Census of Australian Marine Dinoflagellates

Ceratium fusus. Photo: F.Scott.

Ceratium fusus
Photo: F. Scott

Preperidinium meunieri. Photo: F.Scott.

Preperidinium meunieri
Photo: F. Scott

eratium pentagonum. Photo: F.Scott.

Ceratium pentagonum
Photo: F. Scott


Dinoflagellates are minute, predominantly unicellular organisms, mostly exhibiting a characteristic ‘whirling’ motion in water. Motile cells possess two flagella, one located in a groove around the circumference of the cell, the other orientated to the cell posterior. Dinoflagellates can be armoured (with a cell wall composed of cellulose plates), or they can lack such protective structures (McMinn & Scott, 2005).

More than 1,500 free-living species are known (Gómez, 2005), and these can be heterotrophic, autotrophic or mixotrophic. While most are marine, free-living and planktonic (Hallegraeff et al., 2010), significant minorities are benthic (Murray, 2010), produce resistant cysts (McMinn et al., 2010), form symbiotic associations with marine sponges and coelenterates, especially corals, or produce toxins that are detrimental to other marine organisms, e.g. shellfish and fish, as well as humans.

The current list includes 537 free-living species and infraspecific taxa known from coastal and oceanic waters around Australia.

Click on the links (below) to view species fact-sheets. These contain original publication details, basionyms, other synonyms relevant to Australia, broad type localities, Australian and global distributions, and literature references for Australian records. The fact-sheets have been compiled mainly from recent sources, including overviews of the planktonic, benthic and cyst-producing dinoflagellates of temperate Australian waters (Hallegraeff et al., 2010; Murray, 2010; McMinn et al., 2010), a series of substantial papers by E.J.F. Wood (1954, 1963a, 1963b), the results of floristic and ecological research in tropical and temperate latitudes, and intensive taxonomic studies, e.g. Hallegraeff & Lucas (1988; Dinophysis), Huisman (1989; Ceratium), Larsen (1994, 1996; Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium), Murray & Patterson (2002; Amphidinium) and de Salas et al. (2008; Kareniaceae).

For publication details, typification and extra-Australian distribution, I have relied heavily on Index Nominum Algarum  and AlgaeBase  , as well as numerous papers, reports and abstracts. The circumscription, synonymy and generic placement of species, along with higher level classification, has been informed by the foregoing publications as well as a recent global checklist of free-living marine dinoflagellates (Gómez, 2005).

While this aims to be a reasonably comprehensive preliminary list, the accepted names, their systematic placement, synonymy and the geographical distribution of taxa are based solely on the literature and the taxonomic judgements therein.

Notification of errors, omissions and updates will be gratefully received and acknowledged.

Cite as: McCarthy, P.M. (2013), Census of Australian Marine Dinoflagellates. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/Dinoflagellates/index_Dino.html [version 11 July 2013].

Patrick M. McCarthy
Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra
11 July 2013
See also: Census of Australian Marine Diatoms

Dinophysis contracta. Photo: F.Scott.

Dinophysis contracta
Photos: F. Scott


I thank Brigitte Kuchlmayr for website design, Christy Geromboux for technical assistance, Catherine Jordan for library support, Fiona Scott for illustrations, and Shauna Murray and Tony Rees for updates.


N.S.W. – New South Wales; N.T. – Northern Territory; Qld – Queensland; S.A. – South Australia; Tas. – Tasmania; Vic. – Victoria; W.A. – Western Australia


GOMEZ, F. (2005), A list of free-living dinoflagellate species in the world’s oceans, Acta Bot. Croat. 64: 129–212.

HALLEGRAEFF, G.M. & LUCAS, I.A.N. (1988), The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species, Phycologia 27: 25–42.

HALLEGRAEFF, G.M., BOLCH, C.J.S., HUISMAN, J.M. & DE SALAS, M.F. (2010), Planktonic dinoflagellates, Algae of Australia: Phytoplankton of Temperate Coastal Waters 145–212.

HUISMAN, J.M. (1989), The genus Ceratium Schrank (Dinophyceae) in Bass Strait and adjoining waters, southern Australia, Austral. Syst. Bot. 2: 425–454.

LARSEN, J. (1994), Unarmoured dinoflagellates from Australian waters. I. The genus Gymnodinium (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae), Phycologia 33: 24–33.

LARSEN, J. (1996), Unarmoured dinoflagellates from Australian waters. II. Genus Gyrodinium (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae), Phycologia 35: 342–349.

McMINN, A. & SCOTT, F.J. (2005), Dinoflagellates, Antarctic Marine Protists 202–250 .

McMINN, A, BOLCH, C.J.S., DE SALAS, M.F. & HALLEGRAEFF, G.M. (2010), Recent dinoflagellate cysts, Algae of Australia: Phytoplankton of Temperate Coastal Waters 260–292.

MURRAY, S. (2010), Benthic dinoflagellates, Algae of Australia: Phytoplankton of Temperate Coastal Waters 213–259.

MURRAY, S. & PATTERSON, D.J. (2002), The benthic dinoflagellate genus Amphidinium in south-eastern Australian waters, including 3 new species, Eur. J. Phycol. 37: 279–298.

SALAS, M.F. DE, LAZA-MARTINEZ, A. & HALLEGRAEFF, G.M. (2008), Five new species of Karlodinium and one new Takayama (Kareniaceae, Dinophyceae) from open Southern Ocean waters, J. Phycol. 44: 241–257.

WOOD, E.J.F. (1954), Dinoflagellates in the Australian region, Austral. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 5: 171–351.

WOOD, E.J.F. (1963a), Dinoflagellates in the Australian region. II – Recent collections, Tech. Pap. Div. Fish. Oceanogr. CSIRO 14: 1–55.

WOOD, E.J.F. (1963b), Dinoflagellates in the Australian region. III – Further collections, Tech. Pap. Div. Fish. Oceanogr. CSIRO 17: 1–20.


Prorocentrum compressum. Photo: F.Scott.

Prorocentrum compressum
Photo: F. Scott




Amphisolenia astragalus

Amphisolenia asymmetrica

Amphisolenia bidentata

Amphisolenia bifurcata

Amphisolenia bispinosa

Amphisolenia brevicauda var. curvata

Amphisolenia curvata

Amphisolenia globifera

Amphisolenia laticincta

Amphisolenia lemmermannii

Amphisolenia palaeotheroides

Amphisolenia palmata

Amphisolenia rectangulata

Amphisolenia schauinslandii

Amphisolenia schroederi

Amphisolenia thrinax

Triposolenia bicornis


Citharistes apsteinii

Citharistes regius


Dinophysis acuminata

Dinophysis acuta

Dinophysis amandula

Dinophysis apicata

Dinophysis carpentariae

Dinophysis caudata

Dinophysis contracta

Dinophysis dens

Dinophysis elongatum

Dinophysis exigua

Dinophysis fortii

Dinophysis hastata

Dinophysis irregularis

Dinophysis lens

Dinophysis micropterygia

Dinophysis miles f. miles

Dinophysis miles f. indica

Dinophysis mucronata

Dinophysis neolenticula

Dinophysis okamurai

Dinophysis opposita

Dinophysis ovum

Dinophysis pacifica

Dinophysis paralata

Dinophysis recurva

Dinophysis sacculus

Dinophysis schroederi

Dinophysis schuettii

Dinophysis similis

Dinophysis sphaerica

Dinophysis sphaeroidea

Dinophysis thompsonii

Dinophysis tripos

Dinophysis truncata

Dinophysis uracantha

Dinophysis whiteleggei

Histioneis aequatorialis

Histioneis australiae

Histioneis carinata

Histioneis cerasus

Histioneis crateriformis

Histioneis cymbalaria

Histioneis depressa

Histioneis diamantinae

Histioneis elongata var. elongata

Histioneis elongata var. curvata

Histioneis garrettii

Histioneis highleyi

Histioneis longicollis

Histioneis megalocopa

Histioneis milneri

Histioneis mitchellana

Histioneis oxypteris

Histioneis panaria

Histioneis panda

Histioneis para

Histioneis paraformis

Histioneis pietschmannii

Histioneis planeta

Histioneis remora

Histioneis rotundata

Histioneis schilleri

Histioneis tubifera

Histioneis variabilis

Histioneis vouckii

Ornithocercus carolinae

Ornithocercus carpentariae

Ornithocercus formosus

Ornithocercus francescae

Ornithocercus geniculatus

Ornithocercus heteroporus

Ornithocercus magnificus

Ornithocercus quadratus

Ornithocercus skogsbergii

Ornithocercus splendidus

Ornithocercus steinii

Ornithocercus thumii

Parahistioneis gascoynensis

Parahistioneis pachypus

Phalacroma acutum

Phalacroma argus

Phalacroma circumsutum

Phalacroma cuneolus

Phalacroma cuneus

Phalacroma doryphorum

Phalacroma expulsum

Phalacroma favus

Phalacroma hindmarchii

Phalacroma jibbonense

Phalacroma mitra

Phalacroma nasutum

Phalacroma operculatum

Phalacroma parvulum

Phalacroma porodictyum

Phalacroma pulchellum

Phalacroma pulchrum

Phalacroma rapa

Phalacroma rotundatum

Phalacroma striatum



Ceratium arietinum

Ceratium axiale

Ceratium azoricum

Ceratium belone

Ceratium biceps

Ceratium bigelowii

Ceratium breve

Ceratium candelabrum

Ceratium carriense

Ceratium cephalotum

Ceratium concilians

Ceratium contortum

Ceratium contrarium

Ceratium declinatum

Ceratium deflexum

Ceratium dens

Ceratium depressum

Ceratium digitatum

Ceratium euarcuatum

Ceratium falcatiforme

Ceratium falcatum

Ceratium furca

Ceratium fusus

Ceratium geniculatum

Ceratium gibberum

Ceratium gravidum

Ceratium hexacanthum

Ceratium humile

Ceratium incisum

Ceratium inflatum

Ceratium kofoidii

Ceratium limulus

Ceratium lineatum

Ceratium longipes

Ceratium longirostrum

Ceratium longissimum

Ceratium lunula

Ceratium macroceros

Ceratium minutum

Ceratium paradoxides

Ceratium pavillardii

Ceratium pentagonum

Ceratium platycorne

Ceratium porrectum

Ceratium praelongum

Ceratium ranipes

Ceratium reflexum

Ceratium schroeteri

Ceratium setaceum

Ceratium symmetricum

Ceratium tasmaniae

Ceratium tenue

Ceratium teres

Ceratium trichoceros

Ceratium tripos

Ceratium vultur


Ceratocorys armata

Ceratocorys gourretii

Ceratocorys horrida

Ceratocorys indica


Cladopyxis brachiolata

Palaeophalacroma unicinctum

Protoceratium reticulatum


Gambierdiscus toxicus

Goniodoma polyedricum

Goniodoma sphaericum


Alexandrium affine

Alexandrium catenella

Alexandrium fraterculum

Alexandrium margalefii

Alexandrium minutum

Alexandrium ostenfeldii

Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax

Alexandrium tamarense

Gonyaulax apiculata

Gonyaulax birostris

Gonyaulax ceratocoroides

Gonyaulax conjuncta

Gonyaulax diegensis

Gonyaulax digitalis

Gonyaulax elongata

Gonyaulax fragilis

Gonyaulax hyalina

Gonyaulax kofoidii

Gonyaulax membranacea

Gonyaulax milneri

Gonyaulax minuta

Gonyaulax monacantha

Gonyaulax pacifica

Gonyaulax polygramma

Gonyaulax scrippsae

Gonyaulax spinifera

Gonyaulax turbynei

Gonyaulax verior

Lingulodinium polyedrum

Protoceratium areolatum


Heterodinium asymmetricum

Heterodinium australiae

Heterodinium blackmanii

Heterodinium crassipes

Heterodinium dispar

Heterodinium doma

Heterodinium fenestratum

Heterodinium hindmarchii

Heterodinium milneri

Heterodinium rigdenae

Heterodinium scrippsii

Heterodinium varicator


Coolia monotis

Ostreopsis siamensis


Fragilidium subglobosum

Pyrophacus horologicum

Pyrophacus steinii


Amphidiniella sedentaria



Akashiwo sanguinea

Amphidinium acutissimum

Amphidinium bipes

Amphidinium boggayum

Amphidinium carterae

Amphidinium corrugatum

Amphidinium flagellans

Amphidinium herdmanii

Amphidinium incoloratum

Amphidinium inflatum

Amphidinium latum

Amphidinium mammillatum

Amphidinium massartii

Amphidinium mootonorum

Amphidinium oceanicum

Amphidinium operculatum

Amphidinium ovum

Amphidinium psittacus

Amphidinium salinum

Amphidinium scissum

Amphidinium steinii

Amphidinium sulcatum

Amphidinium testudo

Amphidinium turbo

Amphidinium vasculum

Amphidinium yuroogurrum

Cochlodinium archimedes

Cochlodinium brandtii

Cochlodinium cavatum

Cochlodinium flavum

Cochlodinium geminatum

Cochlodinium helix

Cochlodinium rosaceum

Cochlodinium virescens

Gymnodinium achromaticum

Gymnodinium agile

Gymnodinium agiliforme

Gymnodinium allophron

Gymnodinium amphityphlum

Gymnodinium aureolum

Gymnodinium biconicum

Gymnodinium catenatum

Gymnodinium cinctum

Gymnodinium coeruleum

Gymnodinium costatum

Gymnodinium danicans

Gymnodinium dentatum

Gymnodinium diploconus

Gymnodinium dorsalisulcum

Gymnodinium endofasciculum

Gymnodinium flavum

Gymnodinium fusus

Gymnodinium galeaeforme

Gymnodinium galeatum

Gymnodinium gelbum

Gymnodinium guttiforme

Gymnodinium heterostriatum

Gymnodinium impudicum

Gymnodinium lantzschii

Gymnodinium marinum

Gymnodinium microreticulatum

Gymnodinium minor

Gymnodinium minutulum

Gymnodinium multistriatum

Gymnodinium nanum

Gymnodinium cf. natalense

Gymnodinium ochraceum

Gymnodinium octo

Gymnodinium parvum

Gymnodinium polycomma

Gymnodinium prolatum

Gymnodinium punctatum

Gymnodinium pygmaeum

Gymnodinium rubrocinctum

Gymnodinium rubrum

Gymnodinium cf. schaefferi

Gymnodinium scopulosum

Gymnodinium simplex

Gymnodinium situla

Gymnodinium sphaericum

Gymnodinium sulcatum

Gymnodinium translucens

Gymnodinium uberrimum

Gymnodinium uncatenum

Gymnodinium varians

Gymnodinium venator

Gymnodinium verruculosum

Gymnodinium viridescens

Gyrodinium atractos

Gyrodinium capsulatum

Gyrodinium cornutum

Gyrodinium dominans

Gyrodinium estuariale

Gyrodinium falcatum

Gyrodinium fissum

Gyrodinium formosum

Gyrodinium fusiforme

Gyrodinium guttula

Gyrodinium heterogramma

Gyrodinium impendens

Gyrodinium lachryma

Gyrodinium lebouriae

Gyrodinium lingulifera

Gyrodinium metum

Gyrodinium mundulum

Gyrodinium nasutum

Gyrodinium oblongum

Gyrodinium obtusum

Gyrodinium ochraceum

Gyrodinium ovatum

Gyrodinium pavillardii

Gyrodinium pepo

Gyrodinium pingue

Gyrodinium prunus

Gyrodinium spirale

Gyrodinium submarinum

Gyrodinium vesiculosum

Gyrodinium zeta

Katodinium asymmetricum

Katodinium auratum

Katodinium fungiforme

Katodinium glandulum

Lepidodinium chlorophorum

Spiniferodinium galeiforme

Togula jolla


Hemidinium nasutum


Ankistrodinium semilunatum

Karenia asterichroma

Karenia bicuneiformis

Karenia mikimotoi

Karenia papilionacea

Karenia selliformis

Karenia umbella

Karlodinium australe

Karlodinium ballantinum

Karlodinium decipiens

Karlodinium veneficum

Takayama acrotrocha

Takayama cladochroma

Takayama helix

Takayama pulchella

Takayama tasmanica


Polykrikos kofoidii

Polykrikos schwartzii



Herdmania litoralis


Erythropsidinium agile

Nematodinium armatum

Nematodinium torpedo

Protopsis elongata

Protopsis simplex

Warnowia atra

Warnowia rosea

Warnowia subnigra

Warnowia voracis



Sclerodinium calyptoglyphe



Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca


Noctiluca scintillans


Pronoctiluca acuta

Pronoctiluca pelagica

Pronoctiluca spinifera



Oxyrrhis marina



Ensiculifera carinata


Centrodinium eminens

Centrodinium intermedium


Heterocapsa niei

Heterocapsa rotundata

Heterocapsa triquetra


Amphidiniopsis cf. hexagona

Amphidiniopsis korewalensis

Amphidiniopsis swedmarkii

Corythodinium compressum

Corythodinium diploconus

Corythodinium elegans

Murrayella australica

Oxytoxum caudatum

Oxytoxum challengeroides

Oxytoxum crassum

Oxytoxum curvatum

Oxytoxum elongatum

Oxytoxum laticeps

Oxytoxum longum

Oxytoxum milneri

Oxytoxum mitra

Oxytoxum obliquum

Oxytoxum pachyderme

Oxytoxum parvum

Oxytoxum robustum

Oxytoxum sceptrum

Oxytoxum scolopax

Oxytoxum sphaeroideum

Oxytoxum turbo

Oxytoxum variabile

Schuettiella mitra

Thecadinium kofoidii


Bysmatrum teres

Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi

Durinskia baltica

Kryptoperidinium foliaceum

Pentapharsodinium tyrrhenicum

Peridinium ampulliforme

Peridinium quinquecorne

Scrippsiella trochoidea


Blepharocysta paulsenii

Blepharocysta splendormaris

Cabra matta

Podolampas bipes var. bipes

Podolampas bipes var. reticulata

Podolampas elegans

Podolampas palmipes

Podolampas spinifera


Diplopelta parva

Diplopsalis lenticula

Diplopsalopsis bomba

Diplopsalopsis orbicularis

Lebouraia minuta

Oblea rotunda

Preperidinium meunieri

Protoperidinium abei

Protoperidinium achromaticum

Protoperidinium americanum

Protoperidinium avellana

Protoperidinium bipes

Protoperidinium brevipes

Protoperidinium brochii

Protoperidinium cerasum

Protoperidinium claudicans

Protoperidinium compressum

Protoperidinium concavum

Protoperidinium conicoides

Protoperidinium conicum f. conicum

[Protoperidinium] conicum f. asamushii

Protoperidinium crassipes

Protoperidinium curtipes

Protoperidinium decipiens

Protoperidinium depressum

Protoperidinium diabolus

Protoperidinium divaricatum

Protoperidinium divergens

Protoperidinium elegans

Protoperidinium excentricum

Protoperidinium globulum

Protoperidinium grande

Protoperidinium granii

Protoperidinium hirobis

Protoperidinium inclinatum

Protoperidinium inflatum

Protoperidinium latispinum

Protoperidinium latissimum

Protoperidinium leonis

Protoperidinium marielebourae

Protoperidinium mediterraneum

Protoperidinium minutum

Protoperidinium monacanthum

Protoperidinium murrayi

Protoperidinium nudum

Protoperidinium oblongum

Protoperidinium oceanicum

Protoperidinium okamurai

Protoperidinium ovatum

Protoperidinium ovum

Protoperidinium pallidum

Protoperidinium pedunculatum

Protoperidinium pellucidum

Protoperidinium pentagonum

Protoperidinium punctulatum

Protoperidinium pyriforme

Protoperidinium quarnerense

Protoperidinium remotum

Protoperidinium simulum

Protoperidinium solidicorne

Protoperidinium sourniai

Protoperidinium steinii

Protoperidinium subinerme

Protoperidinium tenuissimum

Protoperidinium thorianum

Protoperidinium tuba

Protoperidinium ventricum

Protoperidinium wiesneri


Rhinodinium broomeense

Spiraulax jolliffei




Halostylodinium arenarium

Stylodinium cf. littorale




Mesoporos perforatus

Prorocentrum arcuatum

Prorocentrum clipeus

Prorocentrum compressum

Prorocentrum dentatum

Prorocentrum faustiae

Prorocentrum fukuyoi

Prorocentrum gracile

Prorocentrum hoffmannianum

Prorocentrum lima

Prorocentrum mexicanum

Prorocentrum micans

Prorocentrum minimum

Prorocentrum obtusidens

Prorocentrum rhathymum

Prorocentrum rostratum

Prorocentrum scutellum

Prorocentrum triestinum



Pyrocystis fusiformis f. fusiformis

Pyrocystis fusiformis f. biconica

Pyrocystis hamulus var. hamulus

Pyrocystis hamulus var. semicircularis

Pyrocystis lunula

Pyrocystis noctiluca

Pyrocystis robusta



Thoracosphaera heimii


Alexandrium ibericum = Alexandrium minutum

Alexandrium lusitanicum = Alexandrium minutum

Amphidinium acutum J.Schiller = Amphidinium acutissimum

Amphidinium boekhoutensis = Amphidinium incoloratum

Amphidinium klebsii = Amphidinium operculatum

Amphidinium microcephalum = Amphidinium carterae

Amphidinium pellucidum = Gymnodinium venator

Amphidinium pseudogalbanum = Amphidinium mammillatum

Amphidinium rotundatum = Heterocapsa rotundata

Amphidinium subsalsum = Gymnodinium venator

Amphidinium wislouchii = Amphidinium steinii

Amylax diacantha = Gonyaulax verior

Balechina coerulea = Gymnodinium coeruleum

Cachonina niei = Heterocapsa niei

Ceratium arcuatum = Ceratium euarcuatum

Ceratium arietinum f. detortum = Ceratium arietinum

Ceratium arietinum f. gracilentum = ?Ceratium arietinum

Ceratium arietinum f. regulare = Ceratium arietinum

Ceratium arietinum f. valens = Ceratium arietinum

Ceratium boehmii = Ceratium kofoidii

Ceratium bucephalum = Ceratium arietinum

Ceratium buceros = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium buceros f. claviger = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium buceros f. denticulatum = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium buceros f. inclinatum = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium buceros f. leptosomum = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium buceros f. molle = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium buceros f. tenue = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium candelabrum f. commune = Ceratium candelabrum

Ceratium candelabrum f. curvatulum = Ceratium candelabrum

Ceratium candelabrum f. depressum = Ceratium candelabrum

Ceratium carriense var. massiliense = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium carriense var. volans = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium claviger = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium compressum sensu Wood = Ceratium platycorne

Ceratium extensum = Ceratium biceps

Ceratium extensum f. strictum = Ceratium biceps

Ceratium furca var. berghii = Ceratium furca

Ceratium furca var. depressa = Ceratium candelabrum

Ceratium furca var. eugrammum = Ceratium furca

Ceratium furca var. incisum = Ceratium incisum

Ceratium fusus subsp. seta = Ceratium fusus

Ceratium fusus var. extensum = Ceratium biceps

Ceratium fusus var. geniculatum = Ceratium geniculatum

Ceratium fusus var. schuttii = Ceratium fusus

Ceratium fusus var. seta = Ceratium fusus

Ceratium fusus var. stricta = Ceratium biceps

Ceratium gallicum = Ceratium macroceros

Ceratium gibberum f. aequale = ?Ceratium gibberum

Ceratium gibberum var. contortum = Ceratium contortum

Ceratium gravidum var. cephalotum = Ceratium cephalotum

Ceratium gravidum var. elongatum = Ceratium gravidum

Ceratium gravidum var. praelongum = Ceratium praelongum

Ceratium horridum = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium horridum f. denticulatum = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium inclinatum = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium karstenii = Ceratium contortum

Ceratium japonicum = Ceratium vultur

Ceratium leptosomum = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium longinum = Ceratium contortum

Ceratium longipes f. balticum = Ceratium longipes

Ceratium macroceros subsp.deflexum = Ceratium deflexum

Ceratium macroceros subsp. gallicum = Ceratium macroceros

Ceratium massiliense = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium massiliense var. armatum = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium molle = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium pennatum f. falcatum = Ceratium falcatum

Ceratium pennatum f. inflatum = Ceratium inflatum

Ceratium petersii = Ceratium azoricum

Ceratium protuberans = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium pulchellum = Ceratium tripos

Ceratium pulchellum f. subpulchellum = Ceratium tripos

Ceratium pulchellum f. tripodioides = Ceratium tripos

Ceratium trichoceros var. contrarium = Ceratium contrarium

Ceratium tripos [var.] lunula = Ceratium lunula

Ceratium tripos f. armatum = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium tripos f. atlanticum = Ceratium tripos

Ceratium tripos f. detortum = Ceratium arietinum

Ceratium tripos f. longissimum = Ceratium longissimum

Ceratium tripos f. protuberans = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium tripos var. atlanticum = Ceratium tripos

Ceratium tripos var. breve = Ceratium breve

Ceratium tripos var. bucephalum = Ceratium arietinum

Ceratium tripos var. contrarium = Ceratium contrarium

Ceratium tripos var. digitatum = Ceratium ranipes

Ceratium tripos var. horridum = Ceratium tenue

Ceratium tripos var. limulus = Ceratium limulus

Ceratium tripos var. massiliense = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium tripos var. protuberans = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium tripos var. tripodioides = Ceratium tripos

Ceratium volans = Ceratium carriense

Ceratium vultur var. sumatranum = Ceratium vultur

Cercaria tripos = Ceratium tripos

Congruentidium compressum = Protoperidinium compressum

Cryptomonas lima = Prorocentrum lima

Dinophysis alata = Dinophysis paralata

Dinophysis amygdala = Dinophysis amandula

Dinophysis caudata var. diegensis = Dinophysis caudata

Dinophysis circumsuta = Phalacroma circumsutum

Dinophysis cuneus = Phalacroma cuneus

Dinophysis diegensis = Dinophysis caudata

Dinophysis doryphora = Phalacroma doryphorum

Dinophysis expulsa = Phalacroma expulsum

Dinophysis jibbonensis = Phalacroma jibbonense

Dinophysis lenticula Pavill. = Dinophysis recurva

Dinophysis parvula = Phalacroma parvulum

Dinophysis pulchella = Phalacroma pulchellum

Dinophysis rapa = Phalacroma rapa

Dinophysis rotundata = Phalacroma rotundatum

Dinophysis triangulare = Phalacroma cuneus

Dinophysis ventrecta = Dinophysis sacculus

Diplopelta bomba = Diplopsalopsis bomba

Diplopsalis lenticula f. minor = Preperidinium meunieri

Diplopsalis orbiculare = Diplopsalopsis orbicularis

Dissodinium lunula = Pyrocystis lunula

Dissodium asymmetricum = Diplopsalopsis bomba

Dissodium parvum = Diplopelta parva

Erythropsis agilis = Erythropsidinium agile

Exuviaella compressa = Prorocentrum compressum

Exuviaella cordata = ?Prorocentrum minimum

Exuviaella mariae-lebouriae = Prorocentrum minimum

Exuviaella marina = Prorocentrum lima

Exuviaella minima = Prorocentrum minimum

Exuviaella perforata = Mesoporos perforatus

Glenodinium balticum = Durinskia baltica

Glenodinium bipes = Protoperidinium bipes

Glenodinium foliaceum = Kryptoperidinium foliaceum

Glenodinium lenticulum = Diplopsalis lenticula

Glenodinium triquetrum = Heterocapsa triquetra

Glenodinium trochoideum = Scrippsiella trochoidea

Goniodoma acuminatum = Goniodoma polyedricum

Goniodoma acuminatum var. armatum = Ceratocorys armata

Goniodoma milneri = Gonyaulax milneri

Goniodoma ostenfeldii = Alexandrium ostenfeldii

Goniodoma pseudogonyaulax = Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax

Gonyaulax catenella = Alexandrium catenella

Gonyaulax diacantha = Gonyaulax verior

Gonyaulax excavata = Alexandrium tamarense

Gonyaulax glyptorhynchus = Gonyaulax birostris

Gonyaulax grindleyi = Protoceratium reticulatum

Gonyaulax jolliffei = Spiraulax jolliffei

Gonyaulax minima = Gonyaulax minuta

Gonyaulax polyedra = Lingulodinium polyedrum

Gonyaulax tamarensis = Alexandrium tamarense

Gonyaulax tamarensis var. excavata = Alexandrium tamarense

Gonyaulax tamarensis var. globosa = Alexandrium ostenfeldii

Gonyaulax trygvei = Alexandrium ostenfeldii

Gymnodinium agile = Herdmania litoralis

Gymnodinium albulum = Gymnodinium lantzschii

Gymnodinium archimedis = Cochlodinium archimedes

Gymnodinium asymmetricum = Katodinium asymmetricum

Gymnodinium bogoriense = Gymnodinium uberrimum

Gymnodinium chlorophorum = Lepidodinium chlorophorum

Gymnodinium coeruleum = Balechina coerulea

Gymnodinium fissum = Gyrodinium fissum

Gymnodinium fungiforme = Katodinium fungiforme

Gymnodinium geminatum = Cochlodinium geminatum

Gymnodinium glandulum = Katodinium glandulum

Gymnodinium gracile var. sphaericum = Gymnodinium sphaericum

Gymnodinium helix = Cochlodinium helix

Gymnodinium hyalinum = Gymnodinium heterostriatum

Gymnodinium lunula = Pyrocystis lunula

Gymnodinium micrum = Karlodinium veneficum

Gymnodinium mikimotoi = Karenia mikimotoi

Gymnodinium minimum = Gymnodinium lantzschii

Gymnodinium nagasakiense = Karenia mikimotoi

Gymnodinium obesum = Gymnodinium uberrimum

Gymnodinium ovatum = Gyrodinium ovatum

Gymnodinium pellucidum = Gymnodinium venator

Gymnodinium polyphemum var. roseum = Warnowia rosea

Gymnodinium pseudonoctiluca = Spatulodinium pseudonoctiluca

Gymnodinium pulchellum = Takayama pulchella

Gymnodinium rotundatum = Gymnodinium uberrimum

Gymnodinium sanguineum = Akashiwo sanguinea

Gymnodinium spirale = Gyrodinium spirale

Gymnodinium spirale var. cornutum = Gyrodinium cornutum

Gymnodinium spirale var. obtusum = Gyrodinium obtusum

Gymnodinium spirale var. pepo = Gyrodinium pepo

Gymnodinium spirale var. pingue = Gyrodinium pingue

Gymnodinium splendens = Akashiwo sanguinea

Gymnodinium veneficum = Karlodinium veneficum

Gyrodinium acrotrochum = Takayama acrotrocha

Gyrodinium aureolum = Gymnodinium aureolum

Gyrodinium calyptoglyphe = Sclerodinium calyptoglyphe

Gyrodinium cladochroma = Takayama cladochroma

Gyrodinium impudicum = Gymnodinium impudicum

Gyrodinium uncatenum = Gymnodinium uncatenum

Helgolandinium subglobosum = Fragilidium subglobosum

Histioneis dolon = Histioneis megalocopa

Histioneis francescae = Ornithocercus francescae

Histioneis helenae = Histioneis milneri

Histioneis hippoperoides = Histioneis milneri

Histioneis pulchra = ?Histioneis mitchellana

Histioneis reticulata = Histioneis crateriformis

Histioneis steinii = Histioneis variabilis

Hystrichosphaera furcata var. membranacea = Gonyaulax membranacea

Karenia bidigitata = Karenia bicuneiformis

Karlodinium micrum = Karlodinium veneficum

Katodinium dorsalisulcum = Gymnodinium dorsalisulcum

Medusa scintillans = Noctiluca scintillans

Murracystis fusiformis = Pyrocystis fusiformis

Neoceratium arietinum = Ceratium arietinum

Neoceratium axiale = Ceratium axiale

Neoceratium azoricum = Ceratium azoricum

Neoceratium biceps = Ceratium biceps

Neoceratium candelabrum = Ceratium candelabrum

Neoceratium carriense = Ceratium carriense

Neoceratium cephalotum = Ceratium cephalotum

Neoceratium concilians = Ceratium concilians

Neoceratium contortum = Ceratium contortum

Neoceratium deflexum = Ceratium deflexum

Neoceratium euarcuatum = Ceratium euarcuatum

Neoceratium falcatiforme = Ceratium falcatiforme

Neoceratium falcatum = Ceratium falcatum

Neoceratium furca = Ceratium furca

Neoceratium fusus = Ceratium fusus

Neoceratium gibberum = Ceratium gibberum

Neoceratium gravidum = Ceratium gravidum

Neoceratium hexacanthum = Ceratium hexacanthum

Neoceratium inflatum = Ceratium inflatum

Neoceratium kofoidii = Ceratium kofoidii

Neoceratium limulus = Ceratium limulus

Neoceratium lineatum = Ceratium lineatum

Neoceratium longirostrum = Ceratium longirostrum

Neoceratium lunula = Ceratium lunula

Neoceratium macroceros = Ceratium macroceros

Neoceratium paradoxides = Ceratium paradoxides

Neoceratium pavillardii = Ceratium pavillardii

Neoceratium pentagonum = Ceratium pentagonum

Neoceratium platycorne = Ceratium platycorne

Neoceratium porrectum = Ceratium porrectum

Neoceratium ranipes = Ceratium ranipes

Neoceratium setaceum = Ceratium setaceum

Neoceratium symmetricum = Ceratium symmetricum

Neoceratium tasmaniae = Ceratium tasmaniae

Neoceratium tenue = Ceratium tenue

Neoceratium teres = Ceratium teres

Neoceratium trichoceros = Ceratium trichoceros

Neoceratium tripos = Ceratium tripos

Neoceratium vultur = Ceratium vultur

Ornithocercus biclavatus = Ornithocercus heteroporus

Ornithocercus triclavatus = Ornithocercus heteroporus

Oxytoxum compressum = Corythodinium compressum

Oxytoxum diploconus = Corythodinium diploconus

Oxytoxum elegans = Corythodinium elegans

Oxytoxum gigas = Schuettiella mitra

Oxytoxum globosum = Oxytoxum crassum

Oxytoxum gracile = Oxytoxum variabile

Oxytoxum longiceps = Oxytoxum sceptrum

Oxytoxum nanum = Oxytoxum caudatum

Oxytoxum subulatum = Oxytoxum milneri

Parahistioneis crateriformis = Histioneis crateriformis

Parahistioneis garrettii = Histioneis garrettii

Parahistioneis para = Histioneis para

Parahistioneis paraformis = Histioneis paraformis

Parahistioneis reticulata = Histioneis crateriformis

Parahistioneis rotundata = Histioneis rotundata

Peridiniopsis asymmetrica = Diplopsalopsis bomba

Peridiniopsis rotunda = Oblea rotunda

Peridinium abei = Protoperidinium abei

Peridinium achromaticum = Protoperidinium achromaticum

Peridinium acuminatum = Goniodoma polyedricum

Peridinium americanum = Protoperidinium americanum

Peridinium biconicum = Protoperidinium abei

Peridinium blackmanii = Heterodinium blackmanii

Peridinium breve = Protoperidinium pyriforme

Peridinium brevipes = Protoperidinium brevipes

Peridinium brochii = Protoperidinium brochii

Peridinium brochii f. inflatum = Protoperidinium inflatum

Peridinium candelabrum = Ceratium candelabrum

Peridinium cerasus = Protoperidinium cerasum

Peridinium claudicans = Protoperidinium claudicans

Peridinium concavum = Protoperidinium concavum

Peridinium conicoides = Protoperidinium conicoides

Peridinium conicum = Protoperidinium conicum

Peridinium crassipes = Protoperidinium crassipes

Peridinium curtipes = Protoperidinium curtipes

Peridinium decipiens = Protoperidinium decipiens

Peridinium depressum = Protoperidinium depressum

Peridinium diabolus = Protoperidinium diabolus

Peridinium divaricatum = Protoperidinium divaricatum

Peridinium divergens = Protoperidinium divergens

Peridinium divergens var. conicum = Protoperidinium conicum

Peridinium divergens var. oblongum = Protoperidinium oblongum

Peridinium doma = Heterodinium doma

Peridinium elegans = Protoperidinium elegans

Peridinium excentricum = Protoperidinium excentricum

Peridinium foliaceum = Kryptoperidinium foliaceum

Peridinium furca = Ceratium furca

Peridinium fusus = Ceratium fusus

Peridinium globulus = Protoperidinium globulum

Peridinium globulus var. quarnerensis = Protoperidinium quarnerense

Peridinium grande = Protoperidinium grande

Peridinium granii = Protoperidinium granii

Peridinium hindmarchii = Heterodinium hindmarchii

Peridinium hirobis = Protoperidinium hirobis

Peridinium inclinatum = Protoperidinium inclinatum

Peridinium inflatum = Protoperidinium inflatum

Peridinium latispinum = Protoperidinium latispinum

Peridinium latissimum = Protoperidinium latissimum

Peridinium lenticulatum = Preperidinium meunieri

Peridinium leonis = Protoperidinium leonis

Peridinium lineatum = Ceratium lineatum

Peridinium longipes = Ceratium longipes

Peridinium macroceros = Ceratium macroceros

Peridinium marielebourae = Protoperidinium marielebourae

Peridinium meunieri = Preperidinium meunieri

Peridinium milneri = Heterodinium milneri

Peridinium minusculum = Protoperidinium bipes

Peridinium minutum = Protoperidinium minutum

Peridinium mite p.p. = Protoperidinium concavum

Peridinium monacanthum = Protoperidinium monacanthum

Peridinium murrayi = Protoperidinium murrayi

Peridinium nudum = Protoperidinium nudum

Peridinium oceanicum = Protoperidinium oceanicum

Peridinium okamurai = Protoperidinium okamurai

Peridinium orbiculare = Diplopsalopsis orbicularis

Peridinium ovatum = Protoperidinium ovatum

Peridinium ovum = Protoperidinium ovum

Peridinium pallidum = Protoperidinium pallidum

Peridinium pedunculatum = Protoperidinium pedunculatum

Peridinium pellucidum = Protoperidinium pellucidum

Peridinium pentagonum = Protoperidinium pentagonum

Peridinium pentagonum var. latissimum = Protoperidinium latissimum

Peridinium polyedricum = Goniodoma polyedricum

Peridinium punctulatum = Protoperidinium punctulatum

Peridinium pyriforme = Protoperidinium pyriforme

Peridinium remotum = Protoperidinium remotum

Peridinium reticulatum = Protoceratium reticulatum

Peridinium seta = Ceratium fusus

Peridinium simulum = Protoperidinium simulum

Peridinium solidicorne = Protoperidinium solidicorne

Peridinium sourniai = Protoperidinium sourniai

Peridinium spiniferum = Gonyaulax spinifera

Peridinium splendormaris = Blepharocysta splendormaris

Peridinium steinii = Protoperidinium steinii

Peridinium steinii f. breve = Protoperidinium pyriforme

Peridinium steinii f. pyriforme = Protoperidinium pyriforme

Peridinium steinii subsp. mediterraneum = Protoperidinium mediterraneum

Peridinium subinerme = Protoperidinium subinerme

Peridinium tenuissimum = Protoperidinium tenuissimum

Peridinium thorianum = Protoperidinium thorianum

Peridinium trichoceros = Ceratium trichoceros

Peridinium tyrrhenicum = Pentapharsodinium tyrrhenicum

Peridinium tuba = Protoperidinium tuba

Peridinium uberrimum = Gymnodinium uberrimum

Peridinium ventricum = Protoperidinium ventricum

Peridinium wiesneri = Protoperidinium wiesneri

Phalacroma alata = Dinophysis paralata

Phalacroma apicatum = Dinophysis apicata

Phalacroma contractum = Dinophysis contracta

Phalacroma elongatum = Dinophysis elongatum

Phalacroma irregulare = Dinophysis irregularis

Phalacroma kofoidii = Thecadinium kofoidii

Phalacroma lens = Dinophysis lens

Phalacroma lenticulum = Dinophysis neolenticula

Phalacroma mucronatum = Dinophysis mucronata

Phalacroma ovum = Dinophysis amandula

Phalacroma porodictyum var. parvula = Phalacroma parvulum

Phalacroma rudgei = Phalacroma rotundatum

Phalacroma sphaeroideum = Dinophysis sphaeroidea

Phalacroma thompsonii = Dinophysis thompsonii

Phalacroma triangulare = Phalacroma cuneus

Phalacroma vastum var. acuta = Phalacroma acutum

Phalacroma whiteleggei = Dinophysis whiteleggei

Podolampas reticulata = Podolampas bipes var. reticulata

Porella perforata = Mesoporos perforatus

Pouchetia armata = Nematodinium armatum

Pouchetia atra = Warnowia atra

Pouchetia subnigra = Warnowia subnigra

Pouchetia voracis = Warnowia voracis

Prodinophysis jibbonensis = Phalacroma jibbonense

Prodinophysis whiteleggei = Dinophysis whiteleggei

Pronoctiluca acuta var. curvata = Pronoctiluca acuta

Properidinium avellana = Protoperidinium avellana

Prorocentrum cordatum = ?Prorocentrum minimum

Prorocentrum cordiforme = Prorocentrum minimum

Prorocentrum curvatum = Oxytoxum curvatum

Prorocentrum diamantinae = Prorocentrum gracile

Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae = Prorocentrum minimum

Prorocentrum pacificum = Prorocentrum micans

Prorocentrum schilleri = Prorocentrum micans

Prorocentrum triangulatum = Prorocentrum minimum

Protodinium simplex = Gymnodinium simplex

Protogonyaulax affinis = Alexandrium affine

Protoperidinium breve = Protoperidinium pyriforme

Protoperidinium digitale = Gonyaulax digitalis

Protoperidinium sphaericum = Protoperidinium inclinatum

Pseudophalacroma nasutum = Phalacroma nasutum

Pyrgidium sceptrum = Oxytoxum sceptrum

Pyrocystis obtusa = Pyrocystis lunula

Pyrocystis pseudonoctiluca = Pyrocystis noctiluca

Pyrophacus horologicum var. steinii = Pyrophacus steinii

Pyrophacus vancampoae = Pyrophacus steinii

Pyxidicula compressa = Prorocentrum compressum

Rhynchomonas acuta = Pronoctiluca acuta

Rhynchomonas curvata = Pronoctiluca acuta

Rhynchomonas spinifera = Pronoctiluca spinifera

Spiniferites elongatus = Gonyaulax elongata

Spiniferites membranaceus = Gonyaulax membranacea

Spirodinium lachryma = Gyrodinium lachryma

Spirodinium nasutum = Gyrodinium nasutum

Spirodinium prunus = Gyrodinium prunus

Steiniella fragilis = Gonyaulax fragilis

Steiniella mitra = Schuettiella mitra

Syracosphaera heimii = Thoracosphaera heimii

Thecadinium swedmarkii = Amphidiniopsis swedmarkii

Triadinium polyedricum = Goniodoma polyedricum

Triadinium sphaericum = Goniodoma sphaericum

Woloszynskia micra = Karlodinium veneficum

Zygabikodinium lenticulatum = Preperidinium meunieri