Catalogue of Porinaceae

Patrick M. McCarthy
Canberra
Updated 4 December 2013
Patrick.McCarthy@environment.gov.au
See also: Catalogue of Strigulaceae

Porina subapplanata. Photo: Bill Malcolm

Porina subapplanata
Photo: Bill Malcolm

Porina rhaphidiophora. Photo: Bill Malcolm

Porina rhaphidiophora
Photo: Bill Malcolm

Porina exocha. Photo: Bill Malcolm

Porina exocha
Photo: Bill Malcolm


Index

Introduction

Three families of pyrenocarpous lichens, the Porinaceae, Pyrenulaceae and Verrucariaceae, include about 10 per cent of all lichenized fungi and variously contribute in a significant way to lichen communities on all substrata and under all climatic conditions. The almost exclusively corticolous Pyrenulaceae, with more than 300 species in 16 genera, are especially numerous and abundant in subtropical and tropical regions while making a far more modest contribution to lichen diversity in cool-temperate and boreal latitudes. By contrast, most Verrucariaceae (at least 700 species in almost 40 genera) are saxicolous in temperate and cooler regions, as well as under hot-arid and subarid conditions. Conversely, diversity of Verrucariaceae is markedly reduced at low latitudes.


The Porinaceae, with 2 genera and 427 accepted species and infraspecific taxa (382 in Porina and 45 in Trichothelium), occupy a broader range of substratum and climate than the other two families. Thus, approximately 45 percent of species are primarily corticolous, with 35 percent mainly foliicolous and 20 percent saxicolous. Fewer than 10 percent of taxa occur on more than one substratum type.


In terms of geographical and climatic range, up to 75 percent of Porinaceae are tropical and/or subtropical, the remainder occurring mainly in temperate latitudes. No more than a handful of taxa can be regarded as cosmopolitan, while, in contrast with the Verrucariaceae, very few species are common to both northern and southern temperate regions. Diversity dissipates rapidly towards higher latitudes; only two species are known with certainty from north of the Arctic Circle, and one from Antarctica. Similarly, hot arid regions have very few or no Porinaceae.


The first modern catalogue of the Porinaceae was published in 2003 (P.M. McCarthy, Bibliotheca Lichenologica 87: 1–164). That list is updated here (blue text). Furthermore, it includes links to 97 species descriptions, as well as habit and anatomical drawings of more than 100 taxa.


An asterisk (*) indicates the country, state, province etc. in which the type specimen of an accepted name was collected. The following abbreviations are linked to literature sources as appropriate:


Literature abbreviations
Abbreviation Description
C Checklist
D Description provided
I Illustration(s) provided
K Identification key provided
M Distribution map provided
Porinaceae distributions
Centres of diversity Taxa / Endemics
Brazil 122 / 21
Australasia[1] 119 / 46
Central America[2] 106 / 10
Australia 96 / 22
Costa Rica 94 / 07
E Queensland, Australia 73 / 09
SE Brazil [3] 72 / 10
NW Brazil [4] 61 / 06
India 58 / 16
Ecuador 56 / 04
NE Brazil [5] 55 / 01
French Guiana 55 / 03
Mexico 53 / 03
Colombia 51 / 01
Guyana 50 / 00
New Caledonia, Vanuatu & Solomon Islands 47 / 05
Papua New Guinea 47 / 05
Java & Christmas Island 45 / 04
Venezuela 45 / 01
Thailand 44 / 05
New Zealand 42 / 12
Tanzania 42 / 03
Cuba 40 / 03
Japan 40 / 10
S India [6] 38 / 06
SE Australia [7] 37 / 07
Ivory Coast 36 / 00
Peru 36 / 00
Panama 34 / 00
Philippines 34 / 08
Guatemala 33 / 00
China 31 / 03
Indonesia 30 / 00
Argentina 30 / 00
  1. Australia, New Zealand, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island.
  2. Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
  3. Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.
  4. Acre, Rondônia, Amazonas, Roraima, Amapá and Pará.
  5. Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas and Sergipe.
  6. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  7. SE New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to: André Aptroot, Othmar Breuss, Marcela Cáceres, Jack Elix, Adam Flakus, Alan Fryday, Hiroshi Harada, Gintaras Kantvilas, Robert Lücking and Bill Malcolm.

Cite as...

P.M.McCarthy (2013). Catalogue of Porinaceae. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 4 December 2013. http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/lichenlist/PORINACEAE.html

Porina

Porina Ach., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 30: 158 (1809), nom. cons. emend.

Ophthalmidium Eschw., Syst. Lich.: 18 (1824) pro parte

Trypethelium sect. Ophthalmidium (Eschw.) Eschw, in Martius, Fl. Brasil. 1: 155 (1833) pro parte

Segestria Fr., Syst. Orb. Veg.: 263 (1825)

Porina sect. Euporina Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 331 (1883)

Sagedia [sect.] Segestria (Fr.) Jatta, Fl. Ital. Cryptog. 3: 890 (1911)

Porinav sect. Segestria (Fr.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 357 (1921)

Porophora Spreng., Syst. Veg., 16th edn,4(1): 237 (1827) pro parte

Sphaeromphale Rchb., Conspect. Reg. Veg. 1: 20 (1828) pro parte

Porina sect. Sphaeromphale (Rchb.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 173 (1921) pro parte

Segestrella Fr., Lich. Eur. Reform.: 460 (1831)

Porina sect. Segestrella (Fr.) Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 332 (1883)

Byssophytum Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 10: 132 (1848)

Sagedia A. Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 159 (1852), nom. illeg., non Acharius (1809)

Sagedia sect. Eusagedia (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 16: 417 (1862)

Segestrella sect. Sagedia (A. Massal.) Branth & Rostr., Bot. Tidsskr. 3: 258 (1869)

Porina sect. Sagedia (A. Massal.) Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 337 (1883)

Verrucaria subg. Sagedia (A. Massal.) Harm. & Claud., Guide élément. Lichénol.: 76 (1904) pro parte

Spermatodium Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 10 (1860) pro parte

Leiophloea Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 90 (1860) pro parte

Arthopyrenia sect. Pseudosagedia Müll. Arg., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 16: 428 (1862)

Pseudosagedia (Müll. Arg.) M. Choisy, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Soc. Bot. Lyon 18: 107 (1949)

Verrucaria subg. Ulvella Nyl., Flora 62: 359 (1879)

Ulvella (Nyl.) Trevis., Rend. Ist. Lombardo, ser. 2, 13: 67 (1880)

Phylloporina sect. Ulvella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 528 (1922)

Clathroporina Müll. Arg., Flora 65: 517 (1882)

Thelenella sect. Clathroporina (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19(15): 63 (1923)

Porina Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 320 (1883), nom. superfl.

Porina sect. Phylloporina Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 331 (1883)

Phylloporina (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 20 (1890)

Porina sect. Sagediastrum Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 335 (1883)

Phylloporina sect. Sagediastrum (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

Porina sect. Segestrinula Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 333 (1883)

Phylloporina sect. Segestrinula (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19(15): 5 (1923)

Phylloporina sect. Euphylloporina Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

Phylloporina sect. Phyllosegestria Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 366 (1921)

Porina sect. Rhaphidopyxis Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 31: 288 (1892)

Calonectria subg. Cryptonectria Rehm, Hedwigia 39: 222 (1900)

Cryptopeltis Rehm, Ann. Mycol. 4: 409 (1906)

Porina sect. Rhaphidosegestria Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 200 (1915), as Rhaphidisegestria

Phylloporina sect. Rhaphidoastrum Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 361 (1921), as Rhaphidiastrum

Phylloporina sect. Rhaphidoastrella Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 367 (1921), as Rhaphidiastrella

Clathroporinopsis M. Choisy, Icon. Lich. Univ. 4: t. 25 (1929)

Phragmopeltheca L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 45 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

Zamenhofia Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n.s., numéro spécial 7: 824 (1985)

Pseudosagedia subg. Limosagedia Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

Polycornum Malcolm & Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 30: 91 (1995)

A

Porina abrupta Vĕzda, Acta Mus. Richnov., Sect. Nat. 11(2): 61 (2004)

MALAYSIA: [Peninsula*] Vĕzda (2004, DI).

Porina aciculosa Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 356 (1921)

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

Porina acuta Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 360 (1921)

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

Porina adflata Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 338 (1883)

BRAZIL: [Minas Gerais, São Paulo*] Müller (1883b, D); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot (2002b, C "cf.").

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

Porina aenea (Wallr.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 363 (1922) [Description]

Verrucaria aenea Wallr., Fl. Crypt. Germ. 3: 299 (1831); Sagedia aenea (Wallr.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 364 (1855); Spermatodium aeneum (Wallr.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 10 (1860); Pyrenula aenea (Wallr.) Rabenh., Krypt.-Fl. Sachsen 2: 49 (1870); Sagedia chlorotica f. aenea (Wallr.) Stein, in Cohn, Krypt.-Fl. Schlesien 2(2): 337 (1879); Pseudosagedia aenea (Wallr.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995); Trichothelium aeneum (Wallr.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 178 (1995)

Verrucaria carpinea Pers. ex Ach., Methodus: 120 (1803), nom. illeg.; Verrucaria aenea var. carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Wallr., Fl. Crypt. Germ. 3: 299 (1831); Verrucaria punctiformis var. carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Link, Grund. Kräuterkunde 3: 220 (1833); Verrucaria epidermidis var. carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Rabenh., Fl. Lusatic. 2: 163 (1840); Sagedia carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) A. Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 160 (1852); Pyrenula carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Trevis., Spige e Paglie: 18 (1853); Spermatodium carpineum (Pers. ex Ach.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 10 (1860); Arthopyrenia carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Müll. Arg., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 16: 429 (1862); Verrucaria chlorotica f. carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Leight., Lich.-Fl. Great Brit. 445 (1871); Segestria chlorotica f. carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Blomb. & Forss., Enum. Pl. Scand.: 105 (1880); Segestria carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Fl. Tirol 4: 569 (1902); Arthopyrenia chlorotica var. carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Boistel, Nouv. Fl. Lich. 2: 277 (1903); Porina carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Zahlbr., in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(1*): 66 (1903); Sagedia chlorotica f. carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) de Lesd., Rech. Lich. Dunkerque: 256 (1910); Porina chlorotica var. carpinea (Pers. ex Ach.) Keissl., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl. 9, 1(2): 304 (1938)

Verrucaria fusiformis Leight., Brit. Sp. Angiocarp. Lich.: 42 (1851); Pyrenula fusiformis (Leight.) Hepp, Flechten Eur.: no. 459 (1860); Sagedia fusiformis (Leight.) Arnold, Flora 44: 538 (1861); Arthopyrenia macularis var. fusiformis (Leight.) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 301 (1861); Verrucaria macularis var. fusiformis (Leight.) Lindsay, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 28: 292 (1872)

Sagedia erumpens A. Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 160 (1852); Spermatodium erumpens (A. Massal.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 11 (1860); Porina erumpens (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 380 (1922); Sagedia chloromelaena A. Massal., Symm. Lich.: 95 (1855)

Spermatodium chloromelaenum (A. Massal.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 11 (1860); Porina chloromelaena (A. Massal.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912)

Sagedia abietina Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 364 (1855); Sagedia carpinea f. abietina (Körb.) Arnold, Flora 68: 165 (1885); Verrucaria chlorotica f. abietina (Körb.) Harm., Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, sér. 2, 34: 86 ('1899') [1900]; Porina abietina (Körb.) Migula, Fl. Deutschl. 2, 12(2): 549 (1930)

Sagedia decipiens A. Massal., Misc. Lich.: 60 (1856)

?Verrucaria carpinea f. cytisi Grognot, Pl. Crypt. Cell.: 88 (1863); ?Porina carpinea f. cytisi (Grognot) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 370 (1922)

Segestria fragilis Arnold, Flora 47: 82 (1864); Segestrella fragilis (Arnold) Arnold ex Bausch, Verhandl. Nat. Verein Carlsruhe 4: 196 (1869); Porina fragilis (Arnold) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 382 (1922)

?Verrucaria carpinea f. subathallina Ohlert, Schrift. Kongl. Phys. Ökonom. Ges. Königsberg 11: 42 (1870); ?Porina carpinea f. subathallina (Ohlert) Lettau, Festschr. Preuss. Bot. Verein: 25 (1912)

Sagedia rhododendri Bagl. & Carestia, Atti Soc. Crittog. Ital. 2: 330 (1881); Porina rhododendri (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912); Porina chlorotica f. rhododendri (Bagl. & Carestia) Keissl., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl. 9, 1(2): 310 (1938); Verrucaria chlorotica f. corticola Nyl. ex Zwackh, Lich. Heidelb.: 74 (1883)

?Porina amygdalina Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 34: 34 (1895)

Sagedia chlorotica f. velata de Lesd., Rech. Lich. Dunkerque: 256 (1910); Porina carpinea f. velata (de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 375 (1922)

ALBANIA: Hafellner & Kashta (2003); Hafellner (2007, C, as Pseudosagedia).

ALGERIA: Van Haluwyn et al. (1994).

ARMENIA: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland, Tasmania] McCarthy (2001a, DKM; 2008c).

AUSTRIA: Keissler (1938, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C, as Pseudosagedia).

AZERBAIJAN: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

AZORES: Berger & Aptroot (2002).

BELGIUM: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

BERMUDA: LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

BELARUS: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

BRAZIL [Rondônia*]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

BULGARIA: Szatala (1929, as Porina carpinea).

CANADA: [British Columbia] Harris (1975, K); Noble et al. (1987, C).

CANARY ISLANDS: Hafellner (1995, C, as Pseudosagedia); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CROATIA: Kušan (1953, C, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

DENMARK: Søchting & Alstrup (2002, C).

ESTONIA: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977); Randlane et al. (2003, C).

FAEROES: Alstrup & Christensen (1995).

FINLAND: Vainio (1921b, D, as Porina carpinea); Vitikainen et al. (1997, C).

FRANCE: Keissler (1938, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea); Coppins (1971, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Marquesas Is. (Nuku Hiva)] Nylander (1858a, as Verrucaria chlorotica var. carpinea); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria carpinea).

GEORGIA: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

GERMANY*: Keissler (1938, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

GREECE: Sipman & Raus (2002, C).

HUNGARY: Szatala (1927a, as Porina carpinea); Verseghy (1994); Lökös & Farkas (1998).

INDIA: [Arunachal Pradesh] Upreti (1994, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea).

IRAN: [Mazandaran] Seaward et al. (2004, C)

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ISRAEL: Wasser & Nevo (2005, DKM).

ITALY: Keissler (1938, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

JAPAN: Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

LATVIA: Piterāns (2002, C).

LEBANON: Khalife (1982); Wasser & Nevo (2005).

LITHUANIA: Motiejunaite (1999, C).

LUXEMBOURG: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

MONTENEGRO: Bilovitz et al. (2008, as Pseudosagedia).

MOROCCO: Egea (1996, C).

NETHERLANDS: Aptroot et al. (2004, C).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK, as Porina carpinea); Faltynowicz (1993, C, as Porina carpinea).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

ROMANIA: Keissler (1938, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea); Ciurchea (2004, C).

RUSSIA: [Caucasus, Irkutskaya Oblast’, Karelia, Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Novgorodskaya Oblast’] Kopachevskaya et al. (1977); Sedelnikova (1990, C); Andreev et al. (1996, C, as Pseudosagedia); Kataeva (1999, 2002); Urbanavicus & Urbanavichene (2002, as Trichothelium aeneum).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SLOVAKIA: Pišút et al. (1996, C, as Pseudosagedia).

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C); Batic et al. (2003).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C).

SWITZERLAND: Keissler (1938, DIK, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea); Scheidegger & Clerc (2002); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

TURKEY: Szatala (1927b, as Sagedia); John (1996, C); Yazici et al. (2010).

YUGOSLAVIA: Kušan (1953, C, as Porina chlorotica var. carpinea).

UKRAINE: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977); Kondratyuk et al. (1998, C, as Pseudosagedia).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [California, Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, New York, Texas] Müller (1895c, D, as Porina amygdalina); Fink (1935, DK, as Porina carpinea); Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, as Trichothelium; 2004, as Trichothelium); Fryday (2001, C, as Trichothelium); Aptroot (2002, DK); Esslinger (2002, C, as Porina amygdalina); Tucker & Ryan (2006, C).

Porina africana Müll. Arg., Linnaea 63: 41 (1880) [Description]

Verrucaria africana (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1889–90: 452 (1891)

Porina platystoma Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 3: 326 (1895)

ANGOLA: [Quillu*] Müller (1880, D); Vainio (1901, D); McCarthy (1994a, DI).

AUSTRALIA: [Victoria] Müller (1895e, D, as Porina platystoma); McCarthy (1994a, DI; 2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro?, Rondônia] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C); Cáceres (2007, IK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COSTA RICA: Müller (1883b; 1893b); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

ECUADOR: [Napo] McCarthy & Palice (2003).

GUATEMALA: Sérusiaux et al. (2007).

INDIA: [Karnataka, Maharashtra] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK, as Porina platystoma).

MEXICO: [Nuevo León] Müller (1894a); Ryan et al. (1996, C).

NICARAGUA: [Granada] Breuss (2002, C).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

TANZANIA: [East Usambara] Müller (1895a); Zahlbruckner (1926).

Porina ahlesiana (Körb.) Zahlbr., in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(1*): 66 (1903)

Segestrella ahlesiana Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 324 (1863)

Segestria septemseptata Hepp ex Zwackh, Flora 45: 549 (1862); Sagedia septemseptata (Hepp ex Zwackh) Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 324 (1863); Porina septemseptata (Hepp ex Zwackh) Swinscow, Lichenologist 2: 43 (1962)

Segestria heppii A. Massal. ex Zwackh, Flora 45: 549 (1862)

Verrucaria succina Leight., Grevillea 4: 78 (1875); Porina succina (Leight.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 334 (1911)

Verrucaria insiliens Larb. ex Nyl., Flora 60: 566 (1877); Porina insiliens (Larb. ex Nyl.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 338 (1911)

Verrucaria globosa Taylor ex Nyl., Flora 66: 534 (1883); Porina globosa (Taylor ex Nyl.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2nd edn, 2: 366 (1926)

AUSTRIA: Keissler (1938, DK); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C).

AZORES: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CANARY ISLANDS: McCarthy & Etayo (2002); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CROATIA: Kušan (1953, C).

FRANCE: Bricaud et al. (1992).

GERMANY*: Keissler (1938, DK); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina septemseptata); Purvis & James (1992, K).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina septemseptata); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ITALY: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Southland] McCarthy & Johnson (1995, D); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

SÃO TOMÉ & PRÍNCIPE: [Príncipe] Nylander (1889, D, as Verrucaria globosa).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

TURKEY: Steiner (1899, as Sagedia septemseptata).

Porina alba (R.Sant.) Lücking, Biblioth. Lichenol. 88: 412 (2004) [Description]

Phyllophiale alba R.Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 557 (1952)

Stephosia protii Bat. & H.Maia, Atas Inst. Micol. Univ. Fed. Pernambuco 5: 57 (1967)

Porina mirabilis Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 211 (1998)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Sipman (1991, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis); Lücking et al. (2001, as Phyllophiale alba); McCarthy (2001a, DKM, as Porina mirabilis).

BELIZE: Sérusiaux (1976, as Phyllophiale alba).

BOLIVIA: [Beni, Santa Cruz] Santesson (1952, DK); Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amapá, Amazonas, Ceará, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba); Ferraro (1997, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking et al. (1998b, as Porina mirabilis); Lombardi et al. (1999, as Porina mirabilis); Lücking & Cáceres (1999, DIK, as Porina mirabilis); Cáceres et al. (2000, and as Porina mirabilis); Lücking & Kalb (2000, and as Porina mirabilis); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003, and as Porina mirabilis).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003, as Phyllophiale alba).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C, as Phyllophiale alba);

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño] Sipman (1990, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking & Vězda (1998, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking & Cáceres (1999, DIK, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking (1999a; 1999c, as Phyllophiale alba); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C, and as Porina mirabilis); Breuss (2006, as Phyllophiale alba and as Porina mirabilis); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007, and as Porina mirabilis); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Guantánamo, Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Haut-Zaïre] Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis).

ECUADOR*: [Huanuco, Jatun Satcha, Los Rios, Napo, Pichincha] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking (1999b, 1999c, as Phyllophiale alba; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis); Lücking (2006, as Porina mirabilis; 2008, DIK).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal, Petén] Barillas & Lücking (1992, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUINEA: Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis); Santesson & Lücking (1999, as Porina mirabilis).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Mazaruni] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba); Sipman & Aptroot (1992, as Phyllophiale alba); Lücking (1998b, as Phyllophiale alba; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis).

HONDURAS: [Atlantida] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba).

INDONESIA: [Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba).

IVORY COAST: Becker et al. (1995); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis); Lücking et al. (1998a, as Phyllophiale alba).

JAMAICA: Sérusiaux (1976, as Phyllophiale alba).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993, as Phyllophiale alba).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C, as Porina mirabilis).

NIGERIA: [Ondo] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba); Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008, as Phyllophiale alba and Porina mirabilis).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis).

PERU: [Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997, as Phyllophiale alba).

TANZANIA: [Mogorogoro] Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] Lücking et al. (2001, as Porina mirabilis).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Bolivar, Maracay] Santesson (1952, DK, as Phyllophiale alba); Sipman (1992, as Phyllophiale alba); Neuwirth (2007, and as P. mirabilis).

VIETNAM: Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK, as Porina mirabilis).

Porina albella Müll. Arg., Flora 70: 78 (1887)

Verrucaria albella (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., Ber. Thätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1889–90: 216 (1891)

SOUTH AFRICA: [Transvaal*] Müller (1887a, D); Stizenberger (1891, as Verrucaria); Doidge (1950, C).

Porina albicera (Kremp.) Overeem, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 4: 112 (1922) [Description]

Verrucaria albicera Kremp., Lich. Foliicol.: 16 (1874); Phylloporina albicera (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

Phylloporina myriocarpa Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 30: 188 (1891); Porina myriocarpa (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 274 (1927)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

CHINA: [Hong Kong, Yunnan] Aptroot & Sipman (2001); Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Haut-Zaïre] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998a).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah, Sarawak*] Krempelhuber (1874, D; 1875, D, both as Verrucaria); Müller (1890a, b, both as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot & Sipman (1993b); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon] Vainio (1923b, D); Santesson (1952, DK); Gruezo (1979, C); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SAMOA: Aptroot & Lücking (2001).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

VIETNAM: Müller (1891c, D, as Phylloporina myriocarpa); Zahlbruckner (1930, K); Santesson (1952, DK); Vĕzda (1977); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

Porina albida Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 291 (2008)

COSTA RICA: [Limón] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina alienata Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 24 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina aluniticola P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 27 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales*] McCarthy (1993b, DIK; 2001a, DIKM).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996a); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina ambigua Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 27 (1929) var. ambigua

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul*] Malme (1929, DK); Cáceres (2007, K).

PARAGUAY: [Paraguarí] Malme (1929, DK).

Porina ambigua var. transgressa Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 28 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

PARAGUAY: [Paraguarí] Malme (1929, DK).

Porina americana Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. Offic.: 83 (1825)

Porophora americana (Fée) Spreng., Syst. Veg., 16th edn,4(1): 242 (1827); Pertusaria americana (Fée) Mont., in Sagra, Hist. Île Cuba, Bot.: 160 (1838–42)

Porina superior Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 260 (1885)

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

CUBA*: Fée (1825, DI); Müller (1885a, and as Porina superior); Plunkte (1984, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Kerala, West Bengal] Awasthi (1991, D); Upreti (1994, DIK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

Porina andamanensis Upreti & A. Singh, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 94: 399 (1987)

INDIA: [Andaman Is.*] Upreti & Singh (1987, DI).

Porina andamanica Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 528 (1994)

INDIA: [Andaman Is.*, Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK); Pinokiyo et al. (2008).

Porina andreana Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 190 (1998)

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco, São Paulo] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia*, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1992, DIK, as “Porina andreana ad interim”; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Mazaruni] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

Porina angusta Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 530 (1994)

INDIA: [Andaman Is.*, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina antonin-vezdae D.D.Awasthi, Foliicolous Lichens of the World 103 (2010)

Porina subrubrosphaera Vĕzda, Acta Mus. Richnov., Sect. Nat. 11(2): 61 (2004), nom. illeg. non Kurokawa (1958)

MALAYSIA: [Peninsula*] Vĕzda (2004, DI).

Porina applanata Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 362 (1921)

Phylloporina applanata (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 135 (1931)

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003).

INDONESIA: [Enggano I., Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK); Matzer (1996, “aff.”).

IVORY COAST: [Man] Santesson & Lücking (1998).

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak] Santesson (1952, DK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [East Sepik, Morobe] Santesson (1952, DK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C).

PHILIPPINES*: [Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Samar] Vainio (1921a, D); Santesson (1952, DK); Gruezo (1979, C).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

Note: Reports of P. applanata from French Guiana and Guyana by Aptroot & Sipman (1993a) and Sipman (1997b) were based on an undescribed species close to P. mirabilis Vain. (Lücking 1998a).

Porina aptrootii P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 29 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM; 2001a, DKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Southland] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina argillacea Müll. Arg., Linnaea 63: 42 (1880)

Verrucaria argillacea (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1889–90: 213 (1891)

ANGOLA: [Quillu*] Müller (1880, D); Vainio (1901, D).

Porina arnoldii Poelt & Vĕzda, in Hafellner & Türk, Stapfia 76: 153 (2001)

Sagedia koerberi f. rhododendri Arnold, Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 25: 489 (1875); Segestria koerberi ß rhododendri (Arnold) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Fl. Tirol 4: 569 (1902); Porina guentheri f. rhododendri (Arnold) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 385 (1922); Porina koerberi f. rhododendri (Arnold) Migula, Fl. Deutschl. 2, 12(2): 554 (1930)

AUSTRIA*: Keissler (1938, DK, as Porina guentheri f. rhododendri); Poelt & Vězda (1977, DK); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C).

Porina aschersonii Müll. Arg., Revue Mycol. 21: 9 (1884)

Verrucaria aschersonii (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1889–90: 210 (1891)

EGYPT*: Müller (1884, D); Seaward & Sipman (2006, C).

Porina aspera Räsänen, J. Jap. Bot. 16: 152 (1940)

JAPAN*: Räsänen (1940, D).

Porina athertonii Sipman, Nova Hedwigia 53: 260 (1991) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Sipman (1991, DI); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

Porina atlantica (Erichsen) P. M. Jørg., Graphis Scripta 12: 1 (2000)

Ocellularia atlantica Erichsen, Hedwigia 66: 276 (1926)

Porina isidiata Kalb & Hafellner, Herzogia 9: 83 (1992)

Porina nucula auct. europ. pro parte non Acharius (1814)

Porina mastoidea auct. europ. pro parte non Müller. Arg. (1885)

Porina rhodostoma auct. europ. pro parte non Müller. Arg. (1885)

Porina guaranitica auct. europ. pro parte non Malme (1929)

Porina nucula var. heterospora auct. europ. pro parte non Fink, in Hedrick (1933); Porina heterospora auct. europ. non (Fink) R. C. Harris, in Tucker & Harris (1980)

BERMUDA: LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

BRAZIL [Rondônia*]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

CANARY ISLANDS*: Erichsen (1926, D, as Ocellularia); Champion (1976 (not seen), as Porina nucula); Vĕzda (1994a, as Porina isidiata); Hafellner (1995, C, as Porina guaranitica); McCarthy & Malcolm (1996, “aff. rubrostoma”); Etayo (1998, as Porina guaranitica); Hafellner (1999, C, as rubrostoma); Jørgensen (2000b, I); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

FRANCE: Van den Boom et al. (1995, as Porina guaranitica); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

IRELAND: Purvis & James (1992, DK, as Porina heterospora); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM, as Porina guaranitica); Seaward (1994, C, as Porina heterospora); Jørgensen (2000a, K, as Porina isidiata); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

MADEIRA: Tavares (1952, as Porina mastoidea); Kalb & Hafellner (1992, as Porina heterospora, and as P. isidiata); Hafellner (1995, C, as Porina guaranitica and as P. isidiata); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

PORTUGAL: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

TANZANIA: Alstrup & Aptroot (2007)

Porina atriceps (Vain.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 364 (1921) [Description]

Porina epiphylla var. atriceps Vain., J. Bot. 34: 295 (1896); Phylloporina epiphylla var. atriceps (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 136 (1931)

?Phylloporina cupreofusca Zahlbr., Ann. Crypt. Exot. 1: 114 (1928)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Santesson & Tibell (1988, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DK); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Pará, Rio Grande do Sul] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps).

CHILE: Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Puntarenas] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1999c; 2000a; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps).

DOMINICA*: Vainio (1896, D); Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

FIJI: [Viti Levu] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [East Demerara, Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Atlantída] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Kerala, Tamil Nadu] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Ambon, Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra] Zahlbruckner et al. (1928, D, as Phylloporina cupreofusca); Zahlbruckner (1943, CK, as Phylloporina cupreofusca); Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DK); Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [East Sepik, Madang, Morobe, New Britain] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina epiphylla var. atriceps); Streimann (1986, C, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Gruezo (1979, C, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DK).

REUNION: Rønhede et al. (2002, 2003).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, Kolombangara, San Cristobal] McCarthy (2003b).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Prachin Buri, Saraburi] Papong et al. (2007).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar, Maracay] Neuwirth (2007).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Porina atrocoerulea Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 336 (1883) [Description]

Phylloporina atrocoerulea (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 22 (1890); Pseudosagedia atrocoerulea (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995)

Phylloporina sphaerella Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 32 (1929)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Jujuy, Misiones] Sérusiaux & De Sloover (1986); Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland, Tasmania] McCarthy et al. (2001, CK); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

BOLIVIA: [Beni, Guayaramerin] Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia); Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Espíritu Santo, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo*] Müller (1883b, D); Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina sphaerella); Santesson (1952, DK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Müller (1891d, as Phylloporina); Lücking (1992, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Shaba] Sérusiaux (1984).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HAITI: [Sud-Est] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Santesson (1952, DK); Galloway (1985, DK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002, C).

PARAGUAY: [Cazapá, Itapúa] Santesson (1952, DK); Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

REUNION: Sérusiaux (1977); van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

TANZANIA: [Kilamanjaro, Morogoro] Santesson (1952, DK); Vězda (1975); Farkas (1987).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima, Prachin Buri] Papong et al. (2007).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Mérida] Marcano et al. (1996, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Müller (1891c, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK).

Porina atroperiostiola Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 528 (1994)

INDIA: [Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra*, Tamil Nadu] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK); Pinokiyo et al. (2008).

Porina aurantiaca Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 532 (1994)

INDIA: [Tamil Nadu*] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina australiensis (Lücking & Vĕzda) Lücking, Biblioth. Lichenol. 88: 413 (2004) [Description]

Porina lucida var. australiensis Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 209 (1998)

Porina subepiphylla var. australiensis (Lücking & Vĕzda) Lücking, in Lücking et al., Lichenologist 33: 206 (2001)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as Porina lucida var. australiensis); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001, DKM, as Porina lucida var. australiensis).

Porina austriaca (Körb.) Arnold, Flora 65: 143 (1882)

Sagedia austriaca Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 356 (1863); Segestria austriaca (Körb.) Zahlbr., Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 41: 381 (1891); Arthopyrenia austriaca (Körb.) J. Nowak & Tobol., Porosty Polskie: 1117 (1975); Pseudosagedia austriaca (Körb.) Hafellner, in Hafellner & Türk, Stapfia 76: 157 (2001)

AUSTRIA*: Keissler (1938, DIK); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C, as Pseudosagedia).

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, DIK); Wirth (2002, C).

CHINA: [Zhejiang] Wei (1991, C).

ITALY: Keissler (1938, DIK); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK, as Arthopyrenia); Faltynowicz (1993, C, as Arthopyrenia).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

UKRAINE: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977); Kondratyuk et al. (1998, C).

Porina austroatlantica P. M. McCarthy & Fryday, Opuscula Philolichenum 7: 188 (2009)

CHILE: Prov. Magallanes, [Península de Brunswick], Bahía San Nicolas, SE end of Isla Nassau, 53°50'S, 71°04'W, 9.x.1969, H.A. Imshaug 45429 & K. Ohlsson (MSC) [Det. & comm.: A.M.Fryday]

FALKLAND ISLANDS*: McCarthy & Fryday (2009, DI).

Porina austropacifica P. M. McCarthy, Australas. Lichenol. 46: 21 (2000) [Description]

NORFOLK ISLAND*: McCarthy (2000a, DI; 2000d).

B

Porina bacillifera Müll. Arg., Flora 65: 517 (1882) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Müller (1882b, D; 1891b); McCarthy (1994a, DI; 2001a, DKM).

Porina barbifera Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 283 (2008)

ECUADOR: [Napo*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina barvica Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 281 (1991)

BOLIVIA: [La Paz] Ferraro (2002, as barbica); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Cauca] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela*, Heredia, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1991, DI; 1992, DIK; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

MEXICO: Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

VENEZUELA: [Distrito Federal] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina belanospora (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 400 (1885)

Verrucaria belanospora Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 4, 20: 245 (‘1864’) [1863]

COLOMBIA*: [Cordillera Oriental] Nylander (1863b, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1885a); Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Arunachal Pradesh] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK); Pinokiyo et al. (2008).

Porina bellendenica Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 30: 56 (1891) [Description]

Porina formosana Zahlbr., Feddes Rep. Spec. Regni Veg. 31: 200 (1933)

Porina oceanica Räsänen, Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. 'Vanamo' 20(3): 34 (1944)

AUSTRALIA: [Northern Territory, Queensland*] Müller (1891b, D); McCarthy (1993b, DIK; 2001a, DIKM).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Tahiti)] Räsänen (1944, D, as Porina oceanica); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

TAIWAN: Zahlbruckner (1933, D, as Porina formosana); Wang-Yang & Lai (1973, C, as Porina formosana); McCarthy (1992).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

Porina biroi (Szatala) P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 87: 25 (2003)

Clathroporina biroi Szatala, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., n.s. 7: 18 (1956)

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [West Sepik*] Szatala (1956, D, as Clathroporina); McCarthy (1995b, DK, as Clathroporina); McCarthy (2003c).

Porina blechnicola Lücking, P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, in McCarthy, Fl. Australia 58A: 227 (2001) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*] McCarthy et al. (2001, CK, “ined.”); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

Porina boliviana Flakus & Lücking, Lichenologist 40: 428 (2008)

BOLIVIA: [Beni*] Flakus & Lücking (2008, DI).

Porina borreri (Trevis.) D. Hawksw. & P. James, in Hawksworth et al., Lichenologist 12: 107 (1980)

Spermatodium borreri Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 11 (1860); Pseudosagedia borreri (Trevis.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995)

Verrucaria olivacea Pers., Neue Ann. Bot. 1: 28 (1794); Pyrenula olivacea (Pers.) Hepp, Flechten Eur.: no. 462 (1857); Arthopyrenia olivacea (Pers.) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 301 (1861); Verrucaria thuretii var. olivacea (Pers.) Garov., Tent. Disp. Lich. Langob.: 139 (1865); Sagedia olivacea (Pers.) Lojka, Math. Termés. Közlem. 11: 64 (1876); Arthopyrenia chlorotica var. olivacea (Pers.) Boistel, Nouv. Fl. Lich. 2: 278 (1903); Porina olivacea (Pers.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 337 (1911)

Segestria consociata Zwackh, Flora 45: 550 (1862); Arthopyrenia consociata (Zwackh) Müll. Arg., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 16: 429 (1862)

Sagedia obsoleta Kremp. ex Rabenh., Flechten Eur. 23: no. 632 (1862); Porina obsoleta (Kremp. ex Rabenh.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 104 (1912)

?Sagedia laurina Anzi, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. 11: 175 (1868); Porina laurina (Anzi) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 387 (1922)

?Porina olivacea var. areolascens Zahlbr., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 68: 74 (1919)

AUSTRIA: Keissler (1938, as Porina olivacea); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C, as Pseudosagedia).

AZORES: Berger & Aptroot (2002).

BELGIUM: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

BERMUDA: LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

CANARY ISLANDS: Hafellner (1995, C, as Pseudosagedia).

CROATIA: Keissler (1938, as Porina olivacea var. areolascens); Kušan (1953, C, as Porina olivacea and as P. olivacea var. areolascens).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C, as Porina olivacea).

DENMARK: Christiansen et al. (1979, DI, as Porina olivacea); Søchting & Alstrup (2002, C).

FRANCE: Keissler (1938, as Porina olivacea); Lettau (1940).

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, as Porina olivacea, and as P. olivacea var. areolascens); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina olivacea); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina olivacea); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ITALY*: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

LUXEMBOURG: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

MADEIRA: Kalb & Hafellner (1992); Hafellner (1995, C, as Pseudosagedia).

NETHERLANDS: Aptroot et al. (2004, C).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C, 'cf.').

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C); Batic et al. (2003).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C).

SWITZERLAND: Keissler (1938, as Porina olivacea); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

Porina bryophila P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, Lichenologist 32: 248 (2000) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*] McCarthy & Kantvilas (2000a, DI); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

Porina bucidae Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 205 (1915)

VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. John*] Vainio (1915, D).

Porina buellioides Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 204 (1915)

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES [Saba]: Sipman (2009, C, I).

VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. John*] Vainio (1915, D).

Porina byssophila (Körb. ex Hepp) Zahlbr., in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(1*): 66 (1903)

Sagedia byssophila Körb. ex Hepp, Flechten Eur. 12: 695 (1860); Verrucaria byssophila (Körb. ex Hepp) Nyl. ex Stizenb., Jahresber. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1880–81: 504 (1882); Segestria byssophila (Körb. ex Hepp) Zahlbr., Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 48: 351 (1898); Pseudosagedia byssophila (Körb. ex Hepp) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 174 (1995)

Sagedia harrimannii Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 362 (1855), nom. illeg., non Massalongo (1852)

Spermatodium cinereorufescens Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860)

Verrucaria praemiscens Nyl., Flora 64: 182 (1881); Porina praemiscens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 401 (1922)

ALGERIA: Faurel et al. (1953).

AUSTRIA: Hafellner & Türk (2001, C, as Pseudosagedia).

BELGIUM: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

FRANCE: Roux (1982); Clauzade & Roux (1985, K).

GERMANY*: Keissler (1938, DIK); Wirth (2002, C).

IRELAND: McCarthy (1987, DI); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ISRAEL: Wasser & Nevo (2005, DK).

ITALY: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

LUXEMBOURG: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

MOROCCO: Egea (1996, C).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK); Faltynowicz (1993, C).

ROMANIA: Keissler (1938, DIK); Ciurchea (2004, C).

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C).

TUNISIA: Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia).

C

Porina canthicarpa P. M. McCarthy, Fl. Australia 58A: 228 (2001) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

VANUATU: [Efaté] McCarthy (2003b).

Porina cascarillae (Fée) Müll. Arg., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 30(3): 25 (1888)

Verrucaria cascarillae Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. Offic.: 86 (1825)

"REGIO TROPICA"* [NEOTROPICS]: Fée (1825 D, as Verrucaria cascarillae); Müller (1888a).

Porina cataractarum Aptroot & Sipman, Fl. Guianas, ser. 3, 2: 19 (1993)

FRENCH GUIANA*: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

Porina cerina (Zahlbr.) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 248 (1952)

Phylloporina cerina Zahlbr., Trans. New Zealand Inst. 59: 248 (1928)

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington*] Zahlbruckner et al. (1928, D, as Phylloporina); Zahlbruckner (1941, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK); Galloway (1985, DK); Matzer (1996); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Malcolm & Malcolm (2002, I); Galloway (2007, DK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe] Santesson (1952, DK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C).

PHILIPPINES: Santesson (1952, DK); Gruezo (1979, C).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] Lücking et al. (2001).

Porina cestrensis (Tuck. ex E. Michener) Müll. Arg., Flora 64: 338 (1883)

Verrucaria cestrensis Tuck. ex E. Michener, in Darlington, Fl. Cestr., 3rd edn: 452 (1853); Sagedia cestrensis (Tuck. ex E. Michener) Tuck., Gen. Lich.: 265 (1872); Trichothelium cestrense (Tuck. ex E. Michener) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 178 (1995); Pseudosagedia cestrensis (Tuck. ex E. Michener) R. C. Harris, Opusc. Philolich. 2: 15 (2005)

Verrucaria pulla Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 281 (1810) pro parte; Porina pulla (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 325 (1885) pro parte

?Sagedia cestrensis f. olivacea Tuck., in Willey, Enum. Lich. New Bedford: 37 (1892); Porina cestrensis f. olivacea (Tuck.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 371 (1922)

Porina salicina Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 34: 34 (1895)

Porina cestrensis var. platyspora Fink, in Hedrick, Mycologia 25: 308 (1933)

BERMUDA: LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C, as “centrensis”); Cáceres (2007, K).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c, “aff.”).

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: [Agrihan, Anatahan, Saipan] Harada & McCarthy (1997, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

PARAGUAY: Müller (1888b).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Ohio, Pennsylvania*, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Wisconsin] Acharius (1810, D, as Verrucaria pulla); Müller (1885, as Porina pulla; 1895c, D, as Porina salicina); Hedrick (1933, D, as Porina cestrensis var. platyspora); Fink (1935, DK, and as Porina cestrensis var. platyspora); Harris (1975, DK; 1995, K, as Trichothelium cestrense; 2004, as Trichothelium); McCarthy (1993b, as Porina pulla); Critchton (1994, as Porina pulla); Ladd et al. (1994); Wilson & Methven (1997); Aptroot (2002a, DK); Esslinger (2002, C, as Trichothelium cestrense and Porina salicina); Thomson (2003, C); Lendemer (2004, as Trichothelium); Harris & Lendemer (2005, as Pseudosagedia); Tucker & Ryan (2006, C); Lendemer & Knapp (2007, as Pseudosagedia); Perlmutter & Lendemer (2008, as Pseudosagedia); Ladd (2009, as Pseudosagedia); Hodkinson et al. (2010, C, as Pseudosagedia); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C, as Pseudosagedia); Lendemer et al. (2010, C, as Pseudosagedia).

Porina chlorotera (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 331 (1883)

Verrucaria chlorotera Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 124 (1868)

NEW CALEDONIA: [Lifou*] Nylander (1868a, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1883b); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina chloroterodes Vain., Hedwigia 38: 258 (1899)

GUADELOUPE*: Vainio (1899, D; 1915).

Porina chlorotica (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Revue Mycol. 6: 20 (1884) [Description]

Verrucaria chlorotica Ach., Lichenogr. Universalis: 283 (1810); Verrucaria margacea var. chlorotica (Ach.) Rabenh., Deutschl. Krypt.-Fl. 2: 10 (1845); Sagedia chlorotica (Ach.) A. Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 159 (1852); Pyrenula chlorotica (Ach.) Trevis., Spighe e Paglie: 18 (1853); Verrucaria macularis ß chlorotica (Ach.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 364 (1855); Spermatodium maculare var. chloroticum (Ach.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Segestria macularis var. chlorotica (Ach.) Zwackh, Flora 59: 549 (1862); Sagedia macularis var. chlorotica (Ach.) Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 354 (1863); Segestrella chlorotica (Ach.) Branth & Rostr., Bot. Tidsskr. 3: 258 (1869); Segestria chlorotica (Ach.) Hellb., Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., n.s., 9(11): 85 (1870); Arthopyrenia chlorotica (Ach.) H. Olivier, Fl. Lich. Orne 2: 267 (1884); Sagedia persicina var. chlorotica (Ach.) Jatta, Syll. Lich. Ital. 548 (1900); Pseudosagedia chlorotica (Ach.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995); Trichothelium chloroticum (Ach.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 179 (1995)

Verrucaria macularis Wallr., Fl. Crypt. Germ. 3: 301 (1831); Sagedia macularis (Wallr.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 354 (1855); Spermatodium maculare (Wallr.)Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Segestria chlorotica var. macularis (Wallr.) Zahlbr., Wissensch. Mitt. Bosnien Herzegov. 3: 612 (1895); Porina macularis (Wallr.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 104 (1912); ?Verrucaria virens Wallr., Fl. Crypt. Germ. 3: 306 (1831)

Verrucaria trachona Borrer, in Hooker & Sowerby, English Bot., Suppl.1: t. 2647 (1831); Arthopyrenia macularis var. trachona (Borrer) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 300 (1861); Verrucaria chlorotica f. trachona (Borrer) Leight., Lich.-Fl. Great Brit.: 444 (1871); Verrucaria macularis var. trachona (Borrer) Lindsay, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 28: 292 (1872)

Verrucaria codonoidea Leight., Brit. Sp. Angiocarp. Lich.: 53 (1851); Spermatodium codonoideum (Leight.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Sagedia codonoidea (Leight.) Arnold, Flora 44: 538 (1861); Arthopyrenia macularis var. codonoidea (Leight.) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 301 (1861); Verrucaria chlorotica var. codonoidea (Leight.) Leight., Lich.-Fl. Great Brit.: 445 (1871); Sagedia chlorotica f. codonoidea (Leight.) Arnold, Flora 68: 145 (1885); Porina chlorotica var. codonoidea (Leight.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 375 (1922)

Verrucaria perminuta Deak., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 13: 35 (1854)

Sagedia macularis var. suaveolens Anzi, Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 107 (1860); Verrucaria suaveolens (Anzi) Nyl., in Lamy, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 30: 445 (1883); Arthopyrenia chlorotica var. suaveolens (Anzi) Boistel, Nouv. Fl. Lich. 2: 277 (1903); Porina chlorotica var. suaveolens (Anzi) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 376 (1922)

Verrucaria macularis var. nigrescentia Grognot, Pl. Crypt. Cell.: 88 (1863); Porina chlorotica var. nigrescentia (Grognot) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 376 (1922)

Verrucaria subintegra Nyl., Flora 48: 212 (1865); Verrucaria chlorotica f. subintegra (Nyl.) Leight., Lich.-Fl. Great Brit.: 444 (1871); Arthopyrenia carpinea var. subintegra (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Expos. Lich. Ouest France 2: 251 (1902); Arthopyrenia chlorotica var. subintegra (Nyl.) Boistel, Nouv. Fl. Lich. 2: 277 (1903); Porina chlorotica f. subintegra (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 375 (1922)

?Verrucaria macularis var. major Garov., Tent. Disp. Lich. Langob.: 106 (1865); ?Porina chlorotica var. major (Garov.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 376 (1922)

Sagedia macularis f. tenuior Arnold, Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 25: 446 (1875); Porina chlorotica f. tenuior (Arnold) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 375 (1922)

Verrucaria maculosa Nyl., Flora 60: 230 (1877); Arthopyrenia maculosa (Nyl.) H. Olivier, Expos. Lich. Ouest France 2: 253 (1902); Porina maculosa (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 392 (1922)

Verrucaria chlorotella Nyl., Flora 60: 482 (1877); Sagedia chlorotella (Nyl.) Arnold, Flora 65: 143 (1882); Arthopyrenia chlorotica var. chlorotella (Nyl.) Boistel, Nouv. Fl. Lich. 2: 277 (1903); Porina chlorotella (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 371 (1922)

Verrucaria viridatula Nyl., in Lamy, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 25: 499 (1878); Sagedia viridatula (Nyl.) Arnold, Flora 65: 143 (1882); Arthopyrenia chlorotica var. viridatula (Nyl.) Boistel, Nouv. Fl. Lich. 2: 277 (1903); Porina viridatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 409 (1922)

Sagedia athallina Bagl. & Carestia, Atti Soc. Crittog. Ital. 2: 329 (1881); Verrucaria athallina (Bagl. & Carestia) Stizenb., Jahresber. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1880–1881: 503 (1882); Porina athallina (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912)

Verrucaria chlorotica f. saxicola Harm., Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, sér. 2,34: 86 (1900); Porina chlorotica f. saxicola (Harm.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 375 (1922)

?Porina chlorotica subsp. werthii Zahlbr., Deutsche Südpolar-Exped. 8: 32 (1906); Porina werthii (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 410 (1922)

Porina fernandeziana Zahlbr., in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan Fernández 2: 320 (1924)

Porina chlorotica f. fluviatilis Erichsen, Schrift. Naturw. Ver. Schleswig-Holstein 20: 342 (1934)

?Porina chlorotica var. macra Erichsen, Ann. Mycol. 40: 170 (1942)

ALGERIA: Swinscow (1962).

ANTARCTICA: [King George Island] Andreev (2006, C, as Pseudosagedia).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria] McCarthy (1993b, DK, 2001a, DKM; 2008c).

AUSTRIA: Keissler (1938, DIK); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C, as Pseudosagedia).

AZORES: Hafellner (1995, C, as Pseudosagedia); Berger & Aptroot (2002); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

BELGIUM: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA: Kušan (1953, C).

BULGARIA: Szatala (1930).

CANADA: [British Columbia, Newfoundland] Swinscow (1962); Harris (1975, as Porina aff. chlorotica); Noble et al. (1987, C).

CANARY ISLANDS: Hafellner (1995, C, as Pseudosagedia); McCarthy & Etayo (2002); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

CROATIA: Kušan (1953, C).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

DENMARK: Søchting & Alstrup (2002, C).

ESTONIA: Randlane et al. (2003, C).

FINLAND: Vainio (1921b, D); Vitikainen et al. (1997, C).

FRANCE: Keissler (1938, DIK); Coppins (1971); Bricaud et al. (1992).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Marquesas Is. (Nuku Hiva)] Nylander (1859, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

GERMANY*: Keissler (1938, DIK); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

GREENLAND: Alstrup (1986).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Maui] Magnusson (1956, “cf.”); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C, “cf.”).

HUNGARY: Szatala (1927a); Verseghy (1994).

ICELAND: Kristinsson & Heidmarsson (2006, C).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ITALY: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

JAPAN: Nylander (1890a, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

JUAN FERNÁNDEZ ISLANDS: [Robinson Crusoe] Zahlbruckner (1924, D, as P. fernandeziana); McCarthy (1993b, D); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

KERGUELEN ISLANDS: Tuckerman (1875, as Sagedia); Zahlbruckner (1906, D, as Porina chlorotica subsp. werthii).

LITHUANIA: Motiejunaite (1999, C; 2003).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996a); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

LUXEMBOURG: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

MACQUARIE ISLAND: McCarthy (1993b, DK).

MADEIRA: Hafellner (1995, C, as Pseudosagedia); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

MAURITIUS: [Rodrigues I.] Stizenberger (1891).

MEXICO: [Chihuahua, Sinaloa] Ryan et al. (2000, as Trichothelium); Aptroot (2002, DK).

MOROCCO: Egea (1996, C).

NETHERLANDS: Aptroot et al. (2004, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Otago, Wellington] McCarthy (1993b, DK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot (1998).

PERU: Nylander (1859, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK); Faltynowicz (1993, C).

PORTUGAL: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

RUSSIA: [Karelia, Irkutskaya Oblast’, Kaliningrad, Kamchatskaya Oblast’, Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Magadanskaya Oblast’] Nylander (1887, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Kopachevskaya et al. (1977); Andreev et al. (1996, C, as Pseudosagedia); Andreev (2002).

SAINT HELENA: Aptroot (2008, C, "cf.").

SAINT-PIERRE ET MIQUELON: Le Gallo (1952).

SLOVAKIA: Pišút et al. (1996, C, as Pseudosagedia).

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Transvaal] McCarthy (1993b, DK).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWEDEN: Keissler (1938, DIK); Santesson (1993, C).

SWITZERLAND: Keissler (1938, DIK); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

TURKEY: Steiner (1899, as Verrucaria).

UKRAINE: Kondratyuk et al. (1998, C, as Pseudosagedia).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alaska, California, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania] Nylander (1887, as Verrucaria); Fink (1935, DK); Degelius (1937); Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, as Trichothelium; 2004, as Trichothelium); Aptroot (2002a, DKM); Harris & Lendemer (2005, as Pseudosagedia); Tucker & Ryan (2006, C); Lendemer et al. (2009, C, as Pseudosagedia).

Note: This species was reported in error from Brazil by Vainio (1890).

Porina chlorotica f. tenuifera (Nyl.) Swinscow, Lichenologist 2: 23 (1962)

Verrucaria tenuifera Nyl., Flora 59: 237 (1876); Sagedia tenuifera (Nyl.) Arnold, Flora 65: 143 (1882); Porina tenuifera (Nyl.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 336 (1911)

Verrucaria pertenuis Leight., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, ser. 2, 1: 239 (1878)

GREAT BRITAIN*: Swinscow (1962, D); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, D); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

Porina chloroticula P. M. McCarthy, Muelleria 8: 265 (1995) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Northern Territory, Queensland*] McCarthy (1995a, DI; 2001a, DIKM).

Porina chrysophora (Stirt.) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 222 (1952)

Verrucaria chrysophora Stirt., Proc. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 10: 303 (1877); Phylloporina chrysophora (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 92 (1894)

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington*] Stirton (1877b, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1894b, as Phylloporina); Hellbom (1896, C, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK); Galloway (1985, DK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, K).

?TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003); Aptroot et al. (2003).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Note: According to R. Lücking (in litt., 2002), reports of P. chrysophora from Australia, India, Japan, New Caledonia and Vietnam are referable to P. kamerunensis, while P. chrysophora sensu stricto is endemic to New Zealand. It is likely that the Taiwanese specimen (Aptroot 2003; Aptroot et al. 2003) was similarly misidentified.

Porina cinereonigrescens (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 91 (1894)

Verrucaria cinereonigrescens Stirt., Proc. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 10: 303 (1877); Segestria cinereonigrescens (Stirt.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

NEW ZEALAND*: Stirton (1877b, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina cinerosula (Bagl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 376 (1922)

Sagedia cinerea Bagl., Malpighia 6: 212 (1892), nom. illeg., non Trevisan (1860); Verrucaria cinerosula Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1893–94: 260 (1895)

ETHIOPIA*: Baglietto (1892, D, as Sagedia cinerea); Stizenberger (1895, as Verrucaria).

Porina coarctata P. M. McCarthy & Harada, in McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 87: 32 (2003) [ALSO] [Description]

Porina aggregata P. M. McCarthy & Harada, in Harada & McCarthy, Nat. Hist. Res. 4(2): 70 (1997), nom. illeg., non Acharius (Syn. Meth. Lich.: 102, 1814)

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: [Agrihan*] Harada & McCarthy (1997, DIK, as Porina aggregata); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C, as Porina aggregata); McCarthy (2003c).

Porina colchica Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 18: 53 (1983)

GEORGIA*: Vĕzda (1983, DI).

Porina colombiana H. Magn., Ark. Bot., ser. 2, 3: 237 (‘1955’) [1956]

COLOMBIA: [Cundinamarca*] Magnusson (1956, D).

Porina confraga (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 377 (1922)

Verrucaria confraga Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7(1): 50 (1875)

MALAYSIA*: Krempelhuber (1875, D, as Verrucaria).

Porina conica R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 232 (1952) [Description]

Phylloporina conica (R. Sant.) Szatala, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., n.s. 7: 22 (1956)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DIK); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Ambon, Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra*] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998a).

MALAYSIA: [Malacca, Sabah, Sarawak] Santesson (1952, DIK); Sérusiaux (1976); Sipman (1993); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Bougainville, East Sepik, Morobe, Madang, New Britain] Santesson (1952, DIK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao] Santesson (1952, DIK); Gruezo (1979, C).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2003, C; 2009, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, Kolombangara, San Cristobal] McCarthy (2003b).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] Lücking (2000a); Lücking et al. (2001).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

Porina conspersa Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 16 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Mato Grosso*, Pernambuco, Rondônia, São Paulo] Malme (1929, DK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Cáceres (2007, IK); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1999a; 1999c); Breuss (2006).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995, as P. distans); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998a).

MEXICO: Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro] Breuss (2008).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2003, C; 2009, C).

Porina constrictospora P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, Lichenologist 25: 138 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Tasmania*] McCarthy & Kantvilas (1993, DIK); McCarthy (1993b; 2001a, DKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson] Malcolm & McCarthy (1997); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina coralloidea P. James, Lichenologist 5: 142 (1971)

Zamenhofia coralloidea (P. James) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n.s., numéro spécial 7: 824 (1985)

Porina stoechadiana F. Rose & Cl. Roux, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Marseille 42: 73 (1982); Zamenhofia stoechadiana (F. Rose & Cl. Roux) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n.s., numéro spécial 7: 830 (1985)

AZORES: James & Purvis (1992); Hafellner (1995, C, as Zamenhofia); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CANARY ISLANDS: Topham & Walker (1982); Hafellner (1995, C, as Zamenhofia); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C).

FRANCE: James (1971, DI); Rose & Roux (1982, DI, as Porina stoechadiana); Clauzade & Roux (1985, IK, as Zamenhofia coralloidea and Z. stoechadiana); Sérusiaux (1991).

GREAT BRITAIN*: James (1971, DI); James & Purvis (1992, DK, as Zamenhofia).

IRELAND: James & Purvis (1992, DK, as Zamenhofia); Seaward (1994, C, as Zamenhofia).

ITALY: Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Zamenhofia); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

SAINT HELENA: Aptroot (2008, C).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C, as Zamenhofia).

Note: This taxon was reported from Victoria, Australia (as Zamenhofia coralloidea) by Hafellner et al. (1989). However, specimens could not be located, and this species has been excluded from the Australian flora (McCARTHY 2001a).

Porina corrugata Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 1: 63 (1893) [Description]

Porina wilsoniana Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 1: 63 (1893)

Porina balanina Brusse, Bothalia 16: 62 (1986)

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania, Victoria*, Western Australia] Müller (1893d, D, and as Porina wilsoniana); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM; 2001a, DIKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Marlborough] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape] Brusse (1986, DI, as Porina balanina); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

Porina corruscans (Rehm) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 223 (1952) [Description]

Micropeltis vagabunda var. calamicola Rehm, Philipp. J. Sci., Sect. C, Bot., 8: 394 (1913); Metasphaeria corruscans Rehm, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 8: 2949 (1916); Phylloporina corruscans (Rehm) Szatala, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., n.s. 7: 21 (1956); Pseudosagedia corruscans (Rehm) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995)

Phylloporina nitidula f. validior Zahlbr., Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 81: 234 (1907)

?Micropeltis bambusina Höhnel, Sitzungsber. Math.-Nat. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 118: 322 (1909); Phylloporina bambusina (Höhnel) Zahlbr. ex Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19(15): 6 (1923)

Porina blumeana Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19(15): 4 (1923); Phylloporina blumeana (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 136 (1931)

Porina arengae Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19(15): 6 (1923); Phylloporina arengae (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 136 (1931)

Porina sapotae Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19(15): 6 (1923); Phylloporina sapotae (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 139 (1931)

Porina mangiferae Vain., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 12: 14 (1924)

Phylloporina nitidula Zahlbr., Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 81: 233 (1907), nom. illeg., non Müller (1890)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Sipman (1991); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM)

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Sipman (2001).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Tahiti)] Vainio (1924, D, as Porina mangiferae); Santesson (1952, DK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Smith et al. (1997); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DK).

JAPAN: Harada & Kawana (2002, C).

NEPAL: Vĕzda & Poelt (1988); Awasthi (1991, K).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe] Santesson (1952, DK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C, as Phylloporina).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*, Negros] Rehm (1913, D (not seen), as Micropeltis vagabunda var. calamicola); Vainio (1923b, as Phylloporina arengae, Porina blumeana and P. sapotae); Santesson (1952, DK); Sérusiaux (1976); Gruezo (1979, C).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Zahlbruckner (1907, as Phylloporina nitidula f. validior); Santesson (1952, DK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

SEYCHELLES: Vĕzda (2000, 2004); Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Porina crassa P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 41 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] McCarthy (1993b, DIK; 2001a, DIKM).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Santa Isabel] McCarthy (2002).

Trichothelium [Porina] crocynioides R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 179 (1995)

Pseudosagedia crocynioides (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, Opusc. Philolich. 2: 15 (2005)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida*] Harris (1995, DK, as Trichothelium; 2005, as Pseudosagedia).

Porina cryptostoma Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 21 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina cubana Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19: 186 (1984) f. cubana

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Lücking (2008, DIK).

BOLIVIA: [La Paz] Ferraro (2002); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BRAZIL: [Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo] Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago] Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba*] Vĕzda (1984, DI); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina cubana Vĕzda f. irregularis Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 315 (2008)

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Distrito Federal] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina cupreola (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 274 (1927) var. cupreola

Phylloporina cupreola Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 30: 189 (1891)

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

INDIA: [Kerala, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu] Awasthi (1991, K); Singh & Sinha (1994, DK).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993).

TANZANIA: [Kilamanjaro] Vězda (1975).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Papong et al. (2007).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VIETNAM*: Müller (1891c, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK).

Porina cupreola var. nipponica G. Thor, Lücking & Tat. Matsumoto, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 32(3): 50 (2000)

JAPAN: [Okinawa*] Thor et al. (2000, DIK).

Porina curnowii A. L. Sm., J. Bot. 49: 44 (1911)

Porina guentheri var. curnowii (A. L. Sm.) Swinscow, Lichenologist 2: 32 (1962); Pseudosagedia curnowii (A. L. Sm.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995)

AZORES: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

FRANCE: Coppins (1971).

GREAT BRITAIN*: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina guentheri var. curnowii); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina guentheri var. curnowii); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

D

Porina danbullensis P.M.McCarthy & Lücking, in P.M.McCarthy, Australas. Lichenol. 66: 5 (2010)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] McCarthy (2010, DI).

Porina decamera Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 359 (1921)

INDIA: [Karnataka, Kerala] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

Porina decrescens P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, Lichenologist 25: 140 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*, Victoria] McCarthy & Kantvilas (1993, DIK); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Canterbury, Nelson] Malcolm & McCarthy (1997); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

Porina deminuta P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 32: 21 (2000) [Description]

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga*] McCarthy (2000c, DI).

Porina depressula Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 399 (1885)

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

GUADELOUPE: Müller (1885a, D).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Kaui] Magnusson (1956, DK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Lifou] Nylander (1868a, as Verrucula nucula); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina deremensis F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 289 (1927)

Phylloporina deremensis (F. Schill.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 136 (1931)

Porina aspera Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 10: 391 (1975), nom. illeg., non Räsänen (1940)

BRAZIL: [São Paulo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia] Lücking (1999c, as “aff. aspera”; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C, as Porina aspera).

KENYA: [Coast] Lücking & Kalb (2002, as Porina aspera).

TANZANIA*: [Morogoro] Schilling (1927, D); Vĕzda (1975, DI, as Porina aspera); Lücking (2004, K; 2008, DIK).

Porina desquamescens Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc., Suppl.: 76 (1837)

Pertusaria desquamescens (Fée) Mont., in Sagra, Hist. Île Cuba, Bot.: 157 (1838–42); Verrucaria desquamescens (Fée) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Acad. Maine Loire 4: 39 (1858); Segestria desquamescens (Fée) Hellb., Bih Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

ANGOLA: [Malanje] Müller (1880); Vainio (1901, D).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Bahia, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo] Vainio (1890); Zahlbruckner (1909); Malme (1929, DK); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK); Hafellner & Kalb (1995); Marcelli (2002, C).

CUBA*: Fée (1837, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

?NEW ZEALAND: Stirton (1877b, as Verrucaria); Müller (1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot et al. (1997).

PERU: Nylander (1859, as Verrucaria).

SRI LANKA: Müller (1888a); Awasthi (1991, K); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK); Breuss & Brunnbauer (1997).

Note: The New Zealand record is doubtful, and this species has not been included in the most recent Flora (Galloway 2007).

Porina diaphana Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 26: 27 (1977)

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, San José] Lücking (1999a; 2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977, DI); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina diffluens Malcolm & Vĕzda, in Vĕzda, Lich. Rar. Exsicc. 41: [401] (1999)

NEW ZEALAND: [Westland*] Vĕzda (1999b, DI); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina dipterocarpi Aptroot, in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 143 (1997)

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang*] Aptroot et al. (1997: DI)

Porina diplotypa Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 356 (1921)

PHILIPPINES: [Mindanao*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

Porina distans Vĕzda & Vivant, in Vězda, Nova Hedwigia 58: 136 (1994) [Description]

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes] Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Espírito Santo, Pernambuco, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Vĕzda (1994a, DI); Cáceres et al (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000, “cf.”); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas] Lücking (1995a; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Vĕzda (1994a, DI).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Haut-Zaïre] Vĕzda (1994a, DI).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Lücking (2006).

GUADELOUPE*: Vězda & Vivant (1992, nom. inval.); Vĕzda (1994a, DI); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Mazaruni] Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Vĕzda (1994a, DI); Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MALAYSIA: [Selangor] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PARAGUAY: [Itapúa] Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai] Aptroot et al. (2007).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Porina distermina (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 378 (1922)

Verrucaria distermina Nyl., Lich. Ins. Guineens.: 37 (1889)

SÃO TOME AND PRÍNCIPE: [Príncipe*] Nylander (1889, D, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

Porina dolichophora (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 400 (1885)

Verrucaria dolichophora Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 4, 20: 245 (‘1864’) [1863]

COLOMBIA*: Nylander (1863b, D, as Verrucaria); McCarthy (1993b).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Müller (1893b); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C, as “dolichophaea”); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] McCarthy & Palice (2003).

INDIA: [Karnataka, Maharashtra] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

Porina dominicana Vain., J. Bot. 34: 294 (1896)

DOMINICA*: Vainio (1896, D).

Porina dwesica Brusse & C. H. Dickinson, Mycotaxon 42: 347 (1991)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland?] Lücking et al. (2001, C).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape Province, Natal, Transkei*] Brusse & Dickinson (1992, DI); Farkas (2004).

E

Porina effiliata Brand & Sérus., in Sérusiaux et al., Lichenologist 39: 24 (2007)

Porina nucul auct. europ. pro parte non Acharius (1814)

Porina mastoidea auct. europ. pro parte non Müller. Arg. (1885)

Porina rhodostoma auct. europ. pro parte non Müller. Arg. (1885)

Porina nucula var. heterospora auct. europ. pro parte non Fink, in Hedrick (1933); Porina heterospora auct. europ. non (Fink) R. C. Harris, in Tucker & Harris (1980)

Porina guaranitica auct. europ. pro parte non Malme (1929)

CANARY ISLANDS*: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

GREAT BRITAIN: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

IRELAND: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

MADEIRA: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

PORTUGAL: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

Porina elegans Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 14 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina elegantula Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 1: 63 (1893) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania, Victoria*] Müller (1893d, D); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Westland] Setzepfand & Sipman (2004); Galloway (2007, DK)

Porina elixiana P.M.McCarthy & Lücking, Australas. Lichenol. 66: 6 (2010)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] McCarthy (2010, DI).

Porina elliptica Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 533 (1994)

INDIA: [Karnataka*] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina eminentior (Nyl.) P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 32: 42 (2000) f. eminentior [Description]

Thelenella eminentior Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 4, 15: 54 (1861); Verrucaria eminentior (Nyl.) Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 125 (1868); Anthracothecium eminentius (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Linnaea 63: 44 (1880); Clathroporina eminentior (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Flora 65: 517 (1882)

?Verrucaria convelata Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7(1): 52 (1875)

Clathroporina olivacea Müll. Arg., Flora 65: 518 (1882)

Porina meiospora C. Knight, in Bailey, Syn. Queensland Fl., Suppl. 1: 73 (1886); Clathroporina meiospora (C. Knight) Shirley, Lich. Fl. Queensland 4: 172 (1889)

Porina enteroxantha C. Knight, in Bailey, Syn. Queensland Fl., Suppl. 1: 73 (1886); Clathroporina enteroxantha (C. Knight) Shirley, Lich. Fl. Queensland 4: 171 (1889)

Clathroporina robusta Müll. Arg., Flora 70: 428 (1887)

Clathroporina desquamans Müll. Arg., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23: 402 (1891)

Clathroporina flavescens Müll. Arg., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23: 403 (1891)

Clathroporina chlorotica Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 294 (1895); Verrucaria chloritis (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1893–94: 260 (1895)

Clathroporina unculiformis Malme, Ark. Bot. 29A(6): 9 (1937)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland] Müller (1882b, D, as Clathroporina eminentior and C. olivacea; 1887b, D, as Clathroporina robusta; 1891a, D, as Clathroporina desquamans, C. flavescens and C. olivacea; 1892b, as Clathroporina olivacea); Bailey (1886, D, as Porina enteroxantha); Shirley (1889, as Clathroporina enteroxantha and C. meiospora); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina; 2001a, DIKM).

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso, Rio de Janeiro] Nylander (1869a, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Malme (1937, D, as Clathroporina unculiformis); McCarthy (1995b, DIK, as Clathroporina); Marcelli (2002, C, as Clathroporina eminentior and C. unculiformis).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

JAPAN: Harada & Sato (2008, DIK).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996a, as Clathroporina); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C, as Clathroporina).

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak] Krempelhuber (1875, D, as Verrucaria convelata).

NEW CALEDONIA*: [Grande Terre, Île des Pins, Lifou] Nylander (1861, D, as Thelenella; 1868a, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C, as Clathroporina).

OGASAWARA SHOTO [BONIN ISLANDS]: Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot (1998, as Clathroporina).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Redinger (1940); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C, as Clathroporina)

TANZANIA: [Usambara] Müller (1895a, D, as Clathroporina chlorotica); McCarthy (1995b, DIK, as Clathroporina).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai, Uthai Thani] McCarthy (1995b, DIK, as Clathroporina); Wolseley et al. (2002, C); Aptroot et al. (2007).

VANUATU: [Efaté, Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2000e).

Note: Reports of Clathroporina enteroxantha from the Guianas (Aptroot & Sipman 1993a) were based on specimens of Myeloconis fecunda P. M. McCarthy & Elix and M. guyanensis P. M. McCarthy & Elix (Myeloconidaceae; McCarthy & Elix 1996).

Porina eminentior f. sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) P. M. McCarthy, Fl. Australia 58A: 228 (2001) [Description]

Clathroporina desquamans f. sorediifera Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 32: 135 (1893); Clathroporina eminentior f. sorediifera (Müll. Arg.) P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 27: 329 (1995)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Müller (1893a, D, as Clathroporina desquamans f. sorediifera); McCarthy (1995b, DK, as Clathroporina eminentior f. sorediifera; 2001a, DIKM).

Porina emiscens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 31: 38 (1892)

Verrucaria emiscens Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel.: 129 (1888); Segestria emiscens (Nyl.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 133 (1896)

NEW ZEALAND: [?Wellington*] Nylander (1888b, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1892a); Hellbom (1896, as Segestria); Galloway (1985, DK; 2007, K); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C).

Porina epilucida Sipman, in Aptroot & Sipman, Fl. Guianas, ser. 3, 2: 20 (1993)

BRAZIL: [Sergipe] Cáceres (2007, K)

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

FRENCH GUIANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

GUYANA*: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

Porina epimelaena Vain. ex Redinger, Hedwigia 73: 54 (1933)

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

GUYANA: Redinger (1933); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, as Porina mastoidea).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro] Breuss (2008).

Porina epiphylla (Fée) Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc., Suppl.: 76 (1837) [Description]

Porina americana var. epiphylla Fée, in Bory de Saint Vincent et al., Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 17: 26 (1831); Phylloporina epiphylla (Fée) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890); Verrucaria epiphylla (Fée) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Acad. Maine Loire 4: 38 (1858)

Verrucaria praestans Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 520 (1868); Porina praestans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Linnaea 63: 41 (1880); Porina epiphylla var. praestans (Nyl.) Vain. (1921); Phylloporina epiphylla var. praestans (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 137 (1931)

Porina insperata Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 333 (1883); Phylloporina insperata (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

Calonectria obtecta Rehm, Hedwigia 39: 225 (1900); Cryptopeltis obtecta (Rehm) Rehm, Ann. Mycol. 4: 409 (1906).

Micropeltis schmidtiana Rostrup, in Schmidt, Bot. Tidskr. 24: 211 (1902)

Porina epiphylla var. major Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 365 (1921); Phylloporina epiphylla var. major (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 137 (1931)

ANGOLA: [Cuanza Norte] Nylander (1868b, D, as Verrucaria praestans); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria praestans); Vainio (1901, D, as Porina epiphylla var. praestans); Santesson (1952, DIK).

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Misiones] Sérusiaux & De Sloover (1986); Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DIK); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BELIZE: Hedrick (1939).

BOLIVIA: [Beni, Santa Cruz] Santesson (1952, DIK); Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Espíritu Santo, Marapá, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Müller (1883b; 1891e; 1892d, as Phylloporina); Vainio (1890); Zahlbruckner (1909, as Phylloporina); Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998b); Lombardi et al. (1999); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

CHILE: [Los Lagos] Santesson (1952, DIK); Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C).

CHINA: [Hong Kong, Yunnan] Wei (1991, C); Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C); Aptroot & Sipman (2001); Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó, Nariñho] Nowak & Winkler (1975); Sipman (1990); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking 2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA [Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Müller (1891d; 1893b, both as Phylloporina); Hafellner & Kalb (1995); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Guantánamo, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Yateras] Müller (1883b; 1885a); Santesson (1952, DIK); Vĕzda (1984); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Haut-Zaïre, Shaba] Santesson (1952, DIK); Sérusiaux (1984); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

DOMINICA: Vainio (1896, D, as Porina epiphylla var. praestans); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Cerro Mombe, Los Rios, Napo, Tunguragua] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA*: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Roura, Sinnamary] Fée (1831, D, as Porina americana var. epiphylla); Müller (1883b; 1888a); Santesson (1952, DIK); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Tahiti)] Nylander (1859, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C). 

FIJI: [Taveuni] Matzer (1996).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Müller (1883b); Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda & Vivant (1992); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Izabal, Quezaltenango, Retalhuleu] Santesson (1952, DIK); Barillas & Lücking (1992); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUINEA: Matzer (1996).

GUYANA: [Demerara, Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Mazaruni] Santesson (1952, DIK); Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Matzer (1996); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

HAITI: Santesson (1952, DIK).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Smith et al. (1997); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

HONDURAS: [Atlantída] Santesson (1952, DIK); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Karnataka, Kerala, Nagaland, Nicobar Is., Tamil Nadu] Nylander (1874, as Verrucaria praestans); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria praestans); Santesson (1952, DIK); Singh (1970, DI); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK); Singh & Sinha (1994, DK).

INDONESIA: [Enggano I., Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra] Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Zahlbruckner (1943, CK, as Phylloporina epiphylla var. major); Santesson (1952, DIK); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998a).

JAMAICA: Matzer (1996).

JAPAN: [Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DK).

KENYA: [Coast] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MADAGASCAR: Müller (1883b); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Santesson (1952, DIK).

MALAWI: Santesson (1952, DIK).

MALAYSIA: [Malacca, Sabah, Sarawak] Müller (1883b, D, as Porina insperata); Santesson (1952, DIK); Sipman (1993); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

MAURITIUS: Santesson (1952, DIK).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz] Müller (1883b); Hedrick (1935); Santesson (1952, DIK); Matzer (1996); Ryan et al. (1996, C); Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre, Lifou] Nylander (1858b, as Verrucaria); Santesson (1952, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Stirton (1877b, as Verrucaria); Hellbom (1896, C, as Phylloporina); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Santesson (1952, DIK); Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Bougainville, Central, East Sepik, Madang, Morobe, New Britain] Müller (1883a, as Porina praestans; 1883b; 1892b, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PARAGUAY: [Guarapí] Müller (1888b); Santesson (1952, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Huánaco, Loreto, San Martín] Santesson (1952, DIK); Matzer (1996); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao] Müller (1883b); Vainio (1921a, D, as Porina insperata and P. epiphylla var. major); Santesson (1952, DIK); Gruezo (1979, C, as Porina insperata and as P. epiphylla var. praestans); Matzer (1996).

REUNION: Rønhede et al. (2003); van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Zahlbruckner (1907); Santesson (1952, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

SÃO TOMé AND PRÍNCIPE: [Príncipe] Santesson (1952, DIK).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2003, C; 2009, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, Kolombangara] McCarthy (2003b).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape Province, Natal] Santesson (1952, DIK); Sérusiaux (1984); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Farkas (2004).

SRI LANKA: Nylander (1890b, as Verrucaria praestans); Santesson (1952, DIK); Vĕzda et al. (1997).

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Santesson (1952, DIK).

SURINAM: Santesson (1952, DIK); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TAIWAN: Chung (1996).

TANZANIA: [East Usambara, Gologolo, Kilamanjaro, Morogoro, Nguru, Poroto, West Usambara] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda (1975); Farkas (1987, M); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Trat] Rostrup (1902, D, as Micropeltis schmidtiana); Santesson (1952, DIK); Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

TONGA: ['Eua] Sbarbaro (1939, as Porina epiphylla var. praestans); Santesson (1952, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DIK); Matzer (1996).

UGANDA: Vainio (1898); Yeshitela (2008).

VANUATU: [Efaté] McCarthy (2003b).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar, Distrito Federal, El Limón, Maracay, Mérida] Müller (1883b); Santesson (1952, DIK); Sipman (1992); Marcano et al. (1996, C); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Müller (1883b; 1891c, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Vĕzda (1977); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Porina epiphylloides Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 10: 393 (1975)

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COMOROS: Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Shaba] Sérusiaux (1984).

KENYA: [Coast] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape Province] Farkas (2004).

TANZANIA: [Mbeya*, Morogoro] Vězda (1975, DI); Farkas (1987); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

Note: Reports of P. epiphylloides from Australia (SIPMAN 1991), Malaysia (SIPMAN 1993) and Vietnam (VĔZDA 1977) were based on misidentified specimens of P. minutissima (Lücking & VĔzda 1998).

Porina erawanensis P. M. McCarthy & Vongshewarat, in Vongshewarat et al., Mycotaxon 71: 231(1999) [Description]

THAILAND: [Kanchanaburi*] Vongshewarat et al. (1999, DI); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

Porina exacta Malcolm, P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, Mycotaxon 55: 353 (1995) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania] Malcolm et al. (1995, DI); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson*] Malcolm et al. (1995, DI); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina exasperatula Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 200 (1915)

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas] Sipman (1997a).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

DOMINICA*: Vainio (1915, D; Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula] Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DK).

JAPAN: Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot (1998).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Sipman (1992).

Porina exocha (Nyl.) P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 31: 23 (2000) [ALSO] [Description]

Verrucaria exocha Nyl., Flora 52: 125 (1869); Clathroporina exocha (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 93 (1894)

Porina endochrysea Church. Bab., Fl. New Zealand 2: 306 (1855), nom. illeg., non Montagne (1843); Clathroporina endochrysea (Church. Bab.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 93 (1894)

Verrucaria wellingtonii Stirt., Rep. & Trans. Glasgow Soc. Field Naturalists 1: 20 (1873); Thelenella wellingtonii (Stirt.) Stirt., Trans. New Zealand Inst. 6: 241 (1874); Clathroporina wellingtonii (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 93 (1894)

Porina pustulosa Kremp., Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 26: 459 (1876)

Verrucaria perfragilis Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel.: 128 (1888)

Clathroporina saxatilis Zahlbr., Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 104: 254 (1941)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c).

NEW ZEALAND: [Bay of Plenty, Central Auckland, East Coast, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, South Auckland, Taranaki, Wellington*] Nylander (1869a, D, as Verrucaria; 1888b, DI, as Verrucaria exocha and V. perfragilis); Stirton (1873, D, as Verrucaria wellingtonii; 1874, as Thelenella wellingtonii); Krempelhuber (1876a, D, as Porina pustulosa); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria exocha and V. perfragilis); Müller (1894b, as Clathroporina exocha, C. endochrysea and C. wellingtonii); Hellbom (1896, C, as Clathroporina exocha, C. endochrysea and C. wellingtonii); Zahlbruckner (1941, D, as Clathroporina endochrysea and C. saxatilis); Galloway (1985, DK, as Clathroporina exocha); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina exocha); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C, as Clathroporina exocha); Galloway (2007, DK).

NORFOLK ISLAND: Riedl (1988, as Clathroporina exocha and C. saxatilis); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina exocha); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C, as Clathroporina exocha).

Note: Reported in error from Papua New Guinea by APTROOT et al. (1997). That specimen is Porina farinosa (q.v.).

Porina exserta Müll. Arg., Flora 71: 548 (1888)

Porina sceptrospora Vain., Étude Lich. Brésil 2: 224 (1890)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (2008c).

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo*] Müller (1888d, D); Vainio (1890, D, as Porina sceptrospora); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C).

JAPAN: Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

F

Porina farinosa C. Knight, in Bailey, Syn. Queensland Fl.,Suppl. 1: 74 (1886) [Description]

Clathroporina farinosa (C. Knight) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 417 (1922)

Clathroporina tomentella Müll. Arg., Flora 70: 428 (1887), nom. illeg.

Porina pustulosa Kremp., in Bailey, Syn. Queensland Fl., Suppl. 1: 73 (1886), nom. illeg., non Krempelhuber (1876)

Clathroporina superans Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 294 (1895)

Thelenella turgida Vain., J. Bot. 34: 292 (1896); Clathroporina turgida (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 419 (1922)

Thelenella irregularis Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 6(7): 135 (1915), nom. illeg., non Müller (1888)

Thelenella elaeophthalma Vain., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 58: 144 (1923); Microglaena elaeophthalma (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 62 (1931); Clathroporina elaeophthalma (Vain.) R. C. Harris ‘ined.’, in Mayrhofer, Bibioth. Lichenol. 26: 76 (1987)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland*] Bailey (1886, D); Müller (1887b, D, as Clathroporina tomentella); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM; 2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro] Malme (1937, D, as Clathroporina turgida); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM); Marcelli (2002, C, as Clathroporina turgida); Aptroot (2002b, C); Cáceres (2007, IK).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c).

DOMINICA: Vainio (1896, D, as Thelenella turgida; 1915, D, as Thelenella irregularis); McCarthy (1995b, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, as Clathroporina turgida).

GUYANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, as Clathroporina turgida); McCarthy (1995b, DIK).

JAPAN: McCarthy (1995b, DIK); Harada & Sato (2008, DIK); Kashiwadani et al. (2008).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre, Lifou] McCarthy (1995b, DIKM); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Central] McCarthy (1995b, DIKM); Aptroot et al. (1997, as Clathroporina exocha).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, as Clathroporina turgida).

TANZANIA: Müller (1895a, D, as Clathroporina superans); McCarthy (1995b, DIK).

TONGA: [‘Eua] McCarthy (1995b, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Vainio (1923a, D, as Thelenella elaeophthalma); Mayrhofer (1987, as Clathroporina elaeophthalma).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas] Komposch & Hafellner (1999).

Porina filispora Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 320 (2008)

ECUADOR: [Napo*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina firmula Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 401 (1885)

Verrucaria firmula (Müll. Arg.) Nyl., in Hue, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, sér. 3, 4, 113 (1892)

BAHAMAS: Riddle (1920, K).

CUBA*: Nylander (1876, nom. nud.); Müller (1885a, D); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Plunkte (1984, C).

Porina flavoaurantiaca P.M.McCarthy, Australas. Lichenol. 66: 7 (2010)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales*] McCarthy (2010, DI).

Porina flavopapillata R.Schubert & Lücking, in Schubert et al., Lichenologist 33: 463 (2003)

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas*] Schubert et al. (2003, DI); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina fluminea P. M. McCarthy & P. N. Johnson, Nova Hedwigia 61: 499 (1995) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales] McCarthy (2003a).

NEW ZEALAND: [Otago, Wellington*] McCarthy & Johnson (1995, DI); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); McCarthy (1999b); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina foliicola (Vězda) Lücking & Vězda, Willdenowia 28: 204 (1998)

Clathroporina foliicola Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 26: 25 (1977)

SRI LANKA: Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK).

VIETNAM*: Vězda (1977, DI, as Clathroporina); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK).

Porina follmanniana U. Becker & Lücking, Flechten Follmann: 168 (1995)

CAMEROON: Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK).

GHANA: Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK).

IVORY COAST*: Becker & Lücking (1995, DI); Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998a).

KENYA: [Coast] Lücking & Vězda (1998, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2002).

Porina fortunata P. M. McCarthy & Etayo, Lichenologist 34: 199 (2002) [Description]

AZORES: Aptroot et al. (2009).

CANARY ISLANDS*: McCarthy & Etayo (2002, DI); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

Porina fulvellaMüll. Arg., Flora 66: 335 (1883) [Description]

Phylloporina fulvella (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890); Phylloporina fulvella (Müll. Arg.) Szatala, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Nat. Hung., n.s., 7: 22 (1956), nom. superfl.

Phylloporina rufula var. obscurata Müll. Arg., Flora 83: 196 (1890); Porina rufula var. obscurata (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 274 (1927)

Porina subpilosa Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19: 189 (1984)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Misiones] Santesson (1952, DK); Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espíritu Santo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro*, São Paulo] Müller (1883b, D; 1890b, as Phylloporina rufula var. obscurata); Zahlbruckner (1909, as Phylloporina rufula var. obscurata); Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina fulvella and Phylloporina rufula var. obscurata); Santesson (1952, DK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá] Sipman (1990).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Puntarenas, San José] Müller (1891d, as Phylloporina fulvella and Phylloporina rufula var. obscurata); Lücking (1999a; 2008, DIK); Breuss (2001); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Vĕzda (1984, DI, as Porina subpilosa); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Kerala, Tamil Nadu] Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK).

MEXICO: Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe, New Britain] Santesson (1952, DK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C, as Phylloporina).

PARAGUAY: [Itapúa] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Natal] Santesson (1952, DK); Farkas (2004).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TANZANIA: Farkas (1987, M, as Porina subpilosa).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima, Saraburi] Papong et al. (2007).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2003b).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Porina fulvelloides Lücking & V. Wirth, in Lücking et al., Glob. Ecol. & Biogeogr. 12: 31 (2003)

ARGENTINA: [Nequén] Lücking et al. (2003b, DI); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHILE: [Los Lagos*] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina fulvella); Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C, as Porina fulvella); Lücking et al. (2003b, DI; 2008, DIK).

Porina fulvula Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 3: 325 (1895) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Müller (1895e, D); McCarthy (1993b, DK; 2001a, DKM).

Porina fusca Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 283 (1991)

Phyllophiale fusca R. Sant., in Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 302 (1991)

Porina oenocarpi Bat., Peres & Maia, in Batista et al., Publ. Inst. Micol. Univ. Recife 319: 18 (1961), nom. inval.

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rondônia, São Paulo] Batista et al. (1961, D, as Porina oenocarpi); Lücking et al. (1998b); Cáceres et al. (2000, C, and as Phyllophiale fusca); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Caquetá, Nariño] Sipman (1997a); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas*, San José] Lücking (1991, DI; 1999a; 1999c, and as Phyllophiale fusca; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C, and as Phyllophiale fusca); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007, and as Phyllophiale fusca).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Tumatumare] Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a, and as Phyllophiale fusca; 2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking et al. (1998a, and as Phyllophiale fusca.

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Bolivar] Sipman (1992); Neuwirth (2007).

Porina fuscescens Harm., Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, sér. 3, 12: 125 (1911)

NEW CALEDONIA*: Harmand (1911, D).

G

Porina gaumae Aptroot & Sipman, in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 38 (1997)

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang*] Aptroot et al. (1995, DI).

Porina gibbosa A. Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 191 (1852)

CUBA*: Massalongo (1852, D); Müller (1885a); Plunkte (1984, C).

MARTINIQUE*: Massalongo (1852, D).

Porina gigantospora Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 357 (1921)

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

Porina ginzbergeri Zahlbr., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53: 150 (1903)

Sagedia ginzbergeri (Zahlbr.) de Lesd., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 53: 586 (1906); Porina oleriana var. ginzbergeri (Zahlbr.) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n.s., numéro spécial 7: 828 (1985); Pseudosagedia ginzbergeri (Zahlbr.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995)

ALGERIA: Egea et al. (1990, as Porina oleriana var. ginzbergeri).

CROATIA: Kušan (1953, C).

GREECE*: Zahlbruckner (1903, D); Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia); Sipman & Raus (1999, as Porina linearis; 2002, C).

IRELAND: McCarthy (1984, DI); Seaward (1994, C).

ITALY: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

Porina glauca Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 399 (1885)

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

Porina glaucocinerea (Nyl.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 179 (1921)

Verrucaria glaucocinerea Nyl., Lich. Scand.: 278 (1861)

Verrucaria lectissima var. terrestris Nyl., Not. Sällsk. Fauna Fl. Fenn. Förhandl. 4: 235 (1859)

ARMENIA: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

FINLAND*: Clauzade & Roux (1985, K); Vitikainen et al. (1997, C).

RUSSIA: [Karelia, St. Petersburg] Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

SWITZERLAND: Clerc & Truong (2010, C)

Porina glaucoflava Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 534 (1994)

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Karnataka*, Tamil Nadu] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina glaucopallida Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 204 (1915)

VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. John*] Vainio (1915, D); McCarthy (2000b, DK).

Porina globulans Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 185 (1921)

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

SWEDEN*: Vainio (1921b, D); Santesson (1993, C).

Porina gracilis Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 17 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina grandicula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 383 (1922)

Verrucaria grandicula Nyl., Lich. Japon.: 90 (1890)

JAPAN: [Kyushu*] Nylander (1890a, D, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

Porina grandis (Körb.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 383 (1922)

Sagedia grandis Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 335 (1863); Segestrella grandis (Körb.) Rostr., Bot. Tidsskr. 4: 1 (1870); Porina guentheri var. grandis (Körb.) Swinscow, Lichenologist 2: 31 (1962); Pseudosagedia grandis (Körb.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995)

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

DENMARK: Keissler (1938, DK); Søchting & Alstrup (2002, C).

FINLAND: Pykälä (2007, as Pseudosagedia).

GERMANY*: Keissler (1938, DK); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK, as Porina guentheri var. grandis); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK); Faltynowicz (1993, C).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C).

UKRAINE: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977); Kondratyuk et al. (1998, C, as Pseudosagedia).

Porina grandispora P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 27: 338 (1995) [Description]

CHINA: [Fujian*, Hong Kong] McCarthy (1995b, DIK); Aptroot & Sipman (2001).

Porina guaranitica Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 13 (1929)

Porina nucula var. heterospora Fink, in Hedrick, Mycologia 25: 308 (1933); Porina heterospora (Fink) R. C. Harris, in Tucker & Harris, Bryologist 83: 12 (1980)

Verrucaria nucula var. granulatul Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 132 (1869); Porina rudiuscula var. granulatula (Nyl.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 202 (1915); Porina nucula var. granulatula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 397 (1922), as “granulata

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Sergipe] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Marcelli (2002, C); Cáceres (2007, IK).

COSTA RICA: Breuss (2004)

CUBA: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

ECUADOR: [Napo] McCarthy & Palice (2003).

GUATEMALA: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, as Porina heterospora)

MEXICO: [Chiapas] Sipman & Wolf (1998, C, as Porina heterospora).

PARAGUAY: [Lambaré, Paraguarí] Malme (1929, DK); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia] Nylander (1869b, D, as Verrucaria nucula var. granulatula); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria nucula var. granulatula); Fink (1933, D, as Porina nucula var. heterospora); Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, both as Porina heterospora); Tucker & Harris (1980, I, as Porina heterospora); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM, as Porina guaranitica); Brodo et al. (2001, DIM, as Porina heterospora); Lendemer & Knapp (2007, as Porina heterospora); Hansen et al. (2008, as Porina heterospora); Perlmutter & Lendemer (2008, as Porina heterospora); Ladd (2009, as Porina heterospora); Hodkinson et al. (2010, C, as Porina heterospora); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C, as Porina heterospora); Lendemer et al. (2010, C, as Porina heterospora).

URUGUAY: [Lavalleja, Trient-y-Tres] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. John] Vainio (1915, D, as Porina rudiuscula var. granulatula).

Porina guentheri (Flot.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 384 (1922) var. guentheri [Description]

Verrucaria guentheri Flot., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 8: 575 (1850); Spermatodium koerberi var. guentheri (Flot.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Pseudosagedia guentheri (Flot.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 172 (1995); Trichothelium guentheri (Flot.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 179 (1995)

Verrucaria koerberi Flot., in Körber, Syst. Lich. Germ.: 363 (1855); Sagedia koerberi Flot., in Körber, Syst. Lich. Germ.: 363 (1855); Spermatodium koerberi (Flot.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Segestria koerberi (Flot.) Hellb., Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., n.s., 9(11): 84 (1870); Porina koerberi (Flot.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 104 (1912)

?Sagedia koerberi var. major Flot., in Körber, Syst. Lich. Germ.: 363 (1855); Porina guentheri f. major (Flot.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 384 (1922)

?Sagedia koerberi var. nemoralis Flot., in Körber, Syst. Lich. Germ.: 363 (1855); Spermatodium koerberi var. nemoralis (Flot.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Porina guentheri f. nemoralis (Flot.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 384 (1922); Porina koerberi f. nemoralis (Flot.) Migula, Fl. Deutschl. 2, 12(2): 554 (1930)

Verrucaria saxicola C. Knight, Trans. New Zealand Inst. 8: 324 (1876); Porina saxicola (C. Knight) Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 31: 39 (1892); Segestria saxicola (Nyl.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 133 (1896)

Verrucaria eurysperma Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1889–90: 210 (1891); Porina eurysperma (Stizenb.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 380 (1922)

Porina eitneri Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 379 (1922); Sagedia ferruginosa Eitner, Jahresber. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Kultur 1910: 58 (1911), nom. illeg., non Müller (1886)

Porina knysnana van der Byl ex Zahlbr., Ann. Crypt. Exot. 5: 201 (1932)

AUCKLAND ISLANDS: Fineran (1971, C).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Western Australia] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM; 2001a, DKM; 2003a; 2008c).

AUSTRIA: Hafellner & Türk (2001, C, as Pseudosagedia).

AZORES: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

BRAZIL [Rondônia*]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

CANADA: [British Columbia] Noble et al. (1987, C).

CANARY ISLANDS: Hafellner (1999, C, as Pseudosagedia); McCarthy & Etayo (2002, “aff.”); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

FAEROES: Alstrup & Christensen (1995).

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, DIK); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK); McCarthy (1993b, DIK).

GREENLAND: Hansen (2006)

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ITALY: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

MACQUARIE ISLAND: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Canterbury, Otago, Wellington] Knight (1876, D, as Verrucaria saxicola); Müller (1892a, D, as Porina saxicola); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria saxicola); Galloway (1985, DK, as Porina saxicola); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM; 1999b); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

NORWAY: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Santesson (1993, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot et al. (1997).

POLAND*: Keissler (1938, DIK); Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK); Faltynowicz (1993, C).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

SLOVAKIA: Pišút et al. (1996, C, as Pseudosagedia).

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape] Stizenberger (1891, D, as Verrucaria eurysperma); Zahlbruckner (1932, D, as Porina knysnana); Doidge (1950, C, as Porina eurysperma and P. knysnana); McCarthy (1993b, DIK).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWEDEN: McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Santesson (1993, C).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai] Aptroot et al. (2007).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklakoma, Pennsylvania, Virginia] Harris (1995, K, as Trichothelium); Lendemer (2004, as Trichothelium guntheri; 2005, as Pseudosagedia); Harris & Lendemer (2005, as Pseudosagedia); Andreas et al. (2007, as Pseudosagedia); Perlmutter & Lendemer (2008, as Pseudosagedia); Hodkinson et al. (2010, C, as Pseudosagedia); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C, as Pseudosagedia).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Porina guentheri var. lucens (Taylor) Swinscow, Lichenologist 2: 32 (1962)

Verrucaria lucens Taylor, in Mackey, Fl. Hibern.: 257 (1836); Arthopyrenia lucens (Taylor) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 299 (1861); Porina lucens (Taylor) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 339 (1911)

GREAT BRITAIN*: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

Porina guianensis Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 205 (1998) f. guianensis

BRAZIL: [Amapá, Amazonas, Macapá, Maranhão, Pará, Rondonia] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998b); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Puntarenas] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni*, Upper Mazaruni] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK, as Porina verruculosa); Sipman (1997b, as Porina verruculosa); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

VENEZUELA: Neuwirth (2007, as "f. pentaseptata").

Porina guianensis Lücking & Vĕzda f. pentaseptata, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 336 (2008)

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Upper Mazaruni*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: Neuwirth (2007).

H

Porina haehndelii Henssen & Lücking, in Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 295 (2008)

BOLIVIA: [La Paz] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA*: Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina haematostoma Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 401 (1885)

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

Porina halei Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 535 (1994), nom. illeg., non Tuckerman & Montagne

INDIA: [Maharashtra*, Tamil Nadu] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina hemisphaerica (Eschw.) Müll. Arg., Flora 35: 8 (1884)

Ophthalmidium hemisphaericum Eschw., Syst. Lich.: 26 (1824); Trypethelium hemisphaericum (Eschw.) Eschw., in Martius, Fl. Brasil. 1: 155 (1833)

BRAZIL: [Pará*] Eschweiler (1824, D, as Ophthalmidium); Müller (1884b); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina heterocarpa P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 59 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales*, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria] McCarthy (1993b, DIK; 2000a, K; 2001a, DIKM).

Porina heteropsis (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 385 (1922)

Verrucaria heteropsis Nyl., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7: 488 (1863)

MEXICO: [Vera Cruz*] Nylander (1863a, D; 1863b, both as Verrucaria).

Porina hibernica P. James & Swinscow, in Swinscow, Lichenologist 2: 35 (1962)

Zamenhofia hibernica (P. James & Swinscow) Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n.s., numéro spécial 7: 830 (1985)

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

DENMARK: Larsen & Søchting (2002, DI, as Zamenhofia); Søchting & Alstrup (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: James & Purvis (1992, DK, as Zamenhofia).

IRELAND*: Swinscow (1962, DIK); James & Purvis (1992, DK, as Zamenhofia); Seaward (1994, C, as Zamenhofia).

ITALY: Nimis et al. (1994, as Zamenhofia); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C, as Zamenhofia)

SWITZERLAND: Scheidegger & Clerc (2002, as Zamenhofia); Clerc & Truong (2010, C, as Zamenhofia).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

UKRAINE: Kondratyuk et al. (1998, C, as Zamenhofia).

Note: Reports from North America are misidentifications of P. cestrensis s. lat. (Harris 1995).

Porina hibisci Vain., Univ. California Publ. Bot. 12: 14 (1924)

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Tahiti*)] Vainio (1924, D); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina hirsuta Aptroot & K.H.Moon, in Moon & Aptroot, Biblioth. Lichenol. 99: 304 (2009)

JAPAN: Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

SOUTH KOREA*: Moon & Aptroot (2009, DI).

Porina hoehneliana (Jaap) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 262 (1952)

Calonectria hoehneliana Jaap, Ann. Mycol. 14: 11 (1916); Phylloporina hoehneliana (Jaap) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 10: 105 (1938)

CROATIA*: Jaap (1916 (not seen), D, as Calonectria); Zahlbruckner (1919, C, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK).

FRANCE: De Sloover & Sérusiaux (1984); Clauzade & Roux (1987, K).

ITALY: Puntillo et al. (2000); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM)..

MADEIRA: Sérusiaux (1996); Hafellner (1999, C); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

NEPAL: Vĕzda & Poelt (1988); Awasthi (1991, K).

RUSSIA: [Caucasus] Vĕzda (1983).

SPAIN: Clauzade & Roux (1985, K); Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima, Saraburi] Papong et al. (2007).

Porina hollei (Mont. & Bosch) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 385 (1922)

Byssophytum hollei Mont. & Bosch, Pl. Junguhn. 4: 494 (1855)

INDONESIA: [Java*] Montagne & van den Bosch (1855, D, as Byssophytum).

Porina homala R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 246 (1952)

Phylloporina homala (R. Sant.) Szatala, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., n.s. 7: 23 (1956)

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DK); Sérusiaux (1976).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993, as “homalea”).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe*] Santesson (1952, DK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C, as Phylloporina).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997).

Note: A specimen from Australia (Queensland) reported by Lumbsch & Vĕzda (1990) was re-identified as P. tolgensis P. M. McCarthy (McCARTHY 2001a).

Porina hospita Harm., Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, sér. 3, 12: 127 (1911)

NEW CALEDONIA*: Harmand (1911, D).

Porina howeana P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 29: 229 (1997) [Description]

LORD HOWE ISLAND*: McCarthy (1997a: DI); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina huainamdungensis Papong, Thammathaworn & L�cking, in Lumbsch et al., Phytotaxa 18: 100 (2011)

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai*, Loei] Lumbsch et al. (2011, DI).

Porina hyperleptalea P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, Lichenologist 25: 142 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*, Western Australia] McCarthy & Kantvilas (1993, DIK); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

Porina hypochroa Vain., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 35: 76 (1921)

JAPAN*: Vainio (1921c, D).

I

Porina imitatrix Müll. Arg., Flora 73: 196 (1890)

Phylloporina schiffneri Zahlbr., Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 83: 96 (1909)

Porina hypothetica Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 366 (1921); Phylloporina hypothetica (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 137 (1931)

Porina affinis F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 287 (1927), nom. illeg., non Zahlbruckner; Phylloporina affinis (F. Schill.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 135 (1931)

Phylloporina caerulescens Müll. Arg., Flora 73: 198 (1890); Porina caerulescens (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 275 (1927)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Vĕzda & Kalb (1991); Lücking et al. (2001, C).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Espírito Santo, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro*, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Müller (1890a, D; 1890b); Zahlbruckner (1909, D, as Phylloporina schniffneri); Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003).

CAMEROON: Schilling (1927, D); Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C, “cf.”); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C, “cf.”).

COLOMBIA: [Cauca, Caquetá] Santesson (1952, DK); Sipman (1990); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006).

CUBA: [Guantánamo, Pinar del Rio, Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DK); Vĕzda (1984).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Santesson (1952, DK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula, Roura] Santesson (1952, DK); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUATEMALA: [Petén, San Marcos] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Mazaruni] Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Sipman (1997b, “?”); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Enggano I., Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998a).

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak, Selangor] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [East Sepik, Madang, Morobe] Santesson (1952, DK); Streimann (1986, C); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon] Vainio (1921a, D, as Porina hypothetica); Santesson (1952, DK); Gruezo (1979, C); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Natal] Santesson (1952, DK); Farkas (2004).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DK); Farkas (1987).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Santesson (1952, DK); Sipman (1992); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Santesson (1952, DK).

Porina impolita P. M. McCarthy, Nova Hedwigia 58: 394 (1994) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales*, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania] McCarthy (1994a, DI; 2001a, DKM); Elix et al. (2009).

Porina impressa R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 219 (1952) [Description]

Pseudosagedia impressa (R. Sant.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland*] Santesson (1952, DK); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Matzer (1996); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

Porina indica Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 535 (1994)

INDIA: [Andaman Is.* ] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina interjungens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 387 (1922)

Verrucaria interjungens Nyl., Flora 55: 362 (1872); Segestria interjungens (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss., Enum. Pl. Scand.: 105 (1880); Pseudosagedia interjungens (Nyl.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

Verrucaria intersepulta Nyl., Flora 64: 463 (1881); Porina intersepulta (Nyl.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 339 (1911)

Microglaena rivularis Zschacke, Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg 64: 108 (1922); Clathroporina rivularis (Zschacke) Zschacke, in Keissler, Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl. 9, 1(2): 389 (1938)

BELGIUM: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

DENMARK*: Søchting & Alstrup (2002, C).

FAEROES: Alstrup & Christensen (1995).

FRANCE: Bricaud et al. (1992).

GERMANY: Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C).

Porina internigrans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Rep. Australas. Assoc. Advancem. Sci. 1895: 452 (1895) [Description]

Verrucaria mastoidea var. internigrans Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 128 (1868); Verrucaria internigrans (Nyl.) Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 7: 177 (1873)

Porina exasperata C. Knight, in Bailey, Syn. Queensland Fl., Suppl. 1: 73 (1886)

Porina phaeophthalma Shirley, Lich. Fl. Queensland 4: 171 (1889)

Porina araucariae Müll. Arg., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23: 402 (1891)

Porina brisbanensis Müll. Arg., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 23: 402 (1891)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Bailey (1886, D, as Porina exasperata); Shirley (1889, D, as Porina phaeophthalma); Müller (1891a, D, as Porina araucariae and P. brisbanensis; 1895b); McCarthy (1994a, DI; 2001a, DIKM; 2008c).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Pernambuco, Rondônia] Cáceres (2007, K); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.*, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal] Nylander (1874, D, as Verrucaria); Awasthi (1991, K); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK); McCarthy (1994a, DI); Singh & Sinha (1994, DK); Upreti (1994, DIK).

JAPAN: Vainio (1921c); Harada & Sato (2008, DIK).

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES [Saba]: Sipman (2009, C, I).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Lifou] Nylander (1868a, as Verrucaria mastoidea var. internigrans); McCarthy (1994a, DI); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe] McCarthy (1994a, DI).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Kolombangara] McCarthy (2002a).

THAILAND: [Sukothai] Vongshewarat et al. (1999); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

VANUATU: [Efaté, Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2000e).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Porina intrusula (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 387 (1922)

Verrucaria intrusula Stirt., Proc. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 10: 164 (1877)

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*] Stirton (1877a, D, as Verrucaria); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina isidiata Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 538 (1994), nom. illeg., non Kalb & Hafellner (1992)

INDIA: [Tamil Nadu*] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Trichothelium [Porina] isidiata R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 180 (1995)

Pseudosagedia isidiata (R. C. Harris) R. C. Harris, Opusc. Philolich. 2: 15 (2005)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Arkansas, Illinois*, Missouri] Harris (1995, DK); Ladd (2009, as Pseudosagedia); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C, as Pseudosagedia).

Clathroporina [Porina] isidiifera R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 171 (1995)

BERMUDA: LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

COSTA RICA: Breuss (2001, as Porina cf. isidiifera).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida*, Georgia, North Carolina] Harris (1995, DK, as Clathroporina); Lendemer (2010, as Clathroporina); Lendemer et al. (2010, C, as Clathroporina).

Porina isidioambigua M.Cáceres, M.W.O.Santos & Aptroot, in Cáceres et al., Lichenologist 45: 382 (2013)

BRAZIL: [Rondônia, Sergipe*] Cáceres et al. (2013, DI); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

Porina isidiosa (Räsänen) Satô, Index Pl. Nippon. 4: 116 (1943)

Byssophytum isidiosum Räsänen, J. Jap. Bot. 16: 153 (1940)

JAPAN*: Räsänen (1940, D).

Porina isidiosa Groenhart, Reinwardtia 2: 392 (1954), nom. illeg., non Satô (1943)

INDONESIA: [Java*] Groenhart (1954, D).

J

Porina japonica (Räsänen) Satô, Index Pl. Nippon. 4: 116 (1943)

Byssophytum japonicum Räsänen, J. Jap. Bot. 16: 152 (1940)

JAPAN*: Räsänen (1940, D).

K

Porina kamerunensis F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 289 (1927), as kameruniensis [Description]

Phylloporina kamerunensis (F. Schill.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 131 (1931), as kameruniensis

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Sipman (1991); Lücking et al. (2001, C, as Porina chrysophora); McCarthy (2001a, DKM, as Porina chrysophora).

BRAZIL: [Rondônia] Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

CAMEROON*: Schilling (1927, D); Santesson (1952, DK).

COSTA RICA: [San José] Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Tamil Nadu] Awasthi (1991, K, as Porina chrysophora).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking et al. (1998a).

JAPAN: [Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DIK, as Porina chrysophora).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Puebla] Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C, as Porina chrysophora).

TANZANIA: [Gologolo, West Usambara] Vĕzda (1975).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Nayok, Saraburi] Papong et al. (2007).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977, D, as Porina chrysophora).

Note: According to R. Lücking (in litt., 2002), reports of P. chrysophora from Australia, India, New Caledonia and Japan are referable to P. kamerunensis.

Porina kansriae P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 31: 239 (1999) [Description]

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima*] Boonpragob et al. (1998, as P. aff. ulceratula), McCarthy (1999a, DI); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

Porina kantvilasii P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 62 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*, Western Australia] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM; 2001a, DKM).

CAMPBELL ISLAND: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Southland] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina karnatakensis Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 538 (1994) [Description]

Porina atropunctata Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 192 (1998)

?Porina santessonii Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 542 (1994)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Misiones] Ferraro (1997, I, as P. atropunctata); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C, as P. atropunctata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as P. atropunctata); Lücking et al. (2001, C, as P. atropunctata); McCarthy (2001a, DKM, as P. atropunctata).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amapá, Macapá, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as P. atropunctata); Cáceres et al. (2000, C, as P. atropunctata); Lücking & Kalb (2000, as P. atropunctata); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al (2003).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, as Porina atropunctata ined.).

COLOMBIA: [Meta, Orinoquia] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as P. atropunctata); Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C, as P. atropunctata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia*, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as P. atropunctata); Lücking (1999a; 1999c; 2000a, as P. atropunctata; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C, as P. atropunctata); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

DOMINICA: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as P. atropunctata).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b, as P. atropunctata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2000a, as P. atropunctata); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as P. atropunctata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Takutu] Lücking (1998a, as P. atropunctata; 2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Atlantída] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as P. atropunctata); Lücking (2008, DIK).

KENYA: [Coast] Lücking & Kalb (2002).

INDIA: [Karnataka*, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK, and as Porina santessonii).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C, as P. atropunctata).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá] Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as P. atropunctata).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Prachin Buri, Saraburi] Papong et al. (2007).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Maracay] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Porina keissleri Faurel, Ozenda & Schotter, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique du Nord 44: 369 (1953)

ALGERIA*: Faurel et al. (1953, DI).

Porina kennedyensis P. M. McCarthy, Australas. Lichenol. 62: 29 (2008) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] McCarthy (2008a, DI).

L

Porina lamprocarpa (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 92 (1894)

Verrucaria lamprocarpa Stirt., Proc. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 10: 304 (1877), as lampocarpa; Segestria lamprocarpa (Stirt.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington*] Stirton (1877b, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria); Galloway (1985, DK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, K).

Porina lecanorella Müll. Arg., Revue Mycol. 10: 181 (1888)

PARAGUAY*: Müller (1888b, D).

Porina lectissima (Fr.) Zahlbr., in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(1*): 66 (1903)

Segestria lectissima Fr., Syst. Orb. Veg.: 287 (1825); Sphaeromphale lectissima (Fr.) Flot., Flechten Hirschberg-Warmbrunn: 18 (1839); Verrucaria lectissima (Fr.) Nyl., Bot. Notiser 1853: 181 (1853); Segestria umbonata var. lectissima (Fr.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 332 (1855); Sagedia lectissima (Fr.) Hepp, Flecten Eur.: no. 696 (1860); Segestrella lectissima (Fr.) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 284 (1861); Arthopyrenia lectissima (Fr.) H. Olivier, Fl. Lich. Orne 2: 267 (1884)

Verrucaria irrigua Taylor, in Mackey, Fl. Hibern.: 95 (1836)

Verrucaria erysiboda Taylor, in Mackey, Fl. Hibern.: 98 (1836); Segestria erysiboda (Taylor) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 5 (1860); Segestrella lectissima var. erysiboda (Taylor) Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 325 (1863); Verrucaria irrigua var. erysiboda (Taylor) Garov., Tent. Disp. Lich. Langob.: 100 (1865); Porina lectissima f. erysiboda (Taylor) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 389 (1922)

Verrucaria rubiginosa Taylor, in Mackey, Fl. Hibern.: 94 (1836)

Sphaeromphale thelostoma Flot., Flechten Hirschberg-Warmbrunn: 18 (1839); Segestria thelostoma (Flot.) A. Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 158 (1852); Segestria umbonata var. thelostoma (Flot.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 332 (1855)

Segestria umbonata Schaer., Enum. Crit. Lich. Europ.: 207 (1850); Segestrella umbonata (Schaer.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 331 (1855);Verrucaria umbonata (Schaer.) Garov., Tent. Disp. Lich. Langob.: 100 (1865); Sagedia umbonata (Schaer.) Jatta, Syll. Lich. Ital.: 552 (1900)

Segestrella lectissima a. inodora Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 325 (1863); Porina lectissima f. inodora (Körb.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 389 (1922)

Verrucaria holochrodes Nyl., Flora 59: 311 (1876); Arthopyrenia lectissima var. holochrodes (Nyl.) Mong., Bull. Géogr. Bot. 24: 200 (1914); Porina lectissima f. holochrodes (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 389 (1922)

Porina langeana Zahlbr., in Lange, Hedwigia 69: 61 (1929); Segestria langeana (Zahlbr.)Bachm., Hedwigia 69: 287 (1929)

Segestria macrocarpa Bachm., Hedwigia 69: 287 (1929)

Porina bachmanniana Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ., 8: 99 (1931)

Porina porphyria E. Riehmer, Hedwigia 71: 305 (1931); Segestria porphyria E. Riehmer, Hedwigia 71: 305 (1931), nom. inval.

AUSTRIA: Keissler (1938, DK); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C).

BELGIUM: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

CANADA: [British Columbia] Noble et al. (1987, C).

CROATIA: Kušan (1953, C).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

DENMARK: Søchting & Alstrup (2002, C).

FAEROES: Alstrup & Christensen (1995).

FINLAND*: Vainio (1921b, D); Vitikainen et al. (1997, C).

FRANCE: Coppins (1971).

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, DK); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ITALY: Keissler (1938, DK); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

LUXEMBOURG: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK); Faltynowicz (1993, C).

PORTUGAL: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

ROMANIA: Keissler (1938, DK); Ciurchea (2004, C).

RUSSIA: [Karelsk, Magadanskaya Oblast’] Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

SLOVAKIA: Pišút et al. (1996, C).

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C).

SWITZERLAND: Keissler (1938, DK); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

TURKEY: Kinalioglu (2010).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alaska, Illinois, Missouri, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania] Fink (1935, DK); Harris (1975, K; 1995, K; 2004, as Segestria); Talbot (1998); Lendemer et al. (2009, C, as Segestria); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C, as Segestria).

Porina leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 333 (1911) [Description]

Biatora leptalea Durieu & Mont., in Durieu, Fl. d'Algér. Crypt. 1: 268 (1847); Bilimbia leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) Trevis., Linnaea 28: 293 (1856); Verrucaria lectissima var. leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 5: 138 (1857); Verrucaria lectissima f. leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Acad. Maine Loire 4: 38 (1858); Verrucaria lectissima subsp. leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) Crombie, Lich. Brit.: 117 (1870); Segestria lectissima f. leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) Blomb. & Forss., Enum. Pl. Scand.: 104 (1880); Verrucaria leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) Nyl. ex Stizenb., Jahresber. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1880–81: 505 (1882); Segestrella lectissima f. leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) Sydow, Flecht. Deutschl.: 297 (1887); Arthopyrenia leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) H. Olivier, Expos. Lich. Ouest France 2: 254 (1902); Arthopyrenia lectissima var. leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) Boistel, Nouv. Fl. Lich. 2: 275 (1903); Segestria leptalea (Durieu & Mont.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 175 (1995)

Verrucaria leptaleella Nyl., Flora 59: 237 (1876); Porina leptaleella (Nyl.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912)

Porina rufocarpella Zahlbr., in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan Fernández 2: 321 (1924)

Porina olivacea var. microspora Fink, in Hedrick, Mycologia 25: 308 (1933); Porina microspora (Fink) R. C. Harris, Taxon. Rev. Genus Arthopyrenia N. America: 174 (1975)

Bacidia micrococcoides Erichsen, Mitt. Inst. Allgem. Bot. Hamburg 10: 413 (1939)

Porina leptalea f. actinota de Lesd., Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 21: 175 (1952)

ALGERIA*: Nylander (1858b, as Verrucaria); Stizenberger (1891, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria] McCarthy (1993b, KM; 2001a, DKM; 2008c).

AUSTRIA: Keissler (1938, DK); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C).

BELGIUM: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

BERMUDA: LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

BRAZIL: [Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rondônia] Aptroot (2002b, C); Cáceres (2007, K); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

CANADA: [British Columbia] Aptroot (1996).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C); Aptroot & Sipman (2001).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

DENMARK: Christiansen et al. (1979, DI); Søchting & Alstrup (2002, C).

ECUADOR: [Loja] McCarthy & Palice (2003).

FINLAND: Pykälä (2010).

FRANCE: Coppins (1971); Bricaud et al. (1992).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Tahiti)] McCarthy (1993b, KM); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, DK); Lettau (1940); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

GUATEMALA: Van den Boom et al. (2007);

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ITALY: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

JUAN FERNÁNDEZ ISLANDS: Zahlbruckner (1924, D, as Porina rufocarpella); McCarthy (1993b, KM); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996a); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

LUXEMBOURG: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

MACQUARIE ISLAND: McCarthy (1993b, KM).

NETHERLANDS: Aptroot et al. (2004, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Otago, Wellington] McCarthy (1993b, KM; 1999b); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK); Faltynowicz (1993, C).

PORTUGAL: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SLOVAKIA: Lisická (1998).

SLOVENIA: Suppan et al. (2000, C).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape] McCarthy (1993b, KM).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWEDEN: Palice (1999).

SWITZERLAND: Keissler (1938, DK); Scheidegger & Clerc (2002); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

UKRAINE: Kondratyuk et al. (1998, C).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia] Fink (1935, DK, as Porina olivacea var. microspora); Harris (1975, K, and as Porina microspora; 1995, K); Harris & Lendemer (2005, as Pseudosagedia); Lendemer (2006, as Segestria); Lendemer & Macklin (2006, as Segestria); Hodkinson et al. (2010, C, as Segestria); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C, as Segestria); Lendemer et al. (2010, C, as Segestria).

Porina leptaleina (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bull.Herb.Boissier 2, App.1: 91 (1894)

Verrucaria leptaleina Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zel.: 130 (1888); Segestria leptaleina (Nyl.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 131 (1896)

NEW ZEALAND: [Westland*] Nylander (1888b, D, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Müller (1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria); Galloway (1985, DK); McCarthy & Kantvilas (1993); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina leptaleoides (Nyl.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 184 (1921)

Verrucaria leptaleoides Nyl., Flora 57: 15 (1874); Segestria leptaleoides (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss., Enum. Pl. Scand.: 104 (1880)

FINLAND*: Nylander (1874, as Verrucaria); Vainio (1921b, D); Vitikainen et al. (1997, C).

JAPAN: [Honshu] Nylander (1890a, as Verrucaria leptaleoides); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria leptaleoides).

Porina leptosperma Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 333 (1883) [Description]

Phylloporina leptosperma (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Misiones] Sérusiaux & De Sloover (1986); Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania] McCarthy et al. (2001, CK); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM); Elix (2008); Elix et al. (2009).

BELIZE: Sérusiaux (1976).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo*] Müller (1883b, D); Santesson (1952, DK); Schell & Winkler (1981); Hafellner & Kalb (1995); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CANARY ISLANDS: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Nariño] Sipman (1990); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Breuss (2000); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba] Vĕzda (1984).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

FRANCE: Clauzade & Roux (1987, K).

FRENCH GUIANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

ITALY: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

IVORY COAST: [Man] Santesson & Lücking (1998a).

JAPAN: [Kyushu, Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DK).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MADEIRA: Santesson (1952, DK); Hafellner (1995, C).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Santesson (1952, DK); Galloway (1985, DK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe] Santesson (1952, DK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C).

PARAGUAY: Santesson (1952, DK).

PERU: [San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

TANZANIA: [East Usambara, Kilamanjaro, West Usambara] Vĕzda (1975); Farkas (1987).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Porina leptospermoides Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 333 (1883)

Phylloporina leptospermoides (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

Porina rubicolor f. obscurata Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 334 (1883)

?Calonectria ferruginea Rehm, Hedwigia 39: 225 (1900)

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo*] Müller (1883b, D, and as Porina rubicolor f. obscurata); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1995b; 1997, 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

COLOMBIA: [Nariño] Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: Müller (1885a).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Izabal] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Veracruz] Müller (1890a); Ryan et al. (1996, C, as Porina limbulata); Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina leptospora (Nyl.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 338 (1911)

Verrucaria leptospora Nyl., Flora 47: 487 (1864); Porina olivacea var. leptospora (Nyl.) Keissl., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl. 9, 1(2): 318 (1938); Porina borreri var. leptospora (Nyl.) Hawksw., in Coppins et al., Lichenologist 24: 367 (1992); Pseudosagedia leptospora (Nyl.) Hafellner, Fritschiana 64: 23 (2008)

AZORES: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CANARY ISLANDS: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, DK, as Porina olivacea var. leptospora).

GREAT BRITAIN: Hitch (1997, as Porina borreri var. leptospora).

IRELAND*: Swinscow (1962, D, as Porina olivacea var. leptospora); Purvis & James (1992, DK, as Porina borreri var. leptospora); Seaward (1994, C, as Porina borreri var. leptospora).

SPAIN: Van den Boom et al. (1995, as Porina borreri var. leptospora).

Porina leptostegia (C. Knight) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 92 (1894)

Verrucaria leptostegia C. Knight, Trans. New Zealand Inst. 12: 377 (1880); Segestria leptostegia (C. Knight) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 133 (1896)

Verrucaria metabletica C. Knight, Trans. New Zealand Inst. 15: 356 (1883); Porina metabletica (C. Knight) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 92 (1894); Segestria metabletica (C. Knight) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington*] Knight (1880, D, as Verrucaria leptostegia; 1883, D, as Verrucaria metabletica); Müller (1894b, and as Porina metabletica); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria leptostegia and S. metabletica). Galloway (1985, DK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, K).

Porina limbulata (Kremp.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 363 (1921) [Description]

Verrucaria limbulata Kremp., Lich. Foliicol.: 17 (1874), as limbolata; Phylloporina limbulata (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890), as limbolata

Verrucaria rubicolor Stirt., Proc. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 10: 107 (1878)

Phylloporina rufula f. elongata Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 35 (1929)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes] Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DK); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Stirton (1878, D, as Verrucaria rubicolor); Müller (1892d, as Phylloporina rufula var. obscurata); Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina rufula var. obscurata and P. rufula var. obscurata f. elongata); Santesson (1952, DK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot (2002b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DK).

CHILE: [Los Lagos] Santesson (1952, DK); Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Chocó, Nariño] Santesson (1952, DK); Nowak & Winkler (1975); Sipman (1990); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (1995b, 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Breuss (2000); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Shaba] Santesson (1952, DK); Sérusiaux (1984).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Santesson (1952, DK); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Izabal] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Atlantida] Santesson (1952, DK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Enggano I., Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK); Sérusiaux (1976).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah, Sarawak*] Krempelhuber (1874, D, as Verrucaria limbolata; 1875, DI, as Verrucaria limbulata); Müller (1890a, b, both as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK); Sipman (1993).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Santesson (1952, DK); Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Streimann (1986, C)

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao] Santesson (1952, DK); Gruezo (1979, C).

PUERTO RICO: Santesson (1952, DK).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TANZANIA: Vĕzda (1975); Farkas (1987).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar, Maracay] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Note: A report of P. limbulata from Guyana by Aptroot & Sipman (1993a) was based on a specimen of P. leptospermoides Müll. Arg. (Lücking 1998a).

Porina limitata C. Knight, in Bailey, Syn. Queensland Fl., Suppl. 1: 73 (1886) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Bailey (1886, D); McCarthy (1994b, DIK; 2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Aagoas] Cáceres (2007, K)

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2000e).

Porina linearis (Leight.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 391 (1922)

Verrucaria linearis Leight., Brit. Sp. Angiocarp. Lich.: 52 (1851); Spermatodium lineare (Leight.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Arthopyrenia linearis (Leight.) Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 300 (1861) ; Sagedia linearis (Leight.) Arnold, Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 25: 447 (1875); Porina chlorotica var. linearis (Leight.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2nd edn, 2: 369 (1926); Pseudosagedia linearis (Leight.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 174 (1995); Trichothelium lineare (Leight.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 180 (1995)

Sagedia harrimannii A. Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 160 (1852)

Sagedia persicina Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 364 (1855); Verrucaria chlorotica var. persicina (Körb.) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 5: 138 (1857); Spermatodium saxicolum var. persicinum (Körb.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Sagedia koerberi f. persicina(Körb.) Blomb. & Forss., Enum. Pl. Scand.: 105 (1880); Verrucaria persicina (Körb.) Nyl. ex Stizenb., Jahresber. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1880–81: 504 (1882); Segestria persicina (Körb.) Zahlbr., Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 48: 351 (1898); Arthopyrenia chlorotica var. persicina (Körb.) H. Olivier, Expos. Lich. Ouest France 2: 250 (1902); Arthopyrenia persicina (Körb.) Boistel, Nouv. Fl. Lich. 2: 275 (1903); Porina persicina (Körb.) Zahlbr., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 53: 149 (1903); Porina chlorotica var. persicina (Körb.)A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 336 (1911)

?Verrucaria chlorotica * leucotica Nyl., Lich. Scand.: 278 (1861); Segestria chlorotica f. leucotica (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss., Enum. Pl. Scand.: 105 (1880); Porina chlorotica f. leucotica (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 375 (1922)

?Sagedia caliginosa Anzi, Comment. Soc. Crittog. Ital. 1: 162 (1862); Porina caliginosa (Anzi) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912); Porina linearis f. caliginosa (Anzi) Keissl., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl. 9, 1(2): 327 (1938)

Verrucaria ricasolii Garov., Tent. Disp. Lich. Langob. 102 (1865)

Verrucaria gibelliana Garov., Tent. Disp. Lich. Langob. 102 (1865)

?Sagedia atrata Müll. Arg., Flora 50: 437 (1867); Sagedia persicina f. atrata (Müll. Arg.) Arnold, Flora 68: 164 (1885); Porina linearis f. atrata (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 392 (1922)

?Sagedia persicina d) plumbea Bagl., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 11: 116(1879); Porina plumbea (Bagl.) Zahlbr., Anzeig. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien: 410 (1914); Porina linearis f. plumbea (Bagl.) Keissl., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl. 9, 1(2): 327 (1938)

?Sagedia persicina var. grisea Anzi ex Bagl. & Carestia, Atti Soc. Crittog. Ital. 2: 329 (1881); Porina linearis f. grisea (Anzi ex Bagl. & Carestia)Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 392 (1922)

Porina linearis f. geographica Szatala, Borbásia 3: 120 (1941)

AUSTRIA: Keissler (1938, DK); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C, as Pseudosagedia).

BELGIUM: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

CANADA: [British Columbia] Noble et al. (1987, C).

CROATIA: Kušan (1953, C, and as P. linearis f. plumbea).

CYPRUS: Litterski & Mayrhofer (1998, C).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

ESTONIA: Randlane et al. (2003, C).

FINLAND: Pykälä (2007, as Pseudosagedia linearis).

FRANCE: Keissler (1938, DK).

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, DK); Wirth (2002, C).

GREAT BRITAIN*: Swinscow (1962, D, as Porina chlorotica var. linearis); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

GREECE: Szatala (1941, 1943); Sipman & Raus (2002, C).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, D, as Porina chlorotica var. linearis); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ISRAEL: Wasser & Nevo (2005, DK).

ITALY: Keissler (1938, DK, and as Porina linearis f. plumbea); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

LUXEMBOURG: Diederich & Sérusiaux (2000, C).

MOROCCO: Egea (1996, C).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

SLOVAKIA: Pišút et al. (1996, C, as Pseudosagedia).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C).

SWITZERLAND: Keissler (1938, DK, and as Porina linearis f. caliginosa); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

TUNISIA: Seaward (1996, C).

TURKEY: Doğru & Güvenç (2007).

UKRAINE: Kondratyuk et al. (1998, C, as Pseudosagedia).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [California] Tucker & Ryan (2006, C).

Porina linearispora Aptroot & M.Cáceres, Lichenologist 45: 769 (2013)

BRAZIL [Rondônia*]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, DIK).

Porina longispora Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 10: 394 (1975) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Sipman (1991, “cf.”); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

TANZANIA: [Tanga*] Vĕzda (1975, DI); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

Porina lucida R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 240 (1952) [Description]

Phylloporina lucida (R. Sant.) Szatala, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., n.s. 7: 22 (1956)

Porina multiloculata Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 540 (1994)

Porina lenticulata Lücking, in Lücking & Lücking, Herzogia 11: 156 (1995), nom. nud.

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rondonia, São Paulo] Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, DI, as Porina lenticulata); Lücking (2000a).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Meta] Sipman (1997a); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Breuss (2000); Lücking (1999a; 1999c; 2000a; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

DOMINICA: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Roura] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2006).

GUADELOUPE: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara, Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Mazaruni] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Karnataka, Kerala, Nicobar Is., Tamil Nadu] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK, as Porina multiloculata).

INDONESIA: [Ambon, Java*, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (23008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998a).

KENYA: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Yeshitela (2008).

MADAGASCAR: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK)

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang, Morobe, Western Highlands] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C, as Phylloporina); Lücking & Kalb (1991, as Porina similis); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina epiphylla var. atriceps); Gruezo (1979, C); Matzer (1996).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2003, C; 2009, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, San Cristobal] McCarthy (2003b).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

TANZANIA: Vĕzda (1990); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina luteopallens (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 392 (1922)

Verrucaria luteopallens Nyl., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 26(10): 23 (1890)

SRI LANKA*: Nylander (1890b, D, as Verrucaria); Awasthi (1991, K).

Note: Listed as a synonym of Cheilymenia luteopallens (Nyl.) Boud. (1907; Pyronemataceae) in Index Fungorum: http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp [accessed 4 June 2008]. However, Cheilymenia luteopallens has the basionym Peziza luteopallens Nyl. (1868), described from soil in Europe and stated to have ascomata 4–7 mm wide. This is most unlikely to be conspecific with the corticolous Sri Lankan taxon based on Verrucaria luteopallens.

M

Porina macrospora (Miyoshi) Satô, Index Pl. Nippon. 4: 116 (1943), nom. illeg., non Schilling (1927)

Sagedia macrospora Miyoshi, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 15(3): 368 (1901)

JAPAN*: Miyoshi (1901, D).

Porina macroverrucosa P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 67 (1993)

Porina depressula Zahlbr., in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan Fernández 2: 32 (1924), nom. illeg., non Müller (1885)

JUAN FERNÁNDEZ ISLANDS: [Alejandro Selkirk, Robinson Crusoe*] Zahlbruckner (1924, D, as Porina depressula); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina malmei P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 70 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (1995a; 2001a, DIKM).

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul*] McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina mammillosa (Th. Fr.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 176 (1921)

Segestria mammillosa Th. Fr., Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsala, ser. 3, 3: 362 (1861); Verrucaria mammillosa (Th. Fr.) Nyl., Lich. Scand.: 292 (1861); Segestrella mammillosa (Th. Fr.) Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 325 (1863)

Sagedia declivum Bagl. & Carestia, Comment. Soc. Crittog. Ital. 1: 455 (1863); Verrucaria mammillosa var. declivum (Bagl. & Carestia) Vain., Medd. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 19: 184 (1883); Segestria declivum (Bagl. & Carestia) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Fl. Tirol 4: 569 (1902); Porina declivum (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912); Porina mammillosa var. declivum (Bagl. & Carestia) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 393 (1922)

Verrucaria furvescens Nyl., Flora 47: 356 (1864); Segestria furvescens (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss., Enum. Pl. Scand.: 104 (1880); Porina furvescens (Nyl.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 338 (1911)

Verrucaria trechalea Nyl., Not. Sällsk. Fauna Fl. Fenn. Förhandl. 8: 171 (1866); Sagedia trechalea (Nyl.) Arnold, Flora 57: 54 (1874); Porina mammillosa var. trechalea (Nyl.)Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 177 (1921)

Verrucaria epigaeoides Nyl., Flora 50: 329 (1867); Porina epigaeoides (Nyl.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 333 (1911)

Verrucaria humicolor Nyl., Flora 60: 462 (1877); Porina humicolor (Nyl.) A. L. Sm., Monogr. Brit. Lich. 2: 337 (1911)

Verrucaria mammillosa var. subnigratula Vain., Medd. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 19: 184 (1883); Porina mammillosa var. subnigratula (Vain.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 176 (1921)

ANDORRA: Azuaga & Gómez-Bolea (2000, C).

AUSTRIA: Keissler (1938, DIK); Hafellner & Türk (2001, C).

CZECH REPUBLIC: Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

FINLAND*: Vainio (1921b; D, and as Porina furvescens, P. mammillosa var. subnigratula and P. mammillosa var. trechalea); Vitikainen et al. (1997, C).

FRANCE: Hafellner & Kalb (1995).

GREAT BRITAIN: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK).

GREENLAND: Alstrup (1986, as “mammulosa”).

IRELAND: Swinscow (1962, DIK); Purvis & James (1992, DK); Seaward (1994, C).

ITALY: Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

JAPAN: Kashiwadani & Thor (1995).

NORWAY: Santesson (1993, C).

POLAND: Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK); Faltynowicz (1993, C).

ROMANIA: Ciurchea (2004, C).

RUSSIA: [Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Murmansk] Kopachevskaya et al. (1977); Zhurbenko (1996).

SLOVAKIA: Pišút et al. (1996, C).

SVALBARD: Elvebakk & Hertel (1996, C).

SWEDEN: Santesson (1993, C).

SWITZERLAND: Keissler (1938, DIK).

SYRIA: John et al. (2004, C).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alaska, Colorado] Anderson (1967); Shushan & Anderson (1969, C); Harris (1995, K); Fryday (2004, as Segestria mammillosa).

UKRAINE: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977); Kondratyuk et al. (1998, C).

Porina marginata Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. Offic.: 82 (1825)

Porophora marginata (Fée) Spreng., Syst. Veg., 16th edn,4(1): 242 (1827)

“REGIO TROPICA”* [NEOTROPICS]: Fée (1825); Müller (1888a).

Porina marginata var. nigricans (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 30(3): 22 (1888)

Porina mastoidea var. marginata Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 259 (1885)

“REGIO TROPICA”* [NEOTROPICS]: Müller (1885b, D, as Porina mastoidea var. marginata; 1888a).

Porina mariae P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 29: 232 (1997) [Description]

LORD HOWE ISLAND*: McCarthy (1997a: DI); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina mastoidea (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 399 (1885) [Description]

Pyrenula mastoidea Ach., Ges. Naturfor. Freunde Berlin Mag. Neuesten Entdeck. Gesammten Naturk. 6: 16 (1812); Porophora mastoidea (Ach.) Spreng., Syst. Veg., 16th edn,4(1): 242 (1827); Verrucaria mastoidea (Ach.) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Acad. Maine Loire 4: 38 (1858); Segestria mastoidea (Ach.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

Porina viridiolivacea Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc., Suppl.: 74 (1837)

?Porina endochrysa Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 19: 79 (1843); Verrucaria nucula var. endochrysa (Mont.) Nyl., Acta. Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7: 488 (1863); Porina nucula var. endochrysa (Mont.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 397 (1922)

Verrucaria mastoidea var. pertusarioides Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 5: 138 (1857); Porina mastoidea var. pertusarioides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 394 (1922)

Verrucaria elaeophaena Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7(1): 48 (1875); Porina elaeophaena (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 379 (1922)

Verrucaria mastoidestera Nyl., Flora 59: 365 (1876); Porina mastoidestera (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb.Syst. 6: 400 (1885)

Verrucaria callosa Kremp., Flora 59: 526 (1876); Porina callosa (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 364 (1889)

Porina subpungens Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 17 (1929); Clathroporina subpungens (Malme) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 172 (1995)

Porina epimelaena Vain. ex Redinger, Hedwigia 73: 54 (1933)

Porina uruguayensis Räsänen, Borbásia 1: 129 (1939)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Misiones] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Müller (1891a); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM; 2001a, DKM).

BAHAMAS: Riddle (1920, DK); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

BELIZE: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

BOLIVIA: Nylander (1859, as Verrucaria).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo, Sergipe] Krempelhuber (1876a, D, as Verrucaria callosa); Müller (1889, as Porina callosa); Vainio (1890); Malme (1929, DK, and as Porina subpungens); Marcelli (1992, 1995, 2000, C); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Aptroot (2002b, C); Cáceres (2007, IK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COCOS ISLAND: Weber (1993); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Cundinamarca] Nylander (1863a, as Verrucaria, and as Verrucaria nucula var. endochrysa); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, “?”); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Sipman (1997a); Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C, as Porina "endochrysea").

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: Nylander (1866, as Verrucaria nucula var. endochrysa; 1876, as Verrucaria mastoidestera); Müller (1885a, D, and as Porina mastoidestera); Plunkte (1984, C, and as Porina mastoidestera); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

DOMINICA: Vainio (1896, D).

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

FRENCH GUIANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Marquesas Is. (Nuku Hiva)] Nylander (1859, as Verrucaria); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

GUAM: Harada & McCarthy (1997, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

GUYANA: Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Goa, Kerala] Awasthi (1991, K); Upreti (1994, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Java] Nylander & Crombie (1888, as Verrucaria); Zahlbruckner (1943, CK).

JAPAN: Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996a); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

MALAYSIA: [Malacca, Sarawak] Krempelhuber (1875, DI, as Verrucaria elaeophaena); Nylander (1884, 1891, both as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

MAURITIUS: David & Hawksworth (1995, DI).

MEXICO: [Chiapas, Puebla, Vera Cruz] Imshaug (1956, C); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Ryan et al. (1996, C, as Clathroporina); Sipman & Wolf (1998, C, “cf.”).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Lifou] Nylander (1861, 1868a, both as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Müller (1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: Nylander (1863a, as Verrucaria).

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: [Saipan] Harada & McCarthy (1997, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Etayo & Aptroot (2005); Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang, Morobe] Streimann (1986, C); Aptroot et al. (1995); Sérusiaux et al. (2007).

PARAGUAY: [Arequá, Colonia Risso, Gran Chaco, Paraguarí] Malme (1929, DK, and as Porina subpungens); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Harris (1995, K, as Clathroporina subpungens).

PERU: Nylander (1859, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Acharius (1812, D, as Pyrenula); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

PUERTO RICO: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SÃO TOMé AND PRÍNCIPE: [São Tomé] Nylander (1889, as Verrucaria).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2003, C; 2009, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Kolombangara] McCarthy (2002).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009).

SRI LANKA: Müller (1888a); Nylander (1890b, as Verrucaria); Breuss & Brunnbauer (1997).

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Vainio (1896, D).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

TANZANIA: [Usambara] Müller (1895a); Alstrup & Aptroot (2007).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida, Louisiana] Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, as Clathroporina subpungens); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

URUGUAY: [Flores, Lavalleja, Maldonado] Räsänen (1939, D, as Porina uruguayensis); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

VANUATU: [Efaté] McCarthy (2000e).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Bolivar] Nylander (1863a, as Verrucaria); Müller (1895f); Sipman (1992); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Komposch & Hafellner (1999).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Porina mastoidella (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 401 (1885) [Description]

Verrucaria mastoidella Nyl., Flora 50: 8 (1867)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (2008c).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

INDIA: [West Bengal*] Nylander (1867, D, as Verrucaria); Awasthi (1991, K); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Kolombangara, Santa Isabel] McCarthy (2002).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2000e, DI).

Porina mastoidiza (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 398 (1885)

Verrucaria mastoidiza Nyl., Flora 59: 365 (1876), nom. nud.

CUBA*: Nylander (1876, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

TANZANIA: Alstrup & Aptroot (2007)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [California] Tucker & Ryan (2006, C).

Porina maxispora Aptroot & M.Cáceres, Lichenologist 45: 769 (2013)

BRAZIL [Rondônia*]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK, as P. exasperatula).

GUYANA: Sipman & Aptroot (1992, as P. exasperatula); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK, as P. exasperatula).

Porina mazosioides Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 210 (1998)

KENYA: [Coast, Eastern] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MADAGASCAR: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2000a).

TANZANIA*: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape Province] Farkas (2004).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

Porina melaenula Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 34: 145 (1895)

VENEZUELA: [Caracas*] Müller (1895d, D; 1895f).

Porina melanops Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 25 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul*] Malme (1929, DK); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C).

SOUTH KOREA: Moon & Aptroot (2009, 'cf.').

Porina meridionalis P. M. McCarthy, Nova Hedwigia 58: 397 (1994) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*] McCarthy (1994a, DI; 2001a, DKM).

Porina microcarpa Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 540 (1994)

INDIA: [Karnataka*] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina minutissima Henssen, Lücking & Vĕzda, in Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 211 (1998) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Sipman (1991, as Porina epiphylloides); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993, as Porina epiphylloides); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2000a).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Morobe] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal] McCarthy (2003b).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Prachin Buri, Saraburi] Papong et al. (2007).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977, as Porina epiphylloides).

Porina monocarpa (Kremp.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 274 (1927)

Verrucaria monocarpa Kremp., Lich. Foliicol.: 19 (1874); Phylloporina monocarpa (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

INDIA: [Kerala, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu] Awasthi (1991, K); Singh & Sinha (1994, DK).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DK).

PHILIPPINES: [Mindanao] Santesson (1952, DK); Gruezo (1979, C).

SINGAPORE*: Krempelhuber (1874, D; 1875, D, both as Verrucaria); Müller (1890a, b, both as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK).

Porina moralesiae Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 279 (1991)

BRAZIL: [Acre] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Puntarenas*, San José] Lücking (1991, DI; 1992, DIK; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002, C).

Porina muelleri Zahlbr., Sitzungsber. Math.-Nat. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, ser. 1, 111: 362 (1902)

Porina tijucana Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 34: 34 (1895), nom. illeg., non Vainio (1890)

BRAZIL: [Rio de Janeiro*] Müller (1895, D, as Porina tijucana); Zahlbruckner (1902, D); Marcelli (2002, C, as “mulleri”).

Porina muluensis P. M. McCarthy & Coppins, Lichenologist 27: 308 (1995) [Description]

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak*] McCarthy & Coppins (1995, DI).

N

Porina nadkarniae Lücking & Merwin, in Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 292 (2008)

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina nana Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc., Suppl.: 75 (1837)

Verrucaria nana (Fée) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 5: 138 (‘1857’) [1858]

“REGIO TROPICA”* [NEOTROPICS]: Fée (1825 D); Müller (1888a).

Porina nanella Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 23 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina napensis Lücking, Willdenowia 29: 316 (1999)

ECUADOR: [Napo*] Lücking (1999b, DI; 2008, DIK).

Porina nigratula (Nyl.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 175 (1921)

Verrucaria nigratula Nyl., Flora 58: 105 (1875); Segestria nigratula (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forss., Enum. Pl. Scand.: 105 (1880); Porina nigratula (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 396 (1922)

ARMENIA: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

FINLAND*: Vainio (1921b; D); Clauzade & Roux (1985, K); Vitikainen et al. (1997, C).

RUSSIA: [Karelia] Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

Porina nigrofusca Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 322 (1883) [Description]

Porina nigrofusca var. submersa Müll. Arg., Flora 71: 548 (1888)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (1998, D; 2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo*] Müller (1883b, D; 1888d, D, as Porina nigrofusca var. submersa); Malme (1929, DK, and as Porina nigrofusca var. submersa); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C, and as Porina nigrofusca var. submersa); Aptroot (2002b, C).

Porina nilgiriensis D. D. Awasthi & K. P. Singh, Norweg. J. Bot. 19: 241 (1972)

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas] Lücking (2001; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

INDIA: [Tamil Nadu*] Awasthi & Singh (1972, DI); Awasthi (1991, K); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina nitens Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 32: 47 (1893)

COSTA RICA: [San José*] Müller (1893b, D); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

Porina nitidula Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 336 (1883) [Description]

Phylloporina nitidula (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 22 (1890); Pseudosagedia nitidula (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995); Trichothelium nitidulum (Ach.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 180 (1995)

Porina begoniae Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 336 (1883)

Micropeltis rheediae Rehm, Ann. Mycol. 9: 368 (1911)

Phylloporina pilcomayensis Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 33 (1929)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Misiones, Salta] Santesson (1952, DK); Ferraro (1997, I); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

AZERBAIJAN: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

BELIZE: Sérusiaux (1976).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Ferraro (2002); Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Ceará, Espírito Santo, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo*] Müller (1883b, D); Santesson (1952, DK); Schell & Winkler (1981); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DK).

CHILE: Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C).

CHINA: [Hong Kong, Yunnan] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C); Aptroot & Sipman (2001); Aptroot et al. (2003).

COLOMBIA: [Cauca] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1992, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Guantánamo, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba] Vĕzda (1984).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Shaba] Sérusiaux (1984).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Moorea)] McCarthy & Elix (1998, C).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUATEMALA: [Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Izabal, Petén] Santesson (1952, DK); Barillas & Lücking (1992); Van den Boom et al. (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Yoro] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIKM).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Kerala, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K); Singh & Sinha (1994, DK).

INDONESIA: [Bali, Java] Santesson (1952, DK).

IVORY COAST: [Grand Bassam] Lücking et al. (1998); Santesson & Lücking (1998).

JAPAN: [Honshu, Kyushu, Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DK); Suto & Ohtani (2005, DIK).

KENYA: [Coast] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MADAGASCAR: Santesson (1952, DK).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993).

MEXICO: [Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz] Sérusiaux (1976); Ryan et al. (1996, C, as Pseudosagedia); Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

NIGERIA: [Oyo] Santesson (1952, DK).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Milne Bay] Streimann (1986, C).

PARAGUAY: [Cazapá, Itapúa, Nueva Asuncion, Paraguarí] Müller (1888b); Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina pilcomayensis); Santesson (1952, DK); Ferraro (1997; Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon] Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Zahlbruckner (1907); Santesson (1952, DK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2003, C; 2009, C).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape Province, Natal] Sérusiaux (1984); Farkas (2004).

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Vainio (1896, D); Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

TAIWAN: Zahlbruckner (1933); Wei (1991, C); Aptroot et al. (2003).

TANZANIA: Farkas (1987).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Ratchasima, Prachin Buri, Saraburi, Chiang Mai] Papong et al. (2007); Aptroot et al. (2007)

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Santesson (1952, DK); Yeshitela (2008).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, as Trichothelium); Tucker & Harris (1980).

VENEZUELA: [Distrito Federal] Müller (1883b; 1890a, as Phylloporina; 1895f, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Porina nonaria Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 401 (1885)

Verrucaria nonaria Nyl., Flora 59: 365 (1876), nom. nud.

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); Plunkte (1984, C).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

JAPAN: Harada et al. (2004, C).

Porina norrlinii Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 180 (1921)

ARMENIA: Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

FINLAND*: Vainio (1921b, D); Vitikainen et al. (1997, C).

RUSSIA: [Karelia] Kopachevskaya et al. (1977).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [New Hampshire] Fryday (2010).

Porina novemseptata Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 358 (1921)

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [California] Tucker & Ryan (2006, C).

Porina novemseptatoides Aptroot & M.Cáceres, Lichenologist 45: 771 (2013)

BRAZIL [Rondônia*]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, DIK).

Porina nucula Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 112 (1814) [Description]

Porophora nucula (Ach.) Spreng., Syst. Veg., 16th edn,4(1): 241 (1827); Sphaeromphale nucula (Ach.) Trevis., Flora 38: 182 (1855); Verrucaria nucula (Ach.) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Acad. Maine Loire 4: 40 (1858); Segestria nucula (Ach.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

Porina mastoidea Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. Offic.: 82 (1824), nom. illeg., non Acharius (1814)

Porophora gilva Zenker, in Goebel & Kunze, Pharm. Waarenk. 1: 189 (1827–29)

Porina mastoidea var. rudis Müll. Arg., Flora 65: 517 (1882); Porina rudis (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Annln K. K. Naturh. Mus. Wien 7: 305 (1892)

Verrucaria retrospiciens Stirt., Proc. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 10: 302 (1877); Porina retrospiciens (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 91 (1894); Segestria retrospiciens (Stirt.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

Ascidium fusiformis C. Knight, Trans. New Zealand Inst. 15: 354 (1883)

Porina pallida Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 3: 326 (1895)

ARGENTINA: [Buenos Aires] Osorio (1976); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Müller (1882b, D, as Porina mastoidea var. rudis; 1892b, as Porina rudis; 1895e, D, as Porina pallida); Swinscow (1962); McCarthy (1993b, DK, as Porina pallida; 1994a, DI; 2001a, DKM).

BAHAMAS: Riddle (1920, K).

BERMUDA: Riddle (1916); LaGreca & Berger (2008, C).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Sergipe] Müller (1883b); Vainio (1890); Malme (1929, DK); Hafellner & Kalb (1995); Marcelli (1995, 2002, C); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Aptroot (2002b, C); Cáceres (2007, K).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c).

COLOMBIA: [Cundinamarca] Nylander (1863a, as Verrucaria).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Limón, San José] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

DOMINICA: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Nylander (1869b, as Verrucaria).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Hafellner & Kalb (1995).

GUINEA*: Acharius (1814, D); McCarthy (1994a, DI); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Magnusson (1956).

INDONESIA: [Java] Zahlbruckner (1943, CK).

JAPAN: Harada & Sato (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Chiapas, Veracruz] Sipman & Wolf (1998, C); Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES [Saba]: Sipman (2009, C, I).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Lifou] Nylander (1868a, as Verrucaria); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Stirton (1877b, as Verrucaria, and as Verrucaria retrospiciens); Knight (1883, as Ascidium fusiformis); Müller (1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria, and as Segestria retrospiciens); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: [Granada] Breuss (2002, C).

NIGERIA: Swinscow (1962).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Veraguas] Etayo & Aptroot (2005); Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang, Morobe] Aptroot et al. (1997); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PARAGUAY: [Paraguarí] Müller (1888b); Malme (1929, DK).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SAINT HELENA: Aptroot (2008, C).

SÃO TOMé AND PRÍNCIPE: [São Tomé] Nylander (1889; as Verrucaria).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2003, C; 2009, C).

TAIWAN: Zahlbruckner (1933); Wang-Yang & Lai (1973, C); Aptroot (2003).

TANZANIA: Alstrup & Aptroot (2007)

URUGUAY: [Rocha] Osorio (1995).

VENEZUELA: [Distrito Federal, Táchira] Müller (1895f); Marcano et al. (1996, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina nucula var. nucalis (Vain.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 203 (1915)

Porina nucalis Vain., Cat. African Pl. 2(2): 457 (1901)

GUADELOUPE: Vainio (1915, D).

SIERRA LEONE*: Vainio (1901, D, as Porina nucalis).

VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. Croix, St. John] Vainio (1915, D).

Porina nucula var. verrucosa Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 400 (1885)

BRAZIL: [Rio de Janeiro*] Müller (1885, D).

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D).

Porina nuculastrum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 174 (1995) [ALSO] [Description]

Clathroporina nuculastrum Müll. Arg., Flora 67: 618 (1884); Verrucaria nuculastrum (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1889–90: 210 (1891)

Clathroporina elabens Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 403 (1885)

Clathroporina confinis Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb.Syst. 6: 403 (1885)

Clathroporina chlorocarpa Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 30: 90 (1891)

Thelenella verruculosa Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 351 (1921); Clathroporina verruculosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 111 (1931)

Polyblastiopsis floridana Fink ex Hedrick, Mycologia 25: 307 (1933)

AUSTRALIA: [Northern Territory] Kalb (1996); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BAHAMAS: McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina nuculastrum).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Pernambuco, Rondônia, Sergipe] Cáceres (2007, K); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C, as Clathroporina nuculastrum); Aptroot & Sipman (2001, as Clathroporina nuculastrum).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia] Müller (1891d, D, as Clathroporina chlorocarpa); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina nuculastrum); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CUBA: Müller (1885a, D, as Clathroporina confinis and C. elabens); Plunkte (1984, C, as Clathroporina confinis and C. elabens); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina nuculastrum).

MADAGASCAR*: Müller (1884, D, as Clathroporina nuculastrum); McCarthy (1995b, DIK, as Clathroporina nuculastrum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES [Saba]: Sipman (2009, C, I).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon] Vainio (1921a, as Thelenella verruculosa); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina nuculastrum).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Hedrick (1933, D, as Polyblastiopsis floridana); McCarthy (1995b, DIKM, as Clathroporina nuculastrum); Harris (1995, DK).

Porina nuculiformis Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 324 (1885)

FRENCH GUIANA*: Müller (1885b, D); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a).

Note: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a) suggested that this taxon might fit within their expanded circumscription of P. mastoidea. Those authors did not study the type specimen of P. nuculiformis, and currently there is no evidence to doubt the integrity of the taxon.

O

Porina ocellata (Malme) P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth Lichenol. 52: 83 (1993)

Thelenella ocellata Malme, Ark. Bot. 22A(6): 6 (1928); Clathroporina ocellata (Malme) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 111 (1931)

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso*] Malme (1928, DK, as Thelenella); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Clathroporina); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina ocellatoides P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 29: 234 (1997) [Description]

LORD HOWE ISLAND*: McCarthy (1997a: DI); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina ochrostoma Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 541 (1994)

INDIA: [Karnataka*] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina ocoteae Brand & Sérus., in Sérusiaux et al., Lichenologist 39: 28 (2007)

AZORES: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

CANARY ISLANDS*: Sérusiaux et al. (2007, DIK).

Porina octomera (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 274 (1927) [Description]

Phylloporina octomera Müll. Arg., Flora 73: 198 (1890); Segestria octomera (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 176 (1995)

?Porina bicolor Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 331 (1883); Phylloporina bicolor (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

?Phragmopeltheca psidii L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 51 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo*] Müller (1883b, D, as Porina bicolor; 1890b, as Phylloporina; 1892d, as Phylloporina); Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK); Lombardi et al. (1999); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Nariño] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas] Lücking (1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Holguín, Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DK); Vĕzda (1984); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Izabal] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [La Libertad] Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Kerala, Tamil Nadu] Awasthi (1991, K).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz] Sérusiaux (1976); Ryan et al. (1996, C, as “Sagestria”); Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002, C).

NIGERIA: [Ondo] Santesson (1952, DK).

PANAMA: [Panamá, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PARAGUAY: [Paraguari, Itapúa] Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998, “aff.”); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, as Segestria).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar, Maracay, Mérida] Marcano et al. (1996, C); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Müller (1891c, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK).

Porina oleriana (A. Massal.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912) var. oleriana

Sagedia oleriana A. Massal., Symm. Lich.: 95 (1855); Spermatodium olerianum (A. Massal.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 12 (1860); Porina linearis var. oleriana (A. Massal.) Keissl., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl. 9, 1(2): 328 (1938); Pseudosagedia oleriana (A. Massal.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 174 (1995)

?Segestria alpina Bagl. & Carestia, Comment. Soc. Crittog. Ital. 2: 84 (1864); Verrucaria alpina (Bagl. & Carestia) Stizenb., Jahresber. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1880–1881: 505 (1882); Sagedia alpina (Bagl. & Carestia) Jatta, Syll. Lich. Ital.: 552 (1900); Porina alpina (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912)

?Sagedia werwaestii de Lesd., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 53: 586 (1906); Porina werwaestii (de Lesd.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 410 (1922)

ARGENTINA: [Tierra del Fuego] Cengia-Sambo (1926, as Porina werwaestii); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C, as Porinawerwaesti”).

FRANCE: Keissler (1938, DK, as Porina linearis var. oleriana); Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia); Clauzade & Roux (1985, DIK).

ITALY*: Keissler (1938, DK, as Porina linearis var. oleriana); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

MALTA: Sommiers & Gatto (1915, C, as Sagedia).

MOROCCO: Alonso & Egea (1994).

PORTUGAL: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

Porina orientalis P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 24: 305 (1992)

TAIWAN*: McCarthy (1992, DI).

Porina ornata Vĕzda, Acta Mus. Silesiae, Opava, ser. A, 22: 73 (1973)

Porina papillifera var. rubrofusca Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 10: 397 (1975)

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Holguín, Santiago de Cuba] Vĕzda (1984); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUINEA*: Vĕzda (1973, DI); Lücking et al. (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking et al. (1998a).

TANZANIA: [Tanga] Vĕzda (1975, DI, as Porina papillifera var. rubrofusca).

Porina otagensis P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 31: 337 (1999) [Description]

NEW ZEALAND: [Otago*] McCarthy (1999b, DI); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina oxneri R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 221 (1952)

Phylloporina obsoleta Oxner, J. Inst. Bot. Acad. Sci. RSS Ukraine 21/22: 309 (1939); Pseudosagedia obsoleta (Oxner) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

AZERBAIJAN*: Oxner (1939, D, as Phylloporina obsoleta); Santesson (1952, DK).

CANARY ISLANDS: Hafellner (1999, C, as Pseudosagedia obsoleta); Sérusiaux et al. (2007, K).

CROATIA: Santesson (1952, DK); Clauzade & Roux (1985, K).

FRANCE: Santesson (1952, DK); Clauzade & Roux (1985, K).

GEORGIA: Vĕzda (1983, DI).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Vĕzda (1999a).

ITALY: Puntillo et al. (2000); Nimis & Martellos (2008, CIM).

RUSSIA: [Caucasus] Vĕzda (1983, DI).

SPAIN: Llimona & Hladun (2001, C).

P

Porina pacifica Brodo, Biblioth. Lichenol. 88: 44 (2004)

CANADA: [British Columbia*] Brodo (2004, DIM).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alaska] Nylander (1887, as Verrucaria leptaleoides); Brodo (2004, DI).

Porina paganii Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 23 (1929) f. paganii

ARGENTINA: [Buenos Aires] Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

PARAGUAY*: Malme (1929, DK).

Porina paganii f. umbrosa Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 23 (1929)

PARAGUAY*: Malme (1929, DK).

Porina pallescens R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 263 (1952)

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DK).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Kerala, Tamil Nadu] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

KENYA*: [Coast] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993).

NEPAL: Vĕzda & Poelt (1988); Awasthi (1991, K).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, San Cristobal] McCarthy (2003b).

TAIWAN: Aptroot et al. (2003).

TANZANIA: Vĕzda (1989).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2003b).

Porina palmicola Malcolm & Vĕzda, in Vĕzda, Lich. Rar. Exsicc. 41: [402] (1999)

NEW ZEALAND: [Westland*] Vĕzda (1999b, DI); Galloway (2007, DK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Papong et al. (2007).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Natal] Farkas (2004).

Porina palniensis D. D. Awasthi & K. P. Singh, Norweg. J. Bot. 19: 239 (1972)

INDIA: [Kerala, Tamil Nadu*] Awasthi & Singh (1972, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

Porina papillifera (Stirt.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 274 (1927)

Verrucaria papillifera Stirt., Proc. Roy. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 11: 107 (1878); Phylloporina papillifera (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 30: 91 (1891); Pseudosagedia papillifera (Stirt.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Lücking (2008, DIK).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia); Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*] Stirton (1878, D, as Verrucaria); Santesson (1952, DK); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Boyaca, Chocó, Nariño] Santesson (1952, DK); Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C.); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas] Müller (1891d, D; 1893b, both as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (1992, DIK; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (1999b).

FRENCH GUIANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Nicobar Is.] Awasthi (1991, K).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Huánaco, Loreto, San Martín] Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina papuensis P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 86 (1993)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (2008c).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: [Sarigan] Harada & McCarthy (1997, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Central*, Madang, Morobe] McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Aptroot et al. (1997).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Santa Isabel] McCarthy (2002).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

Porina papularoides (R.-G. Werner & M. Choisy ex R.-G. Werner) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 10: 90 (1938)

Segestrella papularoides R.-G. Werner & M. Choisy ex R.-G. Werner, Cavanillesia 5(5–12): 159 (1932)

MOROCCO*: Werner (1932, D); Egea (1996, C).

Porina pariata (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 399 (1922)

Verrucaria pariata Nyl., in Nylander & Crombie, J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 20: 66 (1884)

CHINA: [Shanghai*] Zahlbruckner (1930, DK).

JAPAN: [Honshu] Nylander & Crombie (1884, D, as Verrucaria); Nylander (1890a, D, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

Porina partita P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 89 (1993)

NEW ZEALAND: [Canterbury*, Nelson] McCarthy (1993b, DIK); McCarthy & Malcolm (1996); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina patellula Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 293 (1895)

Verrucaria patellula (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1893–94: 260 (1895)

TANZANIA*: Müller (1895a, D).

Porina paulensis Zahlbr., Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 83: 90 (1909)

BRAZIL: [São Paulo*] Zahlbruckner (1909, D); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina pelochroa Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 330 (1883)

BRAZIL: [São Paulo*] Müller (1883b, D); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

Porina peponula Müll. Arg., Revue Mycol. 10: 181 (1888)

PARAGUAY*: Müller (1888b, D).

Porina peraffinis Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 32: 47 (1893)

COSTA RICA: [San José*] Müller (1893b, D); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

Porina peregrina Tretiach & P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 87: 79 (2003)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [California*] Aptroot (2002a, DI); McCarthy (2003c, D); Tucker & Ryan (2006, C).

Porina perminuta Vain., Univ. California Publ. Bot. 12: 14 (1924)

Phylloporina perminuta (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 139 (1931)

AUSTRALIA: [Northern Territory] McCarthy (2008b)

CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO: Seaward & Aptroot (2000, C).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Tahiti*)] Vainio (1924, D); Santesson (1952, DK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

IVORY COAST: [Adiopodoumé] Santesson & Lücking (1998).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: [Guguan] Harada (1994a); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot et al. (1995).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon] Santesson (1952, DK); Gruezo (1979, C).

SEYCHELLES: Vĕzda (2000, 2004); Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003); Aptroot et al. (2003).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Papong et al. (2007).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2003b).

Porina pichinchensis Lücking, Willdenowia 29: 316 (1999)

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco] Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [San José] Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Pichincha*] Lücking (1999b, DI; 2008; DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

Porina pionnieri Harm., Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, sér. 3, 12: 127 (1911)

NEW CALEDONIA*: Harmand (1911, D).

Porina pilifera Neuwirth & Pfaller, Lichenologist 38: 417 (2006)

BRAZIL [Rondônia*]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas*] Neuwirth & Pfaller (2006, DI); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina plana R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 247 (1952)

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak*] Santesson (1952, DK).

Porina planiuscula Vĕzda, Nova Hedwigia 58: 138 (1994)

PAPUA NEW GUINEA*: Vĕzda (1994a, DI).

Porina plicatula Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 399 (1885)

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

Porina pocsii Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19: 188 (1984)

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Breuss (2006).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba*] Vĕzda (1984, DI); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina podocycla Müll. Arg., Revue Mycol. 10: 181 (1888)

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

PARAGUAY: [Paraguarí*] Müller (1888b, D); Malme (1929, DK).

Porina polita Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 21 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina polycarpa Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 401 (1885)

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina polymera Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 357 (1921)

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

Porina praestantior Müll. Arg., Flora 55: 400 (1882)

INDONESIA: [Java*] Müller (1882a, D).

Porina praetervisa Vain., Bol. Soc. Brot., ser. 2, 6: 179 (1929)

MOZAMBIQUE: [Cabo Delgado*] Vainio (1929, D).

Porina provincialis (Clauzade & Cl. Roux) Cl. Roux, in Roux et al., Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence 54: 131 (2003)

Porina oleriana var. provincialis Clauzade & Cl. Roux, Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n.s., numéro spécial 7: 823 (1985)

FRANCE*: Clauzade & Roux (1985, DIK); Roux et al. (2003).

Porina pseudoapplanata Lücking & M. Cáceres, Lichenologist 31: 350 (1999)

Phyllophiale viridis Lücking & M. Cáceres, Lichenologist 31: 355 (1999)

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amapá, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, Rondonia, São Paulo, Sergipe*] Lücking & Cáceres (1999, DIK, and as Phyllophiale viridis); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia] Lücking & Cáceres (1999, DIK, and as Phyllophiale viridis); Lücking (1999c); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking & Cáceres (1999, DIK, as Phyllophiale viridis); Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal, Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking & Cáceres (1999, DIK, and as Phyllophiale viridis); Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Huanúco] Lücking (2008, DIK).

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Farkas & Hawksworth (2004, as Phyllophiale viridis).

Porina pseudomalmei Breuss, Linzer Biol. Beitr. 34: 1064 (2002)

NICARAGUA*: Breuss (2002, DI).

Porina psilocarpa P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 93 (1993)

NEW ZEALAND: [Southland*] McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina pulchella Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 400 (1885)

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina pungens (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 261 (1885)

BRAZIL: [Santa Catarina*] Müller (1885b, D); Marcelli (2002, C).

Q

Porina quintaria (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 401 (1922)

Verrucaria quintaria Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 4, 20: 246 (‘1863’) [1864]

COLOMBIA*: Nylander (1863b, D, as Verrucaria).

JAPAN: Nylander (1890a, D, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

R

Porina radiata Kalb, Lücking & Vĕzda, in Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 214 (1998)

Porina rugosa Kalb & Vĕzda, in Vĕzda, Nova Hedwigia 55: 205 (1992), nom. illeg., non Acharius (1814)

BRAZIL: [Amapá, Amazonas, Macapá, Pará*, São Paulo] Kalb & Vĕzda (1992, DI, as Porina rugosa); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C, as Porina rugosa); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CAMEROON: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Nariño] Sipman (1997a, as Porina rugosa); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas] Kalb & Vĕzda (1992, DI); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1999c; 2008, DIK); Breuss (2000, as Porina rugosa); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Roura, Sinnamary] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara, Potaro/Siparuni] Kalb & Vĕzda (1992, DI, as Porina rugosa); Sipman & Aptroot (1992, as Porina rugosa); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK, as Porina rugosa); Sipman (1997b, as Porina rugosa); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995, as Porina rugosa); Lücking et al. (1998a, as Porina rugosa); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

MADAGASCAR: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C, as P. rugosa); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

SURINAM: Kalb & Vĕzda (1992, DI); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar, Maracay] Neuwirth (2007).

Porina radicicola P. M. McCarthy & Tønsberg, Lichenologist 30: 245 (1998) [Description]

CANADA: [British Columbia] McCarthy & Tønsberg (1998, DI).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Washington*] McCarthy & Tønsberg (1998, DI).

Porina rapaeformis Vain., Étude Lich. Brésil 2: 225 (1890)

Pseudosagedia rapaeformis (Vain.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

BRAZIL: [Rio de Janeiro*] Vainio (1890, D); Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia); Marcelli (2002, C, as Pseudosagediarapiformis”).

Porina ravida (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Flora 74: 381 (1891)

Verrucaria ravida Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7(1): 52 (1875)

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak*] Krempelhuber (1875, DI, as Verrucaria); Müller (1891f, D).

Porina rechingeri Szatala, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105: 19 (1943)

GREECE*: Szatala (1941, D; 1943).

Porina repanda (Stirt.) Lücking & R. Sant., Willdenowia 29: 317 (1999)

Verrucaria repanda Stirt., Proc. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 11: 108 (1878); Phylloporina repanda (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 536 (1922)

Porina laticarpa Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 280 (1991); Pseudosagedia laticarpa (Lücking) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*] Stirton (1878, D, as Verrucaria); Santesson (1952); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Chocó, Nariño] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas] Lücking (1991, DI; 1992, DIK, both as Porina laticarpa; 1999c); Breuss (2000, as Porina laticarpa); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2000b; 2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK)

Porina rhaphidiophora (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 31: 288 (1892), as rhaphidophora [Description]

Verrucaria rhaphidiophora Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 132 (1868); Verrucaria rhaphispora C. Knight, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 2: 40 (1882)

Arthopyrenia rhaphispora (C. Knight) Shirley, Lich. Fl. Queensland 4: 175 (1889), as rhaphidospora; Porina rhaphispora (C. Knight) Müll. Arg., Rep. Meetings Australas. Assoc. Advancem. Sci. 1895: 453 (1895), as rhaphidospora

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Tasmania] Knight (1882, DI, as Verrucaria rhaphispora); Shirley (1889, as Arthopyrenia rhaphidospora); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria rhaphispora); McCarthy (1994b, DIK; 2001a, DIKM).

MADAGASCAR: Jatta (1905, as Porina 'rhaphidiospora').

NEW CALEDONIA: [Lifou*] Nylander (1868a, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1892c, as Porina rhaphidophora); McCarthy (1994b, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson] Malcolm & McCarthy (1997); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina rhaphidosperma Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 34: 35 (1895)

Trichothelium rhaphidospermum (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 180 (1995); Pseudosagedia rhaphidosperma (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris, Opusc. Philolich. 2: 15 (2005)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts*, New Jersey, North Carolina, Virginia] Müller (1895c, D); Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, as Trichothelium); Tucker & Harris (1980); Lendemer (2006, as Pseudosagedia); Lendemer & Knapp (2007, as Pseudosagedia raphidosperma); Hodkinson et al. (2010, C, as Pseudosagedia); Harris & Lendemer (2010, C, as Pseudosagedia raphidosperma).

Porina rhodostoma Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 398 (1885)

CUBA*: Müller (1885a, D); Plunkte (1984, C).

DOMINICA: Sérusiaux et al. (2007)

Porina riparia P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 95 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales*] McCarthy (1993b, DIK; 2001a, DKM).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

Porina rosei Sérus., Cryptogamie, Bryol., Lichénol. 12: 31 (1991)

Zamenhofia rosei (Sérus.) P. James, in Coppins et al., Lichenologist 24: 368 (1992)

FRANCE*: Sérusiaux (1991, DI).

GREAT BRITAIN: Sérusiaux (1991, DI); James & Purvis (1992, DK, as Zamenhofia).

SPAIN: Sérusiaux (1991, DI); Llimona & Hladun (2001, C, as Zamenhofia).

Note: Reported in error from Macaronesia, fide Sérusiaux et al. (2007).

Porina rubella (Malcolm & Vĕzda) Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 388 (1998)

Trichothelium rubellum Malcolm & Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 30: 94 (1995)

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson*] Malcolm & Vĕzda (1995, DI, as Trichothelium); Lücking (1998, K); Malcolm & Malcolm (2002, I, as Trichothelium).

Porina rubentior (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 444 (1883) [Description]

Verrucaria rubentior Stirt., Proc. Roy. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 11: 107 (1878); Phylloporina rubentior (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890); Segestria rubentior (Stirt.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 176 (1995)

?Phylloporina spruceana Müll. Arg., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 332 (1892)

Porina rufula var. minuscula Vain., Cat. African Pl. 2(2): 459 (1901)

Micropeltis uleana Syd., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 1: 81 (1901)

?Micropeltis bambusicola P. Henn. & Shirai, in Hennings, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 28: 293 (1901)

Micropeltis aureobrunnea P. Henn., Hedwigia 41: 378 (1904)

Micropeltis vriseae Rehm., Ann. Mycol. 5: 531 (1907)

Phylloporina rufula var. obscurata f. elongata Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 35 (1929)

Phragmopeltheca caseariae L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 46 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

Phragmopeltheca cupaniae L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 47 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

?Phragmopeltheca cupaniae var. caruarensis L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 58 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

?Phragmopeltheca cupaniae var. minor L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 59 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

?Phragmopeltheca psychotriae L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 52 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

?Phragmopeltheca pulcherrima L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 54 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

?Phragmopeltheca pulcherrima var. octospora L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 60 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

?Phragmopeltheca pulcherrima var. pentaseptata L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 62 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

ANGOLA: [Cuanza Norte] Vainio (1901, D, as Porina rufula var. minuscula); Santesson (1952, DIK).

ARGENTINA: [Misiones, Jujuy] Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland, New South Wales] Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM); Elix et al. (2009).

BELIZE: Sérusiaux (1976).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*, Bahia, Ceará, Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Stirton (1878, D, as Verrucaria rubentior); Müller (1883b; 1890b, as Phylloporina; 1892d, as Phylloporina and Phylloporina spruceana); Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina rubentior and P. rufula f. elongata); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998b; 2008, DIK); Lombardi et al. (1999); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C).

COCOS ISLAND: Weber (1993); Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó] Nowak & Winkler (1975); Sipman (1990).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1995b, 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Breuss (2000); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vĕzda (1984).

DOMINICA: Vĕzda (1996); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

FRANCE: Clauzade & Roux (1987, K).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GEORGIA: Vĕzda (1983, DI).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Takutu] Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Santa Ana] Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

JAPAN: [Honshu] Santesson (1952, DIK); Thor et al. (2000, DK, “cf.”).

KENYA: [Coast] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz] Santesson (1952, DIK); Ryan et al. (1996, C, as “Sagestria”); Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Panamá, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PARAGUAY: [Itapúa] Müller (1890b, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: Sérusiaux (1976).

RUSSIA: [Caucasus] Vĕzda (1983).

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Santesson (1952, DIK).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TANZANIA: Vĕzda (1975, DI); Farkas (1987).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima, Prachin Buri] Papong et al. (2007).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] Harris (1995, K).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Aragua, Bolivar, Caracas, Maracay] Müller (1883b; 1895f, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Sipman (1992); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

Porina rubescens (Lücking) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 171 (1995)

Trichothelium rubescens Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 287 (1991)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Elix et al. (2009).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Pará, Pernambuco] Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Meta] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C, as Trichothelium); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas*, San José] Lücking (1991, DI, as Trichothelium; 1999a; 2008, DIK); Hafellner & Kalb (1995); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002, C, as Trichothelium rubescens).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

Porina rubrofusca (Malcolm & Vĕzda) Lücking, Biblioth. Lichenol. 88: 414 (2004)

Polycornum rubrofuscum Malcolm & Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 30: 91 (1995)

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson*] Malcolm & Vĕzda (1995, DI, as Polycornum); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C, as Polycornum); McCarthy & Malcolm (1997, I, as Polycornum); Malcolm & Malcolm (2002, DIK, as Polycornum); Lücking (2004, K); Galloway (2007; DK).

Porina rubrosphaera R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 261 (1952)

ARGENTINA: [Nequén] Lücking et al. (2003b, I).

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco, Rondônia] Lücking et al. (1998b); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

CHILE: [Los Lagos*] Santesson (1952, DIK); Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C); Lücking et al. (2003b, I); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Maracay] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina rudiuscula (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Hedwigia 31: 287 (1892)

Verrucaria rudiuscula Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 124 (1868)

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Mato Grosso, Pernambuco, São Paulo] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (1995; 2002, C); Cáceres (2007, K).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

FRENCH GUIANA: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Lifou*] Nylander (1868a, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1892c); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

NICARAGUA: Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro] Breuss (2008).

URUGUAY: [Lavalleja] Osorio (1971, and as Porina africana var. basaltica).

Porina rudiuscula var. tetraspora Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 202 (1915)

VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. John*] Vainio (1915, D).

Porina rufula (Kremp.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 7(2): 227 (1890) [Description]

Verrucaria rufula Kremp., Lich. Foliicol.: 20 (1874); Phylloporina rufula (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

Porina rubicolor var. rhodoplaca Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 334 (1883); Porina rufula var. rhodoplaca (Müll. Arg.) Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 19(15): 4 (1923)

Phylloporina interposita Zahlbr., Ann. Crypt. Exot. 1: 115 (1928)

?Phragmopeltheca hymenaeae L. Xavier, Phragmopeltecaceae: 49 (1974), as Phragmopelteca

Porina pseudofulvella Sérus., Lichenologist 11: 182 (1979)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes] Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DIK); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Sipman (1991, as Porina pseudofulvella); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BELIZE: Hedrick (1939).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Müller (1883b, D, as Porina rubicolor var. rhodoplaca; 1892d, as Phylloporina); Vainio (1890); Zahlbruckner (1909, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Schell & Winkler (1981); Hafellner & Kalb (1995); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot (2002b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó] Nowak & Winkler (1975); Sipman (1990, and as Porina pseudofulvella).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Müller (1891d; 1893b, both as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Breuss (2000, and as Porina pseudofulvella); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007, and as Porina pseudofulvella).

CUBA: [Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vĕzda (1984).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Kinshasa] Santesson (1952, DIK).

DOMINICA: Vainio (1896, D).

ECUADOR: [Los Rios, Napo, Pichincha] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK, and as Porina pseudofulvella); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz] Barillas & Lücking (1992, and as Porina pseudofulvella); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK, and as Porina pseudofulvella); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HAITI: Santesson (1952, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Kerala, Tamil Nadu] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Enggano I., Java, Sumatra] Zahlbruckner (1928, D, as Phylloporina interposita; 1943, CK, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

JAPAN: [Kyushu, Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DIK).

KENYA: [Coast] Sérusiaux (1979, DI, as Porina pseudofulvella); Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996a, as Porina pseudofulvella); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

MALAWI: Santesson (1952, DIK).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah*, Sarawak] Krempelhuber (1874, D; 1875, DI, both as Verrucaria); Müller (1890a, b, both as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Sipman (1993, as Porina pseudofulvella).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Zahlbruckner (1941, as Phylloporina); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [East Sepik, Madang, Morobe] Santesson (1952, DIK); Streimann (1986, C); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina).

PERU: [Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao] Vainio (1923b, D, as Porina rufula var. rhodoplaca); Santesson (1952, DIK); Gruezo (1979, C, and as Porina rufula var. rhodoplaca); Aptroot & Sipman (1998, as Porina pseudofulvella).

REUNION: Sérusiaux (1977); Rønhede et al. (2003); van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Zahlbruckner (1907); Santesson (1952, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, Kolombangara, Malaita, San Cristobal] McCarthy (2003b).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Natal] Sérusiaux (1984, as Porina pseudofulvella).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997).

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Vainio (1896, D).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK, and as Porina pseudofulvella).

TAIWAN: Aptroot et al. (2003).

TANZANIA: Vĕzda (1975).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2003b).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar, Maracay] Müller (1895f, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DIK); Sipman (1992); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

S

Porina sagedioides (Zahlbr.) P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 77 (1993)

Clathroporina sagedioides Zahlbr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 60: 472 (1926)

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

TANZANIA: [East Usambara*] Zahlbruckner (1926, D, as Clathroporina); McCarthy (1993b, DIK).

Porina samoana Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 23: 298 (1897)

SAMOA: [Upolu*] Müller (1897, D); Zahlbruckner (1907); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina sanctaerosae Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 200 (1915)

GUADELOUPE*: Vainio (1915, D).

Porina sandwichensis H. Magn., Ark. Bot., ser. 2, 3: 236 (‘1955’) [1956]

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Kauai*] Magnusson (1956, DI); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina sangeana Vain., Cat. African Pl. 2(2): 458 (1901)

ANGOLA: [Cuanza Norte*] Vainio (1901, D).

Porina sanguinea (Räsänen) Satô, Index Pl. Nippon. 4: 116 (1943)

Byssophytum sanguineum Räsänen, J. Jap. Bot. 16: 153 (1940)

JAPAN*: Räsänen (1940, D).

Porina scabrida R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 174 (1995)

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Pernambuco, Rondônia] Cáceres (2007, IK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alabama; Florida*, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina] Harris (1995, DK); Hansen et al. (2008); Lendemer (2010); Lendemer et al. (2010, C).

Porina semecarpi Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 367 (1921) [Description]

Microphiale semecarpi (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 2: 701 (1924); Phylloporina semecarpi (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 140 (1931)

Porina globulifera Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 367 (1921); Phylloporina globulifera (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 137 (1931)

Porina pallidibrunneola F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 288 (1927); Phylloporina pallidibrunneola (F. Schill.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 138 (1931)

Porina zenkeri F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 289 (1927); Phylloporina zenkeri (F. Schill.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 140 (1931)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DK); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DIK).

CAMEROON: Schilling (1927, D, as Porina zenkeri); Santesson (1952, DK).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Moorea)] McCarthy & Elix (1998, C).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Kerala, Tamil Nadu] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Java] Santesson (1952, DK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking et al. (1998a).

JAPAN: [Honshu, Kyushu] Thor et al. (2000, DK); Suto & Ohtani (2005, DIK).

KENYA: [Coast] Lücking & Kalb (2002); Yeshitela (2008).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Santesson (1952, DK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina); Streimann (1986, C, as Phylloporina).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D, and as Porina globulifera); Santesson (1952, DK); Gruezo (1979, C).

TANZANIA: Schilling (1927, D, as Porina pallidibrunneola); Santesson (1952, DK); Vĕzda (1975); Farkas (1987).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2003b, as “semecarpa”).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977).

Note: Reported in error from Macaronesia, fide Sérusiaux et al. (2007).

Porina semiintegra Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 346 (1885)

MEXICO: [Oaxaca*] Müller (1885b, D).

Porina septemseptata (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 404 (1922), nom. illeg., non Swinscow (1962)

Verrucaria septemseptata Kremp, Flora 59: 525 (1876)

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo*] Krempelhuber (1876a, D, as Verrucaria); Malme (1929, DK); Osorio & Fleig (1994); Marcelli (1995; 2002, C).

Porina siamensis P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 31: 242 (1999) [Description]

THAILAND: [Nakhon Nayok*, Nakhon Ratchasima] McCarthy (1999a, DI); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

Porina similis Kalb & Vĕzda, in Vĕzda & Kalb, Nova Hedwigia 53: 225 (1991) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland*] Vĕzda & Kalb (1991, DI); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Matzer (1996).

Note: A report of P. similis from Papua New Guinea by VĔZDA & KALB (1991) was based on misidentified specimens of P. lucida (Lücking & VĔzda 1998).

Porina simulans Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 30: 90 (1891)

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Mato Grosso, Rio Grande do Sul] Malme (1929, DK); Kalb (1982); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C); Cáceres (2007, K).

COSTA RICA*: Müller (1891d, D); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Kalb (2001).

Porina sinochlorotica Zahlbr., in Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sinicae 3: 21 (1930)

CHINA: [Sichuan*] Zahlbruckner (1930, DK).

Porina sordidula Vain., Étude Lich. Brésil 2: 220 (1890)

BRAZIL: [Rio de Janeiro*] Vainio (1890, D); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina speciosa P. M. McCarthy & Malcolm, Nova Hedwigia 62: 544 (1996) [ALSO] [Description]

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson*] McCarthy & Malcolm (1996, DI); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

Porina sphaeralis Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 25 (1929)

PARAGUAY: [Lambaré*, Paraguarí] Malme (1929, DK); McCarthy (1993b, DIK).

Porina sphaerocephala Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 368 (1921) [Description]

Phylloporina sphaerocephala (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 140 (1931)

Porina bussei F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 288 (1927); Phylloporina bussei (F. Schill.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 136 (1931)

ANGOLA: [Luanda] Santesson (1952, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Allen et al. (2001); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

CAMEROON: Schilling (1927, D, as Porina bussei); Santesson (1952, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Santesson (1952, DIK).

INDONESIA: [Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

MADAGASCAR: Santesson (1952, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Santesson (1952, DIK); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina sphaerocephala); Streimann (1986, C).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao*] Vainio (1921a, D); Santesson (1952, DIK); Gruezo (1979, C).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Vĕzda (1975).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima, Saraburi] Papong et al. (2007).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Porina sphaerocephaloides Farkas, Lichenologist 19: 55 (1987)

GUINEA: Farkas (1987, DIM).

IVORY COAST: [Man] Santesson & Lücking (1998).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MADAGASCAR: Lücking (2000a).

TANZANIA*: Farkas (1987, DIM).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

Porina sphalerospora Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 359 (1921)

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

Porina subapplanata Malcolm, Vĕzda, P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, Australas. Lichenol. 45: 22 (1999) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria] Malcolm et al. (1995, as Porina impolita; 1999, DI); McCarthy (1995b, as Porina lucida); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy et al. (2001, CK); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Canterbury, Nelson*, Westland] Lücking & Malcolm (1997, I, as Porina applanata); Malcolm et al. (1999, DI); Malcolm & Malcolm (2002, I); Galloway (2007, DK).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal] McCarthy (2003b).

Porina subargillacea Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 1: 64 (1893) [Description]

Porina subargillacea var. nigrata Müll. Arg., Rep. Meetings Australas. Assoc. Advancem. Sci. 1895: 453 (1895)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria*] Müller (1893d, D; 1895b, D, as Porina subargillacea var. nigrata); McCarthy (1994b, DIK; 2001a, DIKM).

Note: Stated in error by McCARTHY (2001a) as occurring in New Zealand.

Porina subcarpinea Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 29 (1929)

BRAZIL [Mato Grosso*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

Porina subchlorotica (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 338 (1883)

Verrucaria subchlorotica Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 124 (1868)

NEW CALEDONIA: [Lifou*] Nylander (1868a, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1883b, D; 1892c, D); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria); McCarthy (1993b); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina subcutanea Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 113 (1814)

Sphaeromphale anceps Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 7 (1860)

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka. Kerala, Manipur, West Bengal] Awasthi (1991, K); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK); Upreti (1994, DIK).

“INDIA ORIENTALI”*: Acharius (1814, D); Trevisan (1860); Müller (1888a).

Porina subdissipans Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 360 (1921)

PHILIPPINES: [Panay*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

Porina subepiphylla Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 217 (1998)

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amapá, Amazonas, Macapá, Pará, Pernambuco, São Paulo] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998b); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Macizo] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia*, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Roura, Sinnamary] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá] Breuss (2008).

PERU: [Cuzco] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar, Maracay] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina subfirmula Riddle, in Britten & Milspaugh, Bahamas Flora: 524 (1920)

BAHAMAS*: Riddle (1920, DK).

CUBA: Riddle (1920, DK); Plunkte (1984, C).

Porina subgigantospora Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 542 (1994)

INDIA: [Andaman Is.*, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Tamil Nadu] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina subhibernica D. K. Upreti, Bryologist 97: 76 (1994)

INDIA: [Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Kerala*, Tamil Nadu] Upreti (1994, DIK).

Porina subinterstes (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 21: 364 (1889)

Verrucaria subinterstes Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 7: 178 (1873)

Porina curtula Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 20 (1929)

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Espírito Santo, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo*] Müller (1889); Malme (1929, DK, as Porina curtula); McCarthy (1993b, DIK, as P. curtula); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as Porina curtula); Cáceres et al. (2000, C, as Porina curtula); Lücking & Kalb (2000, as Porina curtula); Marcelli (2002, C, as Porinasubinterstices”and P. curtula); Cáceres (2007, IK, as P. curtula); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c, D).

COLOMBIA: [Magdalena] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as Porina curtula); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as Porina curtula); Lücking (1999a; 1999c, both as Porina curtula; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C, as Porina curtula).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula, Roura, Sinnamary] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK, as Porina curtula); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a, 2000a, both as Porina curtula; 2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland] Nylander (1874, D, as Verrucaria); Awasthi (1991, K); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK, and as Porina curtula); Upreti (1994, DIK); McCarthy (2000b, D); Pinokiyo et al. (2008); Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PARAGUAY: [Lambaré] McCarthy (1993b, DIK, as Porina curtula).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

TANZANIA: Alstrup & Aptroot (2007)

Porina sublectissima (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 405 (1922)

Verrucaria sublectissima Nyl., Flora 68: 441 (1885)

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Alaska*] Nylander (1885a, D, as Verrucaria); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria).

Porina subnitidula B. Pena & Colín, in Herrera-Campos et al., Phyton 44: 176 (2004)

MEXICO: [Veracruz*] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004a, DI); Lücking (2008, DK).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

Porina subnucula Lumbsch, Lücking & Vĕzda, in Lücking & Vĕzda, Willdenowia 28: 217 (1998) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland*] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

IVORY COAST: Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Papong et al. (2007).

Porina subolivacea Müll. Arg., Flora 67: 468 (1884)

BRAZIL: [Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo*] Müller (1884, D); Malme (1929, DK); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina subpallescens Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 10: 397 (1975)

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

TANZANIA: [Mbeya*] Vĕzda (1975, DI).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

Porina subrubrosphaera Kurok., J. Jap. Bot. 33: 206 (1958)

JAPAN: [Honshu*] Kurokawa (1958, D); Thor et al. (2000, DK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Papong et al. (2007).

Porina subrudiuscula Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 12 (1929)

BRAZIL [Rio Grande do Sul*, São Paulo] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot (2002b, C).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Etayo & Aptroot (2005).

Porina subsanctirosae Makhija, Adawadkar & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18: 543 (1994)

INDIA: [Karnataka, Maharashtra*] Makhija et al. (1994, DIK).

Porina sudetica (Körb.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 104 (1912)

Verrucaria sudetica Körb., Denkschr. Feier Fünfzigjähr. Best. Herausgeg. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Kult.: 236 (1852); Sagedia sudetica (Körb.) Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 365 (1855); Segestria muscorum var. sudetica (Körb.) Trevis., Conspect. Verruc.: 6 (1860); Porina mammillosa var. sudetica (Körb.) Keissl., Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl. 9, 1(2): 359 (1938)

?Verrucaria mammillosa var. subfurvescens Vain., Meddel. Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 10: 185 (1883); Porina mammillosa var. subfurvescens (Vain.) Vain., Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 49(2): 176 (1921)

AUSTRIA: Hafellner & Türk (2001, C).

CZECH REPUBLIC*: Keissler (1938, DIK); Vĕzda & Liška (1999, C).

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, DK, as Porina mammillosa var. sudetica).

GREAT BRITAIN: Purvis & James (1992, DK).

POLAND: Keissler (1938, DIK); Nowak & Tobolewski (1975, DIK); Faltynowicz (1993, C).

SLOVAKIA: Pišút et al. (1996, C).

Porina sulphurea (Mont.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 406 (1922)

Byssophytum sulphureum Mont., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 10: 132 (1848); Verrucaria sulphurea (Mont.) Nyl., in Hue, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, sér. 3, 4, 114 (1892)

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Tahiti*)] Montagne (1848, D).

Porina sylvatica P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, Lichenologist 25: 144 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*] McCarthy & Kantvilas (1993, DIK); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

NEW ZEALAND: [Nelson] McCarthy (1993a); McCarthy & Malcolm (1996); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

T

Porina tahitiensis (Räsänen) P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 27: 343 (1995), as tahitensis [Description]

Thelenella tahitiensis Räsänen, Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool.-Bot. Fenn. 'Vanamo' 20(3): 33 (1944), as tahitensis

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Tahiti*)] Räsänen (1944, D, as Thelenella); McCarthy (1995b, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996a); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina taperinhae Redinger, Hedwigia 73: 55 (1933)

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*] Redinger (1933, DI); Marcelli (2002, C).

Porina taposirica (Stizenb.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 407 (1922)

Verrucaria taposirica Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1893–94: 259 (1895)

EGYPT*: Stizenberger (1895, D, as Verrucaria); Seaward & Sipman (2006, C).

Porina tasmanica P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 105 (1993) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*] McCarthy (1993, DIK; 2001a, DKM); Elix et al. (2009).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [California] Tucker & Ryan (2006, C).

Porina termitophila Aptroot & M.Cáceres, Lichenologist 45: 771 (2013)

BRAZIL [Rondônia*]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, DIK).

Porina terraereginae P. M. McCarthy, Lücking & Vĕzda, in McCarthy, Fl. Australia 58A: 228 (2001) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Sipman (1991, as Porina cupreola); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

Porina tetracerae (Ach.) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 401 (1885) var. tetracerae [Description]

Verrucaria tetracerae Ach., Methodus: 121 (1803); Pyrenula tetracerae (Ach.) Ach., Ges. Naturfor. Freunde Berliner Mag. 6: 20 (1814); Verrucaria mastoidea var. tetracerae (Ach.) Nyl., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 5: 138 (1857); Clathroporina tetracerae (Ach.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 172 (1995)

Porina mastoidea var. griseovirens Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc. Offic.: 82 (1824)

Porina melanostoma Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc., Suppl.: 75 (1837)

Porina variegata Fée, Essai Crypt. Écorc., Suppl.: 75 (1837)

Verrucaria interstes Nyl., Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, sér. 2, 2: 123 (1868); Porina interstes (Nyl.) Harm., Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy, sér. 3, 12: 126 (1911)

Verrucaria dissipans Nyl., Flora 49: 294 (1866)

Verrucaria astuta Nyl., Lich. Ins. Guineens.: 37 (1889); Porina astuta (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 366 (1922), as astula

Porina tonduziana Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 32: 167 (1893)

Porina tetracerae var. saxorum Zahlbr., Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 81: 231 (1907)

Porina isidiophora Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 203 (1915)

Porina pertusarina Zahlbr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 60: 471 (1926)

Porina africana var. basaltica Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 19 (1929)

ANGOLA: [Bengo] Vainio (1901, D).

ARGENTINA: Nylander (1888a, as Verrucaria); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland]. McCarthy (1993b, DIKM; 2001a, DIKM).

BAHAMAS: Riddle (1920, K, and as Porina variegata).

BERMUDA: Riddle (1916).

BRAZIL: [Alagoas, Amazonas, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, São Paulo] Vainio (1890); Zahlbruckner (1902, 1909); Malme (1929, DK, and as Porina africana var. basaltica); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Lombardi et al. (1999); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot (2002b, C); Cáceres (2007, K); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

CHILE: Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C).

CHINA: [Hong Kong] Aptroot & Seaward (1999, C); Aptroot & Sipman (2001).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

COCOS ISLAND: Weber (1993); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá] Sipman (1997a).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Müller (1893b, D, and as Porina tonduziana); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C, and as Porina tonduziana); Breuss (2006).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c).

CUBA: Nylander (1866, D, as Verrucaria dissipans); Müller (1885a, and as Porina variegata); Riddle (1920, K); Plunkte (1984, C, and as Porina variegata).

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw] Nylander (1858b, as Verrucaria mastoidea var. tetracerae); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DK); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GALAPAGOS ISLANDS: [Santiago] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

GUYANA: Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DK); Sipman (1997b).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Kauai, Maui] Magnusson (1956, K, as Porina isidiophora); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Orissa, Tamil Nadu] Nylander (1874, as Verrucaria interstes); Awasthi (1991, K, as Porina interstes); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Makhija et al. (1994, DIK, as Porina interstes); Singh & Sinha (1994, DIK, as Porina interstes); Upreti (1994, DIK, as Porina interstes); Pinokiyo et al. (2008, as Porina interstes).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

JAMAICA: Fée (1837, D, as Porina variegata); Müller (1888a, D); Riddle (1920, K); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

JAPAN: Harada & Sato (2008, DIK); Kashiwadani et al. (2009).

KENYA: [Coast] Lücking & Kalb (2002).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Nylander (1858c, as Verrucaria mastoidea var. tetracerae); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Ryan et al. (1996, C, as Clathroporina); Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES [Saba]: Sipman (2009, C, I).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre, Île des Pins, Lifou] Nylander (1868a, D, as Verrucaria interstes); Müller (1893c, as Porina interstes); Harmand (1911, D, as Porina interstes); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

NICARAGUA: [Granada] Nylander (1863a, as Verrucaria); Breuss (2002, C).

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: [Pagan, Saipan, Sarigan] Harada & McCarthy (1997, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

PANAMA: [Panamá, Veraguas] Etayo & Aptroot (2005); Breuss (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [East Sepik, Madang] Aptroot et al. (1997); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

PARAGUAY: [Arequá, Lambaré] Malme (1929, DK, and as Porina africana var. basaltica); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: Müller (1888c, ?); Riddle (1920, K); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

REUNION: van den Boom et al. (2011, C).

RWANDA: Sérusiaux et al. (2007).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Zahlbruckner (1907, C, as Porina tetracerae var. saxorum); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

SÃO TOMé AND PRÍNCIPE: [Príncipe] Nylander (1889, D, as Verrucaria astuta); Hue (1892, C, as Verrucaria astuta); Zahlbruckner (1922, as Porina 'astula'); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2009, C).

SIERRA LEONE*: Acharius (1803, D); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Kolombangara] McCarthy (2002).

SRI LANKA: McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Breuss & Brunnbauer (1997).

SOUTH AFRICA: [Cape, Natal] Nylander (1869a, as Verrucaria tetracerae and V. dissipans); Stizenberger (1891, as Verrucaria); Doidge (1950, C, and as Porina variegata); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DK).

TAIWAN: Zahlbruckner (1933); Wang-Yang & Lai (1973, C); Aptroot (2003).

TANZANIA: [East Usambara] Zahlbruckner (1926, D, and as Porina pertusarina); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Alstrup & Aptroot (2007).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida] McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Harris (1975, K, “aff.”; 1995, K, as Clathroporina).

URUGUAY: [Lavalleja] Osorio (1972, as Porina africana var. basaltica).

VANUATU: [Efaté, Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2000e).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Sipman (1992); Neuwirth (2007).

VIETNAM: Aptroot & Sparrius (2006, C).

VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. John, St. Thomas] Vainio (1915, D, and as Porina isidiophora); McCarthy (1993b, DIKM); Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Porina isidiophora).

Porina tetracerae var. granularis Zahlbr., in Magnusson & Zahlbruckner, Ark. Bot. 31A(1): 13 (1943)

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Kaui*, Maui] Magnusson & Zahlbruckner (1943, D); Magnusson (1956); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Porina tetracerae var. persimilis (Müll. Arg.) P. M. McCarthy, Nova Hedwigia 58: 401 (1994) [Description]

Porina persimilis Müll. Arg., Flora 70: 428 (1887)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Müller (1887b, D, as Porina persimilis); McCarthy (1994a, DI; 2001a, DKM).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2000e).

Porina tetralocularis Aptroot, in Aptroot & Sipman, Fl. Guianas, ser. 3, 2: 39 (1993)

BRAZIL [Rondônia]: Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

GUYANA*: Sipman & Aptroot (1992, ‘ined.’); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TANZANIA: Alstrup & Aptroot (2007)

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Sipman (1992, ‘ined.’); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

Porina tetramera (Malme) R. Sant., in Thorold, J. Ecol. 40: 129 (1952)

Phylloporina tetramera Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 31 (1929)

?Porina microsperma Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 333 (1883); Phylloporina microsperma (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890)

Phylloporina piperis Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 33 (1929)

?Porina minuta Bat., Bezerra & Cavalc., in Batista et al., Publ. Inst. Micol. Univ. Recife 319: 18 (1961), nom. inval.

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul*, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Müller (1883b, D, as Porina microsperma); Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK); Lombardi et al. (1999); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Chocó] Nowak & Winkler (1975).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Vĕzda (1984).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Petén] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Demerara/Mahaica, Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

JAPAN: [Honshu, Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DK).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Canterbury, Wellington] Santesson (1952, DK); Galloway (1985, DK); Vĕzda (1994b); Matzer (1996, “cf.”); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

NIGERIA: [Ondo] Thorold (1952); Santesson (1952, DK).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro, Panamá, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

PARAGUAY: [Itapúa, Paraguarí] Malme (1929, DK, as Phylloporina piperis); Santesson (1952, DK); Ferraro (1997); Lücking (2008, DIK).

TANZANIA: Vĕzda (1975); Farkas (1987).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Papong et al. (2007).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Aragua, Bolivar, Distrito Federal] Santesson (1952, DK); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Porina thaxteri R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 218 (1952) [Description]

Pseudosagedia thaxteri (R. Sant.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995); Trichothelium thaxteri (R. Sant.) R. C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 180 (1995)

ARGENTINA: [Nequén] Lücking et al. (2003b, I; 2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (2001a, DKM, “aff.”).

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco, São Paulo] Cáceres et al. (2000, C).

CHILE: [Araucanía, Los Lagos] Lücking et al. (2003b, I; 2008, DIKM).

COSTA RICA: [Guanacaste, San José] Lücking (1992, DIK; 2008, DIKM); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

GUADELOUPE: Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia).

GUATEMALA: [Izabal, Petén] Lücking (2008, DIKM).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Tamil Nadu] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Vera Cruz] Santesson (1952, DK); Ryan et al. (1996, C, as Trichothelium); Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIKM).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida*] Santesson (1952, DK); Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, as Trichothelium); Lücking (2008, DIKM).

VENEZUELA: Santesson (1952, DK).

Porina thujopsicola G. Thor, Lücking & Tat. Matsumoto, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 32(3): 53 (2000)

JAPAN: [Honshu*] Thor et al. (2000, DIK); Suto & Ohtani (2005, DIK).

Porina tigurina (Stizenb.) Lettau, Hedwigia 52: 105 (1912)

Verrucaria tigurina Stizenb., Jahresber. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1880–81: 502 (1882); Segestrella tigurina (Stizenb.) Arnold, Lich. Exsicc.: [1246] (1884)

?Porina tigurina var. flava E. Riehmer, Sitzungs. Abhandl. Naturwiss. Ges. Isis Dresden 1933–34: 61 (1935)

GERMANY: Wirth (2002, C).

SWITZERLAND*: Keissler (1938, DK); Clauzade & Roux (1985, K); Clerc & Truong (2010, C).

Porina tijucana Vain., Étude Lich. Brésil 2: 220 (1890)

BRAZIL: [Rio de Janeiro*, São Paulo] Vainio (1890, D); Kalb (1981); McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Marcelli (2002, C).

COLOMBIA: McCarthy (1993b, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

NICARAGUA: [Granada, Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Bocas del Toro] Breuss (2008).

Porina tolgensis P. M. McCarthy, Fl. Australia 58A: 228 (2001) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland*] Lumbsch & Vĕzda (1990, as Porina homala); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Kolombangara] McCarthy (2003b).

Porina trichothelioides R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 227 (1952)

Porina trichothelioides R. Sant., in Thorold, J. Ecol. 40: 129 (1952), nom. nud.

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Lücking et al. (2001, C, and “aff. trichothelioides”).

?BOLIVIA: [La Paz] Ferraro (2002).

BURUNDI: Aptroot et al. (1997).

CAMEROON: Santesson (1952, DK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Kivu] Aptroot et al. (1997).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

JAPAN: [Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DK).

KENYA*: Santesson (1952, DK); Yeshitela (2008).

NIGERIA: [Ondo] Thorold (1952); Santesson (1952, DK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Eastern Highlands, Madang] Aptroot et al. (1997).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DK); Farkas (1987).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai, Nakhon Nayok, Saraburi] Papong et al. (2007); Aptroot et al. (2007)

SOUTH AFRICA: [Transkei] Brusse (1991).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

ZIMBABWE: Sérusiaux (1983).

Note: The recent report of this otherwise exclusively Palaeotropical species from Bolivia (FERRARO 2002) must be considered doubtful.

Porina triseptata (Vĕzda) Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 378 (1998)

Trichothelium triseptatum Vĕzda, Nova Hedwigia 58: 142 (1994)

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Allen et al. (2001).

COLOMBIA: [Antioquia] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia] Lücking (1999c; 2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Haut-Zaïre*] Vĕzda (1994a, DIK); Lücking (1998, DIK; 2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo, Pichincha] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008, "cf.").

JAPAN: [Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DIK, “aff.”).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008, "cf.").

MEXICO: Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

PANAMA: [Panamá, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C, as Trichothelium); Lücking (2008, DIK); Breuss (2008).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997, as Trichothelium).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008, "cf.").

Porina truncula (Stizenb.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 409 (1922), as trunculus

Verrucaria trunculus Stizenb., Ber. Tätigk. St. Gallisch. Naturw. Ges. 1889–90: 216 (1891)

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO*: Stizenberger (1891, D, as Verrucaria).

U

Porina ulceratula Zahlbr., Ark. Hydrobiol., Suppl. 11: 734 (1934) [Description]

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] McCarthy (1995a; 2001a, DKM).

INDONESIA: [Sumatra*] Zahlbruckner (1934, D); McCarthy (1993b, DIK).

TAIWAN: Aptroot (2003).

THAILAND: [Chiang Mai] Aptroot et al. (2007)

Porina uluguruensis Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 10: 398 (1975)

SEYCHELLES: Seaward & Aptroot (2003, C; 2009, C).

TANZANIA: [Morogoro*] Vĕzda (1975, DI).

Porina umbilicata (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 275 (1927)

Phylloporina umbilicata Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 30: 92 (1891); Pseudosagedia umbilicata (Müll. Arg.) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

COLOMBIA: [Cundinamarca] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia*, San José] Müller (1891d, D, as Phylloporina); Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking (1992, DIK; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

VENEZUELA: [Mérida] Hafellner & Kalb (1995, as Pseudosagedia); Marcano et al. (1996, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

V

Porina vanuatuensis Lücking, in Lücking et al., Lichenologist 33: 206 (2001)

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, Kolombangara, San Cristobal] McCarthy (2003b).

VANUATU: [Efaté, Espíritu Santo*] Lücking et al. (2001, DI); McCarthy (2003b).

Porina verruculosa Müll. Arg., Flora 73: 197 (1890)

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro*, São Paulo] Müller (1890a, D; 1890b); Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Santesson (1952, DK); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar, Distrito Federal] Santesson (1952, DK); Neuwirth (2007).

Notes: Reports of P. verruculosa from Guyana by Aptroot & Sipman (1993a) and Sipman (1997b) were based on specimens of P. guianensis Lücking & Vĕzda (Lücking 1998a).

Porina vezdae Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 285 (1991)

BRAZIL: [Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, São Paulo] Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Cauca, Macizo] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas*, San José] Lücking (1991, DI; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Ucayali] Lücking (2008, DIK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998, “aff.”); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

Porina vicinata Zahlbr., in Handel-Mazetti, Symb. Sinicae 3: 20 (1930)

CHINA: [Sichuan*] Zahlbruckner (1930, DK).

Note: Possibly conspecific with P. leptalea.

Porina virescens (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 331 (1883) [Description]

Verrucaria virescens Kremp., Lich. Foliicol.: 21 (1874); Phylloporina virescens (Kremp.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890); Phylloporina virescens (Kremp.) Szatala, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., n.s. 7: 22 (1956), nom. superfl.

Porina flocculosa Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 363 (1921); Phylloporina flocculosa (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 137 (1931)

Phylloporina aeneofusca Zahlbr., in Handel-Mazzetti, Symb. Sinicae 3: 31 (1930)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland] Santesson (1952, DK); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Nagaland, Nicobar Is.] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K, and as Porina multiseptata); Singh & Sinha (1994, DK, as Porina multiseptata).

INDONESIA: [Java, Moluccas, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

JAPAN: [Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DK).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah, Sarawak*] Krempelhuber (1874, DI, as Verrucaria); Santesson (1952, DK); Sipman (1993); Matzer (1996); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Bougainville, Central, East Sepik, Madang, Morobe, New Ireland (?), New Britain] Müller (1883a, D, as Porina multiseptata); Santesson (1952, DK, and as Porina multiseptata); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina virescens and P. multiseptata); Streimann (1986, C, and as Porina multiseptata); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan] Vainio (1921a, D, as Porina pandanorum and P. flocculosa); Santesson (1952, DK, and as Porina multiseptata); Sérusiaux (1976, as Porina multiseptata); Gruezo (1979, C, and as Porina multiseptata); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, Kolombangara, San Cristobal] McCarthy (2003b).

SRI LANKA: Vĕzda et al. (1997); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Boonpragob et al. (1998); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

VANUATU: [Efaté, Espíritu Santo] Lücking et al. (2001); McCarthy (2003b).

VIETNAM: Zahlbruckner (1930, K, as Phylloporina aeneofusca); Santesson (1952, DK); Vĕzda (1977); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

Porina virescens f. multiseptata, Lücking, Biblioth. Lichenol. 88: 412 (2004)

Porina multiseptata Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 4: 57 (1883); Phylloporina multiseptata (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiphylli Novi: 21 (1890); Phylloporina multiseptata (Müll. Arg.) Szatala, Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungar., n.s. 7: 22 (1956), nom. superfl.

Porina pandanorum Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 360 (1921)

INDIA: [Andaman Is., Nagaland, Nicobar Is.] Singh (1970, DI); Awasthi (1991, K); Singh & Sinha (1994, DK).

INDONESIA: [Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA*: [Bougainville, Central, East Sepik, Madang, Morobe, New Ireland (?), New Britain] Müller (1883a, D, as Porina multiseptata); Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina multiseptata); Szatala (1956, K, as Phylloporina multiseptata); Streimann (1986, C, as Porina multiseptata); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK); Lücking et al. (2001).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan] Santesson (1952, DK, as Porina multiseptata); Sérusiaux (1976, as Porina multiseptata); Gruezo (1979, C, as Porina multiseptata); Lücking & Vĕzda (1998, DIK).

Porina viridinigricans Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 355 (1921)

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [New Britain] Streimann & Sipman (1994).

PHILIPPINES: [Panay*] Vainio (1921a, D); Gruezo (1979, C).

W

Porina weberi P. M. McCarthy, Biblioth. Lichenol. 52: 116 (1993)

CHILE: [Santiago*, Valparaíso] McCarthy (1993b, DIK); Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C).

Porina whinrayi P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 22: 195 (1990) [Description]

Pseudosagedia whinrayi (P. M. McCarthy) Hafellner & Kalb, Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 173 (1995)

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*] McCarthy (1991, DI; 2001a, DIKM).

Porina wolseleyae P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 31: 244 (1999) [Description]

THAILAND: [Nakhon Nayok*] McCarthy (1999a, DI); Wolseley et al. (2002, C).

X

Y

Porina yambaruensis H. Harada, in Harada & Sato, Lichenology 7: 141 (2008)

JAPAN*: Harada & Sato (2008, DIK).

Z

Porina zanthozyli Müll. Arg., Revue Mycol. 10: 182 (1888)

PARAGUAY: [Paraguarí*] Müller (1888b, D).

TRICHOTHELIUM

Trichothelium Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 418 (1885)

Stereochlamys Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 344 (1885)

Actiniopsis Starbäck, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 25(3): 54 (1899)

Ophiodictyon Sacc. & Syd., in Saccardo, Syll. Fung. 16: 555 (1902)

Asteropeltis P. Henn., Hedwigia 43: 380 (1904)

Trichotheliomyces Cif. & Tomas., Atti Ist. Bot. Univ. Lab. Crittog. Pavia, ser. 5, 10: 34, 61 (1953)

Trichothelium ake-assii U. Becker & Lücking, Flechten Follmann: 170 (1995)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Ferraro & Lücking (2000).

AUSTRALIA: [Queensland] Santesson & Tibell (1988, as Trichothelium epiphyllum); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM).

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso] Lücking & Kalb (2000, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago] Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST*: Becker & Lücking (1995, DI); Lücking et al. (1998a; 2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Eastern Highlands] Lücking et al. (2001).

TANZANIA: Lücking (2008, DIK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasimai] Papong et al. (2007).

Trichothelium africanum Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 346 (2008)

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

COLOMBIA: [Chocó] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia] Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Haut-Zaïre] Santesson (1952, DIK, as T. alboatrum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a, as T. alboatrum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995, as T. alboatrum); Lücking et al. (1998a, as T. alboatrum; 2008, DIK).

KENYA: [South-Western] Santesson (1952, DIK, as T. alboatrum); Lücking & Kalb (2002, as T. alboatrum); Lücking (2008, DIK); Yeshitela (2008).

NIGERIA: [Ondo*] Thorold (1952, as T. alboatrum); Santesson (1952, DIK, as T. alboatrum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PARAGUAY: Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco] Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Mérida] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium alboatrum Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 321 (1921)

?Trichothelium bussei F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 279 (1927)

Phylloporina asplenii Zahlbr., Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 104: 9 (1941); Trichothelium asplenii (Zahlbr.) R. Sant., in Thorold, J. Ecol. 40: 129 (1952)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Lücking (2008, DIK).

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria] Santesson (1952, DIK); Santesson & Tibell (1988); Kantvilas et al. (1994); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy (2001a, DKM); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Paraná] Lücking & Kalb (2000, C).

CAMEROON: Schilling (1927, D, as Trichothelium bussei); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Aptroot et al. (2003).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Puntarenas] Matzer (1996); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2008: DIK).

FRENCH POLYNESIA: [Society Is. (Moorea)] Elix & McCarthy (1998, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GHANA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUYANA: Lücking (1998a).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: [Oahu] Smith et al. (1997); Elix & McCarthy (1998b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Kerala, Tamil Nadu] Singh (1971); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Java, Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK); Sérusiaux (1976).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking et al. (1998a).

MALAYSIA: [Sabah] Sipman (1993).

MEXICO: Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Wellington] Zahlbruckner (1941, D, as Phylloporina asplenii); Santesson (1952, DIK); Galloway (1985, D); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); Lücking (1998b, DIK); Galloway (2007, DK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

NIGERIA: [Ondo, Oyo] Thorold (1952); Santesson (1952, DIK).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Central, East Sepik, Madang, Morobe, Sepik River] Santesson (1952, DIK); Szatala (1956, K); Streimann (1986, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Vainio (1921a, D); Santesson (1952, DIK); Gruezo (1979, C); Lücking (1998b, DIKM; 2008, DIK).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DIK); Farkas (1987).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasimai] Papong et al. (2007).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] Lücking et al. (2001).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977).

SAMOA: [Upolu] Santesson (1952, DIK); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

Note: There is uncertainty regarding the correct placement (in T. africanum or T. alboatrum) of Neotropical and African records not reassessed by Lücking (2008).

Trichothelium album Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 287 (1991)

COLOMBIA: [Antioquia] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Limón*, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1991, DI; 1992, DIK; 1998b, DIK; 1999a; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

Trichothelium angustisporum Cáceres & Lücking, in Lücking & Cáceres, Mycol. Res. 108: 571 (2004)

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco*] Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK); Cáceres (2007, K).

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Florida, Louisiana] Harris (1975, K; 1995, K, both as T. horridulum); Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

GUYANA: Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

Note: Reports of T. horridulum Müll. Arg. from the U.S.A. (Florida and Louisiana) by HARRIS (1975, 1995) are referable to this species (Lücking & Cáceres 2004).

Trichothelium annulatum (Karst.) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 222 (1952)

Lasiosphaeria annulata Karst., Hedwigia 28: 193 (1889)

?Actiniopsis mirabilis Rehm, Hedwigia 44: 3 (1904); Trichothelium mirabilis (Rehm) Höhnel, Sitzungsber. Math.-Nat. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien 123: 112 (1914)

?Actiniopsis atroviolacea P. Henn., Hedwigia 47: 269 (1908); Trichothelium atroviolaceum (P. Henn.) Höhnel, Sitzungsber. Math.-Nat. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 120: 413 (1911)

Trichothelium philippinarum Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 320 (1921)

BOLIVIA: [Beni, Cochabamba] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais*, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Schilling (1927, D, as Trichothelium atroviolaceum); Santesson (1952, DIK); Bezerra et al. (1970, DIK); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C).

CHINA: [Yunnan] Wei & Jiang (1991, DI).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó] Nowak & Winkler (1975); Sipman (1990); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba] Santesson (1952, DIK); Vĕzda (1984); Plunkte (1984, C).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Bas-Zaïre] Santesson (1952, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Los Ríos, Napo, Pichincha] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (1999b; 2000c; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Cayenne, Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Santesson (1952, DIK); Vězda & Vivant (1992).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz] Barillas & Lücking (1992); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Takutu] Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

HONDURAS: [Atlantída] Santesson (1952, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Singh (1971); Awasthi (1991, K).

INDONESIA: [Sumatra] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

MEXICO: Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Aptroot & Sipman (1993b); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Huánaco, Loreto] Schilling (1927, D, as Trichothelium atroviolaceum); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon, Mindanao] Vainio (1921a, D, as Trichothelium philippinarum); Santesson (1952, DIK); Sérusiaux (1976); Gruezo (1979, C); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK).

TANZANIA: Santesson (1952, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Bolívar] Sipman (1992); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium argenteum Lücking & L. I. Ferraro, Lichenologist 29: 217 (1997)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Lücking & Ferraro (1997, DI); Ferraro (1997); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C).

BRAZIL: [Acre, Mato Grosso, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Lücking & Ferraro (1997, DI); Lücking et al. (1998b); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Limón*] Lücking & Ferraro (1997, DI); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking & Ferraro (1997, DI); Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

PARAGUAY: [Paraguarí] Lücking & Ferraro (1997, DI); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Distrito Federal] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium asplundii R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 277 (1952)

COSTA RICA: [Cartago] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

ECUADOR: [Pichincha*] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK).

Trichothelium assurgens (Cooke) Aptroot & Lücking, Mycol. Res. 103: 511 (2001)

Sphaerella assurgens Cooke, Grevillea 15: 16 (1886), as asurgens

Trichothelium marianense Harada, Bryologist 97: 272 (1994)

Trichothelium nanum Malcolm & Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 30: 95 (1995)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria] Sipman (1991, as Trichothelium alboatrum); Lücking et al. (2001, C, as Trichothelium nanum); McCarthy et al. (2001, CK, as Trichothelium nanum); McCarthy (2001a, DIKM, as Trichothelium nanum; unpublished data); Lücking (2008).

COOK ISLANDS: [Rarotonga] McCarthy (2000c, as Trichothelium marianense).

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: Lücking et al. (2001, as Trichothelium nanum).

JAPAN: [Kyushu, Okinawa] Thor et al. (2000, DK, as Trichothelium marianense).

NEW CALEDONIA: [Grande Terre] Lücking & Kalb (2001, C, as Trichothelium nanum).

NEW ZEALAND*: [Nelson] Cooke (1886, D, as Sphaerellaasurgens”); Malcolm & Vĕzda (1995, DIK, as Trichothelium nanum); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C, as Trichothelium nanum); Aptroot & Lücking (2001); Malcolm & Malcolm (2002, I); Galloway (2007, DK).

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS: Harada (1994b, DI, as Trichothelium marianense); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C, as Trichothelium marianense).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [San Cristobal] McCarthy (2003b).

Trichothelium bipindense F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 278 (1927)

Trichothelium amazonense J. L. Bezerra & Cavalc., in Bezerra et al., Brotéria 39: 222 (1970)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Ferraro & Lücking (2000).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pará, Paraiba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Bezerra et al. (1970, DIK, as Trichothelium amazonense); Lücking et al. (1998b, as Trichothelium amazonense); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

CAMEROON*: Schilling (1927, D); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK).

CHILE: [Araucanía] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Cundinamarca] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Breuss (2000); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Guantánamo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Sanda] Lücking (2008, DIK).

DOMINICA: Lücking (2008, DIK).

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: [Elias Piña, Santiago Rodríguez] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUYANA: [Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz, Izabal] Barillas & Lücking (1992, as Trichothelium amazonense); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Takutu] Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking et al. (1998a).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C, as Trichothelium amazonense).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Huánaco, Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: Lücking (2008, DIK).

SURINAM: Lücking (2008, DIK).

THAILAND: [Prachin Buri] Papong et al. (2007).

VENEZUELA: [Arague, Bolivar, Distrito Federal, Maracay, Mérida] Marcano et al. (1996, C); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium brasiliense J. L. Bezerra & L. Xavier, in Bezerra et al., Brotéria 39: 227 (1970)

COSTA RICA: [Cartago] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*] Bezerra et al. (1970, DIK); Lücking et al. (1998b); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium caudatum Lücking & Cáceres, Mycol. Res. 108: 572 (2004)

PERU: [Cuzco*] Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

Trichothelium chlorinum R.Schubert & Lücking, in Schubert et al., Lichenologist 33: 463 (2003)

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas*] Schubert et al. (2003, DI); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium confusum Lücking, Cryptogamie, Mycologie 27: 132 (2006)

FRENCH GUIANA: [Sinnamary*] Lücking (2006, DI; 2008, DK).

Trichothelium croceum Sérus., in Aptroot et al., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 205 (1997)

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang*] Aptroot et al. (1997, DI).

Trichothelium daryi Barillas & Lücking, Cryptogamie, Bryol., Lichénol. 13: 304 (1992)

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Limón, San José] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz*] Barillas & Lücking (1992, DI); Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PANAMA: [Chiriquí] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium echinocarpum Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 388 (1998)

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Limón, San José*] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999a; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

Trichothelium epiphyllum Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 6: 418 (1885)

Trichotheliomyces epiphyllum (Müll. Arg.) Cif. & Tomas., Atti Ist. Bot. Univ. Lab. Crittog. Pavia, ser. 5, 10: 61 (1953)

Echnosphaeria spinulosa Speg., Bol. Acad. Cien. Cordoba 11: 520 (1899); Trichothelium spinulosum (Speg.) Höhnel, Sitzungsber. Math.-Nat. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien 123: 112 (1914)

Actiniopsis bambusae Starbäck, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 25(3): 54 (1899)

ARGENTINA: [Corrientes, Misiones] Ferraro (1997); Calvelo & Liberatore (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BOLIVIA: [Beni] Flakus & Lücking (2008).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Macapá, Mato Grosso, Pará, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Müller (1892d); Starbäck (1899, D, as Actiniopsis bambusae); Zahlbruckner (1909); Santesson (1952, DIK); Bezerra et al. (1970, DIK); Hafellner & Kalb (1995); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot (2002b); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM: Aptroot et al. (2003).

CHILE: [Los Lagos] Santesson (1952, DIK); Galloway & Quilhot (1999, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Amazonas, Caquetá, Chocó, Huila, Meta] Nowak & Winkler (1975); Sipman (1990); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Müller (1891d); Matzer (1996); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Breuss (2000); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Santiago de Cuba*] Müller (1885a, D); Santesson (1952, DIK); Vĕzda (1984); Plunkte (1984, C); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Los Ríos, Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Izabal, Petén] Sérusiaux (1976); Barillas & Lücking (1992, and as Trichothelium sp. B); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Takutu] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a).

HONDURAS: [Atlantída, San Alejo] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

INDIA: [Andaman Is.] Singh (1971); Awasthi (1991, K).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

MEXICO: [Puebla, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

NIGERIA: [Rivers] Santesson (1952, DIK).

PANAMA: [Colón, Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Central, Madang, Morobe] Santesson (1952, DIK); Szatala (1956, K); Streimann (1986, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PARAGUAY: [Asunción, Paraguarí] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Huánaco, Junín, Loreto, San Martín] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon] Santesson (1952, DIK); Gruezo (1979, C).

SOLOMON ISLANDS: [Guadalcanal, Kolombangara] McCarthy (2003b).

SURINAM: [Sipaliwini] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

TANZANIA: Vĕzda (1975).

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Aragua, Bolivar, Distrito Federal] Marcano et al. (1996, C); Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

VIETNAM: Vĕzda (1977).

Note: According to Lücking (2008), the report from Louisiana, U.S.A. (Tucker & Harris, 1980) was probably based on a non-lichenised fungus.

Trichothelium horridulum (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 222 (1952)

Stereochlamys horridula Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 344 (1885)

Actiniopsis plumbea Starbäck, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 25(3): 54 (1899); Ophiodictyon plumbeum (Starbäck) Sacc. & Syd., in Saccardo, Syll. Fung. 16: 555 (1902)

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, São Paulo*] Müller (1885b, D, as Stereochlamys); Santesson (1952, DIK); Kalb (1981); Marcelli (2002, C); Aptroot (2002b); Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK); Cáceres (2007, IK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013, K).

COSTA RICA: [San José]; Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

GUYANA: Sipman & Aptroot (1992); Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK); Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

PARAGUAY: [Paraguarí] Lücking et al. (2003a, DIK); Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

URUGUAY: [Maldonado] Lücking et al. (2003a, DIK); Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

Trichothelium intermedium Lücking, in Herrera-Campos et al., Phyton 44: 178 (2004)

MEXICO: [Veracruz*] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004a, DI); Lücking (2008, DK).

Trichothelium javanicum (F. Schill.) Vĕzda, Nova Hedwigia 58: 139 (1994)

Trichothelium alboatrum var. javanicum F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 279 (1927)

AUSTRALIA: [New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria] Santesson & Tibell (1988, as Trichothelium minus); Lücking et al. (2001, C); McCarthy et al. (2001, CK); McCarthy (2001a, DKM); Lücking (2008).

CHILE: [Los Lagos*] Lücking et al. (2003b, I).

CHRISTMAS ISLAND: McCarthy (2001b).

INDONESIA: [Java*] Schilling (1927, D, as Trichothelium alboatrum var. javanicum); Vĕzda (1994a, DI).

LORD HOWE ISLAND: McCarthy (1996a); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

NEW ZEALAND: [Otago] McCarthy & Johnson (1995, D); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C); McCarthy (1999b); Malcolm & Malcolm (2002, I); Galloway (2007, DK).

THAILAND: [Nakhon Ratchasima] Papong et al. (2007).

VANUATU: [Espíritu Santo] McCarthy (2003b).

Trichothelium juruense (P. Henn.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 280 (1927)

Actiniopsis juruensis P. Henn., Hedwigia 44: 66 (1905)

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*, Pará] Hennings (1905 (not seen), D, as Actiniopsis); Schilling (1927, D); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni, Upper Takutu] Sipman (1997b); Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007).

Trichothelium kalbii Lücking, in Lücking & Cáceres, Mycol. Res. 108: 573 (2004)

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Azuay*] Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

MEXICO: Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C).

PAPUA NEW GUINEA: [Madang] Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

Trichothelium longisetum P. M. McCarthy & Palice, Lichenologist 35: 238 (2003) [Description]

ECUADOR: [Napo*] McCarthy & Palice (2003, DI); Lücking & Cáceres (2004, DIK).

Trichothelium longisporum Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 289 (1991)

COLOMBIA: [Chocó] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007, C).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas*, San José] Lücking (1991, DIK; 1998b, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Note: Reports from French Guiana and Surinam by Aptroot & Sipman (1993a) were misidentifications of T. pallidesetum (Lücking 2008).

Trichothelium meridionale P. M. McCarthy & Kantvilas, Australas. Lichenol. 47: 5 (2000) subsp. meridionale

AUSTRALIA: [Tasmania*] McCarthy & Kantvilas (2000b, DI); McCarthy et al. (2001, CK); McCarthy (2001a, DKM).

Trichothelium meridionale subsp. austroamericanum Lücking, in Lücking et al., Glob. Ecol. & Biogeogr. 12: 32 (2003)

CHILE: [Araucanía*] Lücking et al. (2003b, D).

Trichothelium minus Vain., J. Bot. 34: 296 (1896)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Ferraro & Lücking (2000); Lücking (2008, DIK).

BELIZE: Sérusiaux (1976).

BRAZIL: [Mato Grosso, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Santesson (1952, DIK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Ferraro & Lücking (2000); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C); Marcelli (2002, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COCOS ISLAND: Lücking & Lücking (1995, C); Elix & McCarthy (1998, C).

COLOMBIA: [Meta] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

ECUADOR: [Los Rios, Napo] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUADELOUPE: Vězda & Vivant (1992).

HONDURAS: [Atlantída] Santesson (1952, DIK).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca, Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

PANAMA: [Barro Colorado I., Veraguas] Santesson (1952, DIK); Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES*: Vainio (1896, D); Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: [Trinidad] Santesson (1952, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium minutum (Lücking) Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 397 (1998)

Trichothelium epiphyllum var. minutum Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 52: 289 (1991)

ARGENTINA: [Misiones] Ferraro & Lücking (2000).

BRAZIL: [Amazonas, Pernambuco, Rondonia] Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COLOMBIA: [Caquetá] Sipman (1997a, as Trichothelium epiphyllum var. minutum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón*, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1991, K, as Trichothelium epiphyllum var. minutum; 1998b, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DIK, as Trichothelium epiphyllum var. minutum); Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

PANAMA: [Panamá] Breuss (2008).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007).

VIETNAM: Nguyen et al. (2010, DI).

Trichothelium mirum Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 397 (1998)

BRAZIL: [Pará] Lücking & Kalb (2000, C).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas*] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium montanum Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 366 (2008) f. montanum

Trichothelium montanum Lücking, in Lücking & Kalb, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122: 15 (2000), nom.nud.

BRAZIL: [Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco, São Paulo] Cáceres et al. (2000); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

CHILE: [Los Lagos] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Cauca] Aguirre-C. & Rangel-Ch. (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Puntarenas, San José*] Lücking (1992, IK, “ad interim”; 1998, DIK, T. epiphyllummontanum form”; 2008, DIK); Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

ECUADOR: [Pichincha] Lücking (1999, as T. epiphyllummontanum” form sensu Lücking (1998); 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Baja Verapaz] Barillas & Lücking (1992, as Trichothelium sp. B); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Oaxaca] Herrera-Campos (2004b); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PUERTO RICO: [Rio Grande] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Distrito Federal. Mérida] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium montanum Lücking f. latisporum Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 367 (2008)

Trichothelium montanum f. latisporum Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 392 (1998), nom.nud.

BRAZIL: [São Paulo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COLOMBIA: [Antioquia] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Puntarenas*, San José*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Distrito Federal. Mérida] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium oceanicum P. M. McCarthy, Lichenologist 33: 395 (2001)

CHRISTMAS ISLAND*: McCarthy (2001b, DI).

Trichothelium pallescens (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 278 (1927)

Trichothelium epiphyllum var. pallescens Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 344 (1885)

BRAZIL: [Bahia*, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia] Müller (1885b, D, as Trichothelium epiphyllum var. pallescens); Schilling (1927, D); Lücking (1998b, DIK; 2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COLOMBIA: [Nariño] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006); Breuss & Neuwirth (2007).

CUBA: [Guantánamo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium pallidesetum Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 401 (1998)

COSTA RICA: [Cartago, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas*, San José] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999a; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUYANA: [Maripasoula] Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DK, as T. longisporum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

MEXICO: [Veracruz] Herrera-Campos et al. (2004b, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

SURINAM: Aptroot & Sipman (1993a, DK, as T. longisporum); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium pallidum Lücking, Cryptogamie, Mycologie 27: 133 (2006)

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw*] Lücking (2006, DI; 2008, DIK).

Trichothelium pauciseptatum Vĕzda, Nova Hedwigia 58: 140 (1994)

CHILE: [Bio-Bio] Lücking (2008, DIK).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Haut-Zaïre*] Vĕzda (1994a, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ETHIOPIA: Yeshitela (2008).

IVORY COAST: Becker & Lücking (1995); Lücking et al. (1998a).

KENYA: Yeshitela (2008).

UGANDA: Yeshitela (2008).

Trichothelium poeltii Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 403 (1998)

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela*, San José] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999a; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

Trichothelium porinoides Vĕzda, Nova Hedwigia 58: 141 (1994)

BRAZIL: [Pernambuco] Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia] Lücking (1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: [Haut-Zaïre*] Vĕzda (1994a, DIK); Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

Trichothelium robinsonii Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 15(6): 322 (1921)

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas] Lücking (1998b, DIK).

PHILIPPINES*: Vainio (1921a, D).

Trichothelium sipmanii Lücking, Nova Hedwigia 66: 404 (1998) f. sipmanii

BOLIVIA: [Beni, Santa Cruz] Lücking (2008, DIK); Lücking & Flakus (2008).

BRAZIL: [Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Pernambuco, Rondônia] Lücking et al. (1998b); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000, C); Lücking (2008, DIK); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COLOMBIA: [Caquetá] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia, Limón*, Puntarenas] Lücking (1998b, DIK; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C); Breuss (2006).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (1999b; 2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUATEMALA: [Petén] Lücking (2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (1998a; 2008, DIK).

IVORY COAST: Lücking et al. (1998a).

NICARAGUA: [Río San Juan] Breuss (2002, C).

VENEZUELA: [Amazonas, Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007); Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium sipmanii Lücking f. multiseptatum Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 353 (2008)

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas] Lücking (2008, DIK).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUYANA: [Sinnamary] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PANAMA: [Veraguas] Piepenbring (2006, C); Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Loreto] Lücking (2008, DIK).

SURINAM: Lücking (2008, DIK).

Trichothelium subargenteum Flakus & Lücking, Lichenologist 40: 430 (2008)

BOLIVIA: [Beni*] Flakus & Lücking (2008, DI).

Trichothelium ulei (P. Henn.) Höhnel, Sitzungsber. Math.-Nat. Kl. Akad. Wiss. Wien 123: 112 (1914)

Asteropeltis ulei P. Henn., Hedwigia 43: 380 (1904); Actiniopsis ulei (P. Henn.) P. Henn., Hedwigia 44: 66(1905); Trichothelium ulei F. Schill., Hedwigia 67: 280 (1927), nom. illeg.

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*, Pará, Pernambuco, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, São Paulo] Lücking (1998b, DIK, as “ulei” form of T. epiphyllum; 2008, DIK); Cáceres et al. (2000, C); Lücking & Kalb (2000); Aptroot & Cáceres (2013).

COLOMBIA: [Caquetá] Lücking (2008, DIK).

COSTA RICA: [Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José] Lücking (1998b, DIK, as “ulei” form of T. epiphyllum; 1999c; 2008, DIK); Umaña Tenorio et al. (2002, C).

ECUADOR: [Napo] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Approuague-Kaw, Cayenne, Maripasoula, Sinnamary] Lücking (2006; 2008, DIK).

GUYANA: [Potaro/Siparuni] Lücking (2008, DIK).

PERU: [Cuzco, Loreto, San Martín] Lücking (2008, DIK).

VENEZUELA: [Bolivar] Neuwirth (2007).

Trichothelium wirthii Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 363 (2008)

COSTA RICA: [Puntarenas*] Lücking (2008, DIK).

FRENCH GUIANA: [Maripasoula] Lücking (2008, DIK).

DOUBTFUL NAMES

Porina cannareana Bat. & J. Lima, in Bezerra et al., Atlas Inst. Micol. Univ. Fed. Pernambuco 5: 410 (1967), nom. inval.

BRAZIL: Bezerra et al. (1967); Lücking et al. (1998b).

Note: “Without a designated type, it is impossible to give a statement on this invalidly published species.” (Lücking et al. 1998b).

Porina consanguinea Müll. Arg., Revue Mycol. 10: 182 (1888)

PARAGUAY: [Guarapí*] Müller (1888b, D).

VIETNAM: Müller (1891c).

Note: Müller (1888b) reported 1-septate ascospores of 8–10 × 2.5–3 µm, and noted that the corticolous P. consanguinea was similar to P. mundula (= Strigula phaea). This lichen is almost certainly a species of Strigula.

Porina crequisina Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., ser. A, 6(7): 205 (1915)

VIRGIN ISLANDS: [St. Croix*] Vainio (1915, D).

Note: Vainio (1915) reported 1-septate ascospores of 9–10 × 3 µm in this saxicolous species. He also noted similarities with the corticolous Porina phaea (= Strigula phaea) and the saxicolous P. bermudana (= S. bermudana). This taxon almost certainly belongs in Strigula.

Porina cupreola var. ciliata Bat. & Taltasse, in Batista et al., Atas Inst. Micol. Univ. Fed. Pernambuco 5: 434 (1967), nom. inval.

BRAZIL: Batista et al. (1967); Lücking et al. (1998b).

Note: “Three species of Porina are present in the designated type collection: P. epiphylla (Fée) Müll. Arg., P. rubentior (Stirt.) Müll. Arg. and P. rufula (Krempelh.) Vain.” (Lücking et al. 1998b).

Porina futurae (Kremp.) Overeem, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 4: 113 (1922), as “fiuturae

Verrucaria futurae Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7: 54 (1875)

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak*] Krempelhuber (1875, D, as Verrucaria).

Note: Ascospores were not seen by KREMPELHUBER (1875).

Porina mendax Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 337 (1883)

BRAZIL: [Rio de Janeiro] Müller (1883b, D); Marcelli (2002, C).

Note: Müller (1883b) reported black perithecia 1.2–1.5 mm diam., uniseriate 13–15 × 5 µm ascospores that are finally 4-locular and he noted its resemblence to Pyrenula marginata.

Porina minuta Bat., Peres & H. Maia, in Batista et al., Publ. Inst. Micol. Univ. Recife 319: 18 (1961), nom. inval.

BRAZIL: Batista et al. (1961); Lücking et al. (1998b).

Note: “A revision of the P. tetramera aggregate is necessary to clarify the taxonomic position of this taxon; if it is confirmed as a separate species, the name P. minuta could be validated.” (Lücking et al. 1998b).

Porina personata (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 400 (1922)

Verrucaria personata Kremp., Flora 38: 69 (1855); Sagedia personata (Kremp.) Kremp., Denkschr. K. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 4(2): 250 (1861)

GERMANY: Keissler (1938, DK); Wirth (2002, C).

Note: With its hamathecium of simple paraphyses and 1-septate ascospores (KEISSLER 1938; CLAUZADE & ROUX 1985), this is likely to belong in Strigula.

Porina pertensa (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 322 (1883)

Verrucaria pertensa Stirt., Proc. Roy. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 11: 107 (1878); Phylloporina pertensa (Stirt.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 532 (1922)

BRAZIL: [Amazonas*] Stirton (1878, D, as Verrucaria); Müller (1883); Santesson (1952).

Note: According to Santesson (1952), the type of this foliicolous taxon was “not to be found”, and it “might be a Strigula sp. (Str. subtilissima?)”.

Porina pusilla (Mont.) Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 335 (1885)

Verrucaria pusilla Mont., in Sagra, Hist. Île Cuba, Bot.: 160 (1838–42)

CUBA: Müller (1885b); Plunkte (1984, C).

Note: This species has 3-septate ascospores 9–10 × 2.5 µm. Müller (1885b) noted its similarity to P. mundula (= Strigula phaea).

Porina retifera (Stirt.) Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2, App. 1: 91 (1894)

Verrucaria retifera Stirt., Proc. Philos. Soc. Glasgow 10: 303 (1877); Segestria retifera (Stirt.) Hellb.,Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

NEW ZEALAND*: Stirton (1877b, D as Verrucaria); Müller (1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria).

Note: This corticolous species was stated by STIRTON (1877b) to have branching and anastomosing paraphyses and 1-septate ascospores of 16–25 × 6.0–6.5 µm. Thus, it is likely to belong in Arthopyrenia (Arthopyreniaceae) or Anisomeridium (Monoblastiaceae).

Porina spectabilis (Kremp.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 1: 404 (1922)

Verrucaria spectabilis Kremp., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 7: 50 (1875)

MALAYSIA: [Sarawak*] Krempelhuber (1875, D, as Verrucaria).

Note: With its large, black, fused perithecia (KREMPELHUBER 1875), this is likely to belong in Pyrenulaceae.

Porina spilophaena Kremp., Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 26: 460 (1876)

Segestria spilophaena (Kremp.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

NEW ZEALAND: [?Wellington*] Krempelhuber (1876b, D); Müller (1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria); Galloway (1985, DK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C).

Note: GALLOWAY (1985) reported 2–4-spored asci, a most unlikely character state for a species of Porinaceae.

Porina submundula Malme, Ark. Bot. 23A(1): 27 (1929)

BRAZIL: [São Paulo*] Malme (1929, DK); Marcelli (2002, C).

Note: The uniseriate, 1-septate ascospores of 8–9 × 2.5–3 µm reported by Malme (1929) suggest a species of Strigula.

Porina subtilior Müll. Arg., Flora 68: 515 (1885)

Phylloporina subtilior (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 140 (1931)

PHILIPPINES: [Luzon*] Müller (1885, D); Vainio (1923b, D); Santesson (1952); Gruezo (1979, C).

Note: Designated a nomen dubium by Santesson (1952), “The type material does not admit of a definite identification of the species. There is some possibility that it belongs to the same species as P. perminuta or P. umbilicata”.

Porina triblasta Müll. Arg., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 31: 38 (1892)

Segestria triblasta (Müll. Arg.) Hellb., Bih. Kongl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 21(13): 132 (1896)

NEW ZEALAND: [?Wellington*] Müller (1892a, D; 1894b); Hellbom (1896, C, as Segestria); Galloway (1985, DK); Malcolm & Galloway (1997, C).

Note: Uniseriate, 2-septate ascospores, reported by GALLOWAY (1985), indicate a family other than Porinaceae.

Porina trigastrica Müll. Arg., Flora 55: 400 (1882)

INDONESIA: [Java*] Müller (1882a, D).

Note: Müller (1882a) reported ascomata fused in threes or fours in thalline verrucae and 5–8-septate ascospores measuring 65–85 × 13–14 µm. While the systematic position of this lichen is uncertain, its retention in Porina is almost certainly inappropriate.

Excluded Names

Clathroporina amygdalina sensu Fink [= Julella sublactea (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Arthopyreniaceae; Harris 1995)]

Clathroporina ‘(?)’ anoptella (Stirt.) Zahlbr. [= Laurera meristospora (Mont. & Bosch) Zahlbr. (Trypetheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina calcarea W. Watson [= Belonia nidarosiensis (Kindt.) P. M. Jørg. & Vĕzda (Gyalectales; Jørgensen et al. 1983)]

Clathroporina caudata Vĕzda & Vivant [= Belonia caudata (Vĕzda & Vivant) P. M. Jørg. & Vĕzda (Gyalectales; Jørgensen et al. 1983)]

Clathroporina cinereonigricans (Vain.) Zahlbr. [= Polymeridium cinereonigricans (Vain.) R. C. Harris (Trypetheliaceae; Harris 1993)]

Clathroporina cuyabensis (Malme) R. Sant. [= Aspidothelium cuyabense (Malme) P. M. McCarthy (Aspidotheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina diphloea Zahlbr. [= Laurera megasperma (Mont.) Riddle (Trypetheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina elliottii (Vain.) Zahlbr. [= Thelenella elliotii Vain. (Thelenellaceae; Mayrhofer 1987)]

Clathroporina exiguella Zahlbr. [= Julella sublactea (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Arthopyreniaceae; Harris 1995)]

Clathroporina fulva (Vain.) Zahlbr. [= Laurera sp. (Trypetheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina heterospora Zahlbr. [= Topelia heterospora (Zahlbr.) P. M. Jørg. & Vĕzda (Jørgensen & Vĕzda 1984)]

Clathroporina haultainii (C. Knight) Müll. Arg. [= non-lichenized fungus (McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina interrupta (Vain.) Zahlbr. [= Laurera sp. (Trypetheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina irregularis Müll. Arg. [= Cryptothelium sp. (?) (Trypetheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina japonica Zahlbr. [= non-lichenized fungus (?); McCarthy 1995b]

Clathroporina larbalestieri (A. L. Sm.) A. L. Sm. [= Chromatochlamys larbalestieri (A. L. Sm.) H.Mayrhofer & Poelt (Thelenellaceae; Mayrhofer & Poelt 1985)]

Clathroporina leioplaca Müll. Arg. [= Cryptothelium sp. (?) (Trypetheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina ‘(?)’ locuples (Stizenb.) Zahlbr. [= Julella sp. (?) (Arthopyreniaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina megapotamica (Malme) Zahlbr. [= Phyllobathelium megapotamicum (Malme) R. Sant. (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Clathroporina nitidula (Malme) Zahlbr. [= Thelenella brasiliensis (Müll. Arg.) Vain. (Thelenellaceae; Mayrhofer 1987)]

Clathroporina straminea (Malme) Zahlbr. [= Laurera straminea (Malme) P. M. McCarthy (Trypetheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b) ]

Clathroporina translucens Müll. Arg. [= Thelenella brasiliensis (Müll. Arg.) Vain. (Thelenellaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Clathroporina wainiana Zahlbr. [= Laurera sp. (Trypetheliaceae; McCarthy 1995b)]

Porina acharii (Fée) Fée [= Pertusaria acharii (Fée) Nyl. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina acrocordioides (Zahlbr.) Zahlbr. [= Lithothelium triseptatum (Nyl.) Aptroot (Pyrenulaceae; Aptroot 1991)]

Porina affinis (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Tucker & Harris 1980)]

Porina affinis f. fusca (de Lesd.) Keissl. [= Strigula affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (?) (Strigulaceae)]

Porina aggregata Ach. [= Enterographa crassa (DC.) Fée (Opegraphaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina albicascens (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. [= Strigula albicascens (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina albinula Müll. Arg. [= Strigula subsimplicans (Nyl.) Hafellner & Kalb (Strigulaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina augustana (Britzelm.) Lettau [= non-lichenized fungus (Keissler 1938)]

Porina basilica (Kremp.) Zahlbr. [= Trypethelium basilicum (Kremp.) R. C. Harris (Trypetheliaceae; Harris 1998)]

Porina beloniella (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= non-lichenized fungus (Santesson 1993)]

Porina bermudana (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula bermudana (Tuck. ex Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1975)]

Porina bivinacea (Norman) Zahlbr. [= Massaria corticola (Fückel) L. Holm (non-lichenized fungus; Santesson (1993)]

Porina bonplandii Müll. Arg. [= Mycoporum lacteum (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Mycoporaceae; Index Fungorum: http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp; accessed 4 June 2008)]

Porina calciseda (Bagl. & Carestia) Lettau [= Thelidium sp. (?) (Verrucariaceae)]

Porina callopisma (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina carpinea f. fraxinea (Wallr.) Zahlbr. [= Arthopyrenia sp. (Arthopyreniaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina carpinea f. fusca de Lesd. [= Strigula affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (?) (Strigulaceae)]

Porina cembricola (Anzi) Lettau [= Arthopyrenia sp. (Arthopyreniaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina ceuthocarpa (Sm.) Turner  [= Pertusaria ceuthocarpoides Zahlbr. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina chilena C. W. Dodge [= Thelidium sp. (Verrucariaceae; McCarthy 1993b)]

Porina chilensis (C. W. Dodge) Follmann [= Thelidium sp. (Verrucariaceae; McCarthy 1993b)]

Porina chiodectonoides (Fée) Fée [= Pertusaria chiodectonoides (Fée) Kremp. (Pertusariaceae)]

Porina chiomela (Norman) Zahlbr. [= Eopyrenula leucoplaca (Wallr.) R. C. Harris (?Pyrenulaceae; Santesson 1993)]

Porina chionea Ach. [= Aspicilia cinerea (L.) Körb. (Hymeneliaceae)]

Porina chlorotica var. alba (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina chlorotica f. cinerea (de Lesd.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina cinerea (Pers.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Esslinger 2002)]

Porina cineriseda Müll. Arg. [= Strigula phaea (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1975)]

Porina cinnamomea (Mont.) Zahlbr. [= Astrothelium aff. cinnamomeum (Eschw.) Müll. Arg. (Trypetheliaceae; Aptroot & Sipman 1993a)]

Porina cognata (Arnold) Lettau [= Metasphaeria cognata (Arnold) Keissl. (non-lichenized fungus; Keissler 1938)]

Porina communis Chev. [= Pertusaria pertusa (L.) Tuck. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina communis var. areolata Ach. [= Pertusaria areolata (Ach.) A. Massal. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina compuncta Ach. [= Trypethelium sordidescens Fée (Trypetheliaceae; Salisbury 1972)]

Porina concamerata (Stirt.) Zahlbr. [= Arthopyrenia cinchonae (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Arthopyreniaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina confusa Bory [= Pertusaria confusa (Bory) Zahlbr. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina constricta (Anzi) Lettau [= Arthopyrenia sp. (Arthopyreniaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina coronata Ach. [= Pertusaria coronata (Ach.) Th. Fr. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina crenulata Vain. [= Strigula concreta (Fée) R. Sant. (?) (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina cucurbitula Hook. [= Coccotrema cucurbitula (Mont.) Müll. Arg. (Coccotremataceae; Malcolm & Galloway 1997)]

Porina dacryspora Zahlbr. [?= Strigula ziziphi (A. Massal.) Cl. Roux & Sérus. (Strigulaceae; Roux et al. 2004)]

Porina decipiens Malme [= Strigula decipiens (Malme) P. M. McCarthy (Strigulaceae; McCarthy 1997b)]

Porina decolorella (Nyl.) Lettau [= Arthopyrenia decolorella (Nyl.) Tomin (Arthopyreniaceae; Tomin 1938)]

Porina depressa Fée [= Pertusaria depressa (Fée) Mont. & Bosch (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina dilatata Vain. [= Strigula nitidula Mont. (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina discopoda (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill. [= Strigula platypoda (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina elaeidis Vain. [= Anisomeridium tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris (Monoblastiaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porinaelaeoides” Vain. [= Anisomeridium tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris (Monoblastiaceae)]

Porina epigaeiza (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Arthopyreniaceae (Keissler 1938)]

Porina faginea (Schaer.) Arnold [= Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1975)]

Porina faginea var. alpestris Vĕzda [= Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Roux et al. 2004)]

Porina fallax Ach. [= Pertusaria wulfenii Lam. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina fallax var. clausa Ach. [= Pertusaria sp. (Pertusariaceae)]

Porina fallax var. hymenea (Röhl.) Ach.[= Pertusaria leioplaca (Ach.) DC. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina ferruginosa Müll. Arg. [= Pyrenowilmsia ferruginosa (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris & Aptroot (Pyrenulaceae; Aptroot 1991)]

Porina geminipara (Malme) Zahlbr. [= Aspidothelium geminiparum (Malme) R. Sant. (Aspidotheliaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina glabra (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula glabra (A. Massal.) V. Wirth (Strigulaceae; Wirth 1994)]

Porina globularis Ach. [= Pertusaria globularis (Ach.) Tuck. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina glomerata Ach. [= Pertusaria glomerata (Ach.) Schaer. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina graeweana (Blomb.) Zahlbr. [= Zignoëlla ordinata Sacc. (non-lichenized fungus; Santesson 1993)]

Porina granulata Ach. [= Pertusaria granulata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina granulata Hook.f. & Taylor [= Coccotrema cucurbitula (Mont.) Müll. Arg. (Coccotremataceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina halei Tuck. & Mont. [= Thelotrema halei (Tuck. & Mont.) Zahlbr. (Thelotremataceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina herculina (Rehm) Suza [= Belonia herculina (Rehm) Keissl. (Gyalectales; Keissler 1938)]

Porina hungarica (Hazsl.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina hymenea Röhl. [= Pertusaria leioplaca (Ach.) DC. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina hymenea var. coccodes (Hepp) Fr. [= Pertusaria coccodes (Ach.) Nyl. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina illinita (Körb.) Samp. [= Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina immergens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Thelidium sp. (?) (Verrucariaceae)]

Porina indutula(Nyl.) Müll. Arg. [= Strigula indutula (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina innata (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. [= Arthopyrenia allogena (Nyl.) Arnold (Arthopyreniaceae; Index Fungorum: http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp; accessed 4 June 2008)]

Porina insueta (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. [= Pyrenocollema sp. (Xanthopyreniaceae; McCarthy 1993b)]

Porina insulata (Fée) Müll. Arg. [= Arthopyrenia sp. (?) (Arthopyreniaceae)]

Porina interspersa (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Anisomeridium terminatum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Monoblastiaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina janeirensis (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill. [= Strigula janeirensis (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Lücking 1998)]

Porina javanica (Hepp ex Zoll.) Overeem [= Anthracothecium leucostomum Malme (Pyrenulaceae; Zahlbruckner 1943)]

Porina lactea (Körb.) Migula [= Strigula glabra (A. Massal.) V. Wirth (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina lamprocarpa Müll. Arg. [= Strigula nitidula Mont. (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina leioplaca Ach. [= Pertusaria leioplaca (Ach.) DC. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina leioplaca var. hymenea Ach. [= Pertusaria pustulata (Ach.) Duby (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina leioplacoides (Vain.) Zahlbr. [= Sagiolechia leioplacoides (Vain.) Zahlbr. (Gomphillaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina leucostoma (Bernh.) Ach. [= Pertusaria leioplaca var. leucostoma (Bernh.) Körb. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina lilacina Zahlbr. [= Lithothelium triseptatum (Nyl.) Aptroot (Pyrenulaceae; Aptroot 1991)]

Porina lojkana (Poetsch ex Arnold) Zahlbr. [= Thelopsis lojkana (Poetsch ex Arnold) Nyl. (Stictidaceae)]

Porina macrocarpa Riddle [= Lithothelium cubanum Müll. Arg. (Pyrenulaceae; Aptroot 1991)]

Porina macrospora (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill. [= Aspidothelium fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. (Aspidotheliaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina mahuana C. W. Dodge [= Thelidium sp. (Verrucariaceae; McCarthy 1993b)]

Porina macquariensis C. W. Dodge [= Pyrenocollema sp. (?) (Xanthopyreniaceae; McCarthy 1993b) ]

Porina melanobasis Vain. [= Strigula platypoda (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina meliospila (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula taylorii (Carroll ex Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae)]

Porina micromma (Mont.) A. Massal. [= Pyrenula sp. (Pyrenulaceae; Aptroot & Sipman 1993)]

Porina misera Vain. [= Strigula obducta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina morbosa Lettau [= Leptosphaeria pycnostigma var. morbosa (Lettau) Keissl. (non-lichenized fungus; Keissler 1938)]

Porina multipunctata R. Sant. [= Strigula multipunctata (R. Sant.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina multipunctata var. schizospora Vĕzda [= Strigula multipunctata (R. Sant.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Vĕzda 1984)]

Porina mundula Müll. Arg. [= Strigula phaea (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina muscorum A. Massal. [= Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina netrospora (Naeg.) Lettau [= Strigula glabra (A. Massal.) V. Wirth (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina nitens Vain. non Müll. Arg. [= Strigula nitidula Mont. (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina obducta (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill. [= Strigula obducta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina papillata Ach. [= Pertusaria papillata (Ach.) Tuck. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina peliostoma Ach. [= Pertusaria peliostoma (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina perspersula (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Thelidium sp. (?) (Verrucariaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina pertusa (L.) Ach. [= Pertusaria pertusa (L.) Tuck. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina pertusa var. areolata Ach. [= Pertusaria areolata (Ach.) A. Massal. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina pertusa var. citrinella Bertol. [= Pertusaria pertusa var. citrinella (Bertol.) Zahlbr. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina pertusa var. coccodes (Hepp) Fr. [= Pertusaria coccodes (Ach.) Nyl. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina pertusa var. saxatilis Savi [= Pertusaria rupestris Schaer. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina pertusa var. sorediata Fr. [= Pertusaria multipuncta (Turner) Nyl. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina phaea (Ach.) Müll. Arg. [= Strigula phaea (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1975)]

Porina phyllogena Müll. Arg. [= Strigula phyllogena (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina platypoda Müll. Arg. [= Strigula platypoda (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina platyspora (Müll. Arg.) F. Schill. [= Aspidothelium fugiens (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. (Aspidotheliaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina plumbaria (Stizenb.) Hasse [= Arthopyrenia plumbaria (Stizenb.) R. C. Harris (Arthopyreniaceae; Egan 1987)]

Porina polillensis Vain. [= Strigula subtilissima (Fée) Müll. Arg. (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina praestantior var. nana Shirley [= Thelotrema sp. (Thelotremataceae; McCarthy 1994b)]

Porina pulla (Ach.) Müll. Arg. pro parte [= Arthopyrenia sp. (Arthopyreniaceae; McCarthy 1993b)]

Porina pustulata Ach. [= Pertusaria pustulata (Ach.) Duby (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina quassiae Fée [= Pertusaria quassiae (Fée) Nyl. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina rhodinula Zahlbr. [= Strigula affinis (A. Massal.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; McCarthy 1993b)]

Porina rugosa Ach. [= Pertusaria wulfenii var. rugosa (Ach.) Nyl. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina schizospora Vain. [= Strigula ziziphi (A. Massal.) Cl. Roux & Sérus. (Strigulaceae; Roux et al. 2004)]

Porina sclerotium (Fée) Fée [= Pertusaria sclerotium (Fée) Müll. Arg. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina subarticulata (Arnold) Lettau [= Leptosphaeria subarticulata (Arnold) (non-lichenized fungus; Keissler 1938)]

Porina subcinerea (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Polymeridium subcinereum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Trypetheliaceae; Harris 1993)]

Porina subprospersella Vain. [= Strigula subprospersella (Vain.) P. M. McCarthy (Strigulaceae; McCarthy 2001c)]

Porina subsimplicans (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. [= Strigula subsimplicans (Nyl.) Hafellner & Kalb (Strigulaceae; Hafellner & Kalb 1995)]

Porina subvirescens (Leight.) Zahlbr. [= Polymeridium catapastum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Trypetheliaceae; Harris 1993)]

Porina tamarindi (Fée) Müll. Arg. [= Anisomeridium tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris (Monoblastiaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina taxicola Ach. [= Enterographa crassa (DC.) Fée (Opegraphaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina taylorii (Carroll ex Nyl.) Swinscow [= Strigula taylorii (Carroll ex Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Hawksworth et al. 1980)]

Porina tenebricosa A. Massal. [= Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Keissler 1938)]

Porina tetrathalmia (Fée) Fée [= Pertusaria tetrathalmia (Fée) Nyl. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina thelotrematoides Zenker ex Goebel & Kunze [= ?Ocellularia thelotrematoides (Zenker ex Goebel & Kunze) Zahlbr. (Thelotremataceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina thuretii (Hepp) Lettau [= Strigula stigmatella (Ach.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Roux et al., 2004)]

Porina tristissima Vain. [= Strigula obducta (Müll. Arg.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952, as Porina)]

Porina uberina Fée [= Architrypethelium uberinum (Fée) Aptroot (Trypetheliaceae; Aptroot 1991)]

Porina uniseptata H. Magn. [= Lithothelium triseptatum (Nyl.) Aptroot (Pyrenulaceae; Aptroot 1991)]

Porina vaga (Nyl.) Müll. Arg. [= Anisomeridium tamarindi (Fée) R. C. Harris (Monoblastiaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina verrucosa Ach. [= Pertusaria granulata (Ach.) Müll. Arg. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina verrucosa f. sorediata Fée [= Pertusaria granulata f. sorediata Zahlbr. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina vincentina Vain. [= Strigula subtilissima (Fée) Müll. Arg. (Strigulaceae; Santesson 1952)]

Porina viridiseda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula viridiseda (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1975)]

Porina viridiseda f. albiseda (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Anisomeridium albisedum (Nyl.) R. C. Harris (Monoblastiaceae; Harris 1995)]

Porina wahlenbergii Sommerf. [= Pertusaria sommerfeltii Flörke (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina wilsonii Riddle [= Strigula wilsonii (Riddle) R. C. Harris (Strigulaceae; Harris 1975)]

Porina xanthostoma Sommerf. [= Pertusaria xanthostoma (Sommerf.) Fr. (Pertusariaceae; Zahlbruckner 1921–40)]

Porina xylina (Nyl.) Zahlbr. [= Zignoëlla minutissima var. juniperina Karst. (non-lichenized fungus; Keissler 1938)]

Porina ziziphi (A. Massal.) Zahlbr. [= Strigula ziziphi (A. Massal.) Cl. Roux & Sérus. (Strigulaceae; Roux et al. 2004)]