slate, roofing tiles and glass as well as grow over bryophytes. In wetter areas, it is common on bitumen paths and roads, growing rapidly on these substrata.  
  Elix (1994z)  

Checklist Index
Introduction | A–D | E–O | P–R | S–Z | Oceanic Islands | References

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